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Physiological Response of Crocidolomia pavonana to the Calophyllum soulattri Active Fraction SYAHPUTRA, EDY; PRIJONO, DJOKO; DADANG, DADANG; MANUWOTO, SYAFRIDA; DARUSMAN, LATIFAH KOSIM
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 13, No 1 (2006): March 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological response of the cabbage head caterpillar Crocidolomia pavonana treated with an active fraction of Calophyllum soulattri bark extract. Extraction of the test plant materials were performed with maceration method using methanol, continued by counter-current distribution separation in ethylacetate and water. Methanol fractionation of C. soulattri was performed by vaccuum liquid chromatography and the bioassays were conducted by a leaf-feeding method. The results showed that the dichloromethane fraction of C. soulattri had strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae, with LC50 of 0.05%. Sublethal treatments with the active fraction at LC15, LC50, and LC85 reduced the relative growth rate of the fourth instars by 48.9-94.1%. The treatments with the fraction at LC15 and LC50 to the fourth instars reduced the activity of invertase and protease enzyme by 20.7-24.1 and 14.4-25.14%, respectively, but increased the activity of trehalase by 26.7-120% as compared with controls. Key words: Physiological response, Crocidolomia pavonana, Calophyllum soulattri, botanical insecticide
Pengembangan teknologi formulasi insektisida nabati untuk pengendalian hama sayuran dalam upaya menghasilkan produk sayuran sehat ., Dadang; Prijono, Djoko
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 16, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The use of synthetic insecticide for pest management to protect insect attacking the holticulture product have been done intensivelly and seems not wise which predicted could cause a negative impact to the environmental and human health. Due to that reason then the research prepared to know the pest management technology especially for holticultural product through the use of material or something that come from the agricultural planting material as natural insecticide which could be developed as commercial products that practice and safe to produce healty holticultural product. Three species of fruits and holticultural plant used for the research namely Annona squamosa (Annonaceae/ seed), Piper retrofractum (Piperaceae/fruit) and Tephrosia vogelii (Leguminosae/Leaves) extracted with methanol. Every extract product tested with larva of Cricidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera : Crambidae), that is one of the pest for holticultural product which treated with direction the planting and in the leaves. The extract was tested also to the food barrier of C. Pavonana. The extract of A. Squamosa was contact toxic than abdomen toxic, while on the contrary the extract of P. retrofractum have more impart to the abdomen toxic than contact toxic. The extract of P. Retrofractum and A. Squamosa at the concertation of 0.2 °/o could protect food activities of the larvas that was about 80 °/o. The mixed extract of T. Voge/ii and A. Squamosa more toxic or more effective than the mixed extract of T. Vogelii and P. Retrofractum. In the developing natural insecticide formula, the using of agristic adjuvant was bettertahan tween and miracle especially in formulation establishization. The treatment of P. Retrofractum andT. Vogelii in the field could reduce the development of C. Pavonana which finally those both extract could be used wider as combined with A. Squamosa extract in order to increase the effectiveness.Keywords: Synthetic insecticide, natural insecticide, pest management, healty holticultural product, holticulturalpest.
Aktivitas insektisida ekstrak buah Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) dan Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae) serta campurannya terhadap larva Crocidolomia pavonana (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Syahroni, Yan Yanuar; Prijono, Djoko
Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 10, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Crocidolomia pavonana is an important pest of Brassicaceous vegetable crops. Botanical insecticides are potential alternatives for the control of C. pavonana pest. Insecticidal activity of Piper aduncum and Sapindus rarak fruit extracts as well as their mixtures was evaluated against C. pavonana larvae in the laboratory. Ethyl acetate P. aduncum (EtPa) extract as well as methanolic S. rarak (MeSr) and aqueous S. rarak (AqSr) extracts were tested separately and in mixtures against second-instar larvae C. pavonana by a leaf-residue feeding method. At the LC95 level - 72 hours after treatment (HAT), EtPa extract was about 14.5 and 12.8 times, respectively, more toxic to C. pavonana larvae than MeSr and AqSr extracts. At the LC95 level, EtPa + MeSr extract mixture (1 : 10 w/w) was about 1.64 times more toxic to the test larvae than EtPa + AqSr extract mixture (1 : 10 w/w). Based on combination index at 48, 72, and 96 HAT, EtPa + MeSr extract mixture at LC50 level as well as EtPa + AqSr extract mixture at LC50 and LC95 levels had additive joint action, whereas EtPa + MeSr extract mixture at LC95 was weakly synergistic. In addition to lethal effect, the treatment with all test materials delayed the development of C. pavonana larvae from second-instar to fourth instar. Thus, EtPa, MeSr, and AqSr extracts as well as the mixtures between EtPa and S. rarak extracts are potential alternatives for the control of C. pavonana pest.Key words: botanical insecticides, cabbage pest, joint action, synergism, developmental delay
Potensi Insektisida Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) terhadap Hama Kubis Crocidolomia pavonana (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Lina, Eka Chandra; Aarneti, Arneti; Prijono, Djoko; Dadang, Dadang
Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2009): April
Publisher : Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia

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Abstract

The research was conducted at Laboratory of Insect Physiology and Toxicology of Plant Protection Department of Bogor Agricultural University from May to July 2008. Leaves, twigs, barks, and roots of Eurycoma longifolia (Pasak bumi) were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvens. The extraction was used single method and level method. Insecticidal activity of each extract has been examined in laboratory to major cabbage pests Crocidolomia pavonana using leaf residual method. Methanol root extract from single method and level method caused 100 and 75.5% mortality of insect test respectively. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves, twigs, and barks have low insecticidal activity. The antifeedant effect worked at insect test and varied depends on concentration level. Antifeedant effect also contributed to mortality of larvae along with toxicity of each extract.
Pengendalian Penyakit Busuk Pangkal Batang Lada dengan Ekstrak Pinang, Gambir, Sirih, dan Kapur Sirih Kusvianti, Dedek; Widodo, Widodo; Prijono, Djoko
Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia Vol 10, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Fitopatologi Indonesia

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Abstract

Pepper is an important commodity in Indonesia due to its export value. Infection of Phytophthora capsici causing stem rot disease is very critical for the production of pepper plants. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of areca, gambir, betle, and lime paste for controlling stem rot disease. In vitro and in vivo experiments was designed to evaluate 2 factors, i.e. type and concentration of extracts. In vitro experiment was conducted by growing 4 day old and 5 mm in diameter of P. capsici isolate on V8 media containing the extracts tested. In vivo experiment was done by dipping pepper leaves on the extracts, followed by dropping zoospores of P. capsici on underneath of leaf surface. Mixture of 4 extracts (areca + gambir + betel + lime paste) of 0.005% and 0.01%; and areca extract of 0.04% was able to inhibit the growth of P. capsici colonies effectively in vitro. Similarly, mixture of 4 extracts of 0.01% effectively suppressed disease severity in vivo with equal effect with those of propineb fungicide of 0.2%.
AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA EKSTRAK BUAH CABAI JAWA (Piper retrofractum) TERHADAP Helopeltis antonii (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE) INDRIATI, GUSTI; DADANG, DADANG; PRIJONO, DJOKO
853-8212
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

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Abstract

ABSTRAKHelopeltis antonii merupakan salah satu hama pada tanaman kakao,teh, dan jambu mete yang menyerang pucuk dan buah dengan menusukkanstiletnya untuk mengisap cairan sehingga menyebabkan kerusakan.Penelitian bertujuan menguji toksisitas ekstrak buah Piper retrofractum(cabai jawa) terhadap imago, pengaruh konsentrasi subletal terhadap nimfaketurunan, persistensi terhadap mortalitas dan oviposisi H. antonii.Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Fisiologi dan ToksikologiSerangga, Institut Pertanian Bogor dan Laboratorium Proteksi Tanaman,Balai Penelitian Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar Sukabumi, mulai Mei2013 sampai April 2014. Buah mentimun digunakan sebagai inangpengganti untuk perbanyakan serangga uji H. antonii di laboratorium danmedia pengujian. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kematian imago H.antonii, akibat perlakuan ekstrak P. retrofractum 0,05-0,3%, sudah terjadipada 24 jam setelah perlakuan (JSP). Sementara itu, pada 24 dan 48 JSPterjadi penurunan tingkat kematian H. antonii. Setelah 48 JSP, hanyaterjadi sedikit peningkatan kematian H. antonii. LC 50 dan LC 95 ekstrak P.retrofractum pada 120 JSP masing-masing 0,20 dan 0,49%. Jumlah nimfaketurunan yang dihasilkan pada perlakuan subletal ekstrak P. retrofractum0,203% (LC 50 ) lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan konsentrasi 0,141%(LC 25 ). Ekstrak P. retrofractum yang dipajankan di bawah sinar mataharihingga 5 hari masih efektif terhadap imago (mortalitas 80%), tetapi tidakefektif dalam menghambat peletakan telur H. antonii. Penghambatanpeletakan telur terhadap imago H. antonii pada perlakuan ekstrak P.retrofractum 0,98% (2 × LC 95 ) yang dipajankan di bawah sinar matahariselama 0 dan 1 hari, dengan indeks penghambatan oviposisi 22,7 dan23,8%. Keefektifan ekstrak P. retrofractum perlu diuji di lapangan untukmenilai kelayakan dalam pengendalian H. antonii.Kata kunci: insektisida botani, mortalitas, oviposisi, persistensiABSTRACTHelopeltis antonii is cocoa, tea, and cashew nuts important pest thatcauses damage by sucking plant sap from shoots and nuts. This study wasconducted to test toxicity of Piper retrofractum fruit extract on adults,sublethal effect on the production nymphal progeny, and persistenceagainst mortality and oviposition of H. antonii. This study was conductedat The Fisiology and Insect Toxicology Laboratory, Plant ProtectionDepartement, Bogor Agricultural University and The Plant ProtectionLaboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institutefrom Mey 2013 to April 2014. Cucumber was used as a host substitute forrearing the test insect and as the testing medium. The results show thatadult mortality, due to the P. retrofractum leaf extract treatment 0.05-0.3%, has occured at 24 hours after treatment (HAT). Meanwhile, H.antonii mortality has decreased on 24 and 48 HAT. After 48 HAT, only aslight increased in H. antonii mortality. LC 50 and LC 95 of P. retrofractumextract at 120 HAT were 0.20 and 0.49%, respectively. The treatment atsublethal concentrations (LC 25 and LC 50 ) markedly decreased nymphalprogeny number. P. retrofractum extract suspensions at LC 95 and 2 × LC 95exposed under sunlight for 5 days were still effective against H. antoniiadults (80% mortality), but were not effective in females inhibitingoviposition. The oviposition inhibiting activity was observed only in thetreatment with P. retrofractum extract at 2 × LC 95  exposed under sunlightfor 0 and 1 day in which the oviposition deterrency indices were 22.7 and23.8% respectively. Key words: botanical insecticides, mortality, oviposition, persistence
Pengembangan teknologi formulasi insektisida nabati untuk pengendalian hama sayuran dalam upaya menghasilkan produk sayuran sehat Dadang, .; Prijono, Djoko
Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia Vol 16, No 2 (2011): Jurnal Ilmu Pertanian Indonesia
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Abstract

The use of synthetic insecticide for pest management to protect insect attacking the holticulture product have been done intensivelly and seems not wise which predicted could cause a negative impact to the environmental and human health. Due to that reason then the research prepared to know the pest management technology especially for holticultural product through the use of material or something that come from the agricultural planting material as natural insecticide which could be developed as commercial products that practice and safe to produce healty holticultural product. Three species of fruits and holticultural plant used for the research namely Annona squamosa (Annonaceae/ seed), Piper retrofractum (Piperaceae/fruit) and Tephrosia vogelii (Leguminosae/Leaves) extracted with methanol. Every extract product tested with larva of Cricidolomia pavonana F. (Lepidoptera : Crambidae), that is one of the pest for holticultural product which treated with direction the planting and in the leaves. The extract was tested also to the food barrier of C. Pavonana. The extract of A. Squamosa was contact toxic than abdomen toxic, while on the contrary the extract of P. retrofractum have more impart to the abdomen toxic than contact toxic. The extract of P. Retrofractum and A. Squamosa at the concertation of 0.2 °/o could protect food activities of the larvas that was about 80 °/o. The mixed extract of T. Voge/ii and A. Squamosa more toxic or more effective than the mixed extract of T. Vogelii and P. Retrofractum. In the developing natural insecticide formula, the using of agristic adjuvant was better than tween and miracle especially in formulation establishization. The treatment of P. Retrofractum and T. Vogelii in the field could reduce the development of C. Pavonana which finally those both extract could be used wider as combined with A. Squamosa extract in order to increase the effectiveness.
Insecticidal Activity of Extracts of Aglaia spp. (Meliaceae) Against Cabbage Cluster Caterpillar Crocidolomia binotalis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Prijono, Djoko; Simanjuntak, Partomuan; Nugroho, Bambang W.; Sudarmo, Sudarmo; Puspitasari, Shinta
Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia Vol 7, No 2 (2001)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Insecticidal potential of eleven species of Aglaia (Meliaceae) was evaluated in the laboratory against the cabbage cluster caterpillar, Crocidolomia binotalis. The feeding treatment of second-instar larvae C. binotalis for 48 hours with ethanol twig extract of A. odorata at 0.5% caused 98.7% larval mortality; leaf and twig extracts of A. elaeagnoidea caused 17.3% and 6.7% mortality, respectively; twig extracts of A. argentea, A. formosana, and A. latifolia caused only 1.3% mortality each; whereas extracts of the other six Aglaia species were inactive (0% mortality). Further tests with A. odorata showed that twigs gave the most active extract compared to other plant parts (leaves, flowers, and roots), and air-drying of plant materials for 2 weeks markedly decreased the activity of the derived extracts. The active extracts also delayed the development of surviving larvae in similar degree to the level of their lethal effect. LC50 of ethyl acetate fraction of A. odorata twig extract and its main active compound, rocaglamide, against C. binotalis larvae were 310.2 and 31.4 ppm, respectively. This active compound was about 8.7 times less potent than azadirachtin (LC50 3.6 ppm).Key words: Aglaia, botanical insecticides, Crocidolomia binotalis
Sinergisme Ekstrak Piper aduncum dan Tephrosia vogelii terhadap Penggerek Batang Padi Kuning, Scirpophaga incertulas Susanto, Muhammad Sigit; Prijono, Djoko
Agrikultura Vol 26, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Agrikultura

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Abstract

AbstractSynergism of Piper aduncum and Tephrosia vogelii Extracts against the Rice Yellow Stem Borer, ScirpophagaincertulasRice (Oryza sativa) is one of the important staple food crops in the world. One of the important pests on riceis the rice yellow stem borer (RYSB) Scirpophaga incertulas . One of the alternative control techniques thatcan be applied is by using botanical insecticides. The purpose of this study was to determine the synergismbetween Piper aduncum fruit and Tephrosia vogelii leaf extracts against RYSB larvae. P. aduncum and T.vogelii extracts, either tested separately or in mixtures with concentration ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2, wereeffective against RYSB larvae. The treatments with these extracts caused death in YRSB larvae at 72 hoursafter treatment in which the affected larvae showed internal tissue damage symptom. The most toxic testmaterial to RYSB larvae was P. aduncum and T. vogelii extract mixture with a concentration ratio of 1:2.LC50 and LC95 of P. aduncum extract were 0.175% and 0.126%, respectively, while those of T. vogelii extractwere 1.620% and 2.075%, respectively. P. aduncum and T. vogelii extract mixture with 1:1 ratio had LC500.056% and LC95 0.143%, while that with 2:1 ratio had LC50 0.025% and LC95 0.149%. LC50 and LC95 of themixture with 1:2 ratio were 0.016% and 0.083%, respectively. P. aduncum and T. vogelii extract mixture atthe three concentration ratios were more effective than P. aduncum and T. vogelii extracts appliedseparately and synergistic to RYSB larvae.Keywords: Botanical Insecticide, Piper aduncum, Scirpophaga incertulas , Synergism, Tephrosia vogelii .AbstrakPadi (Oryza sativa) merupakan salah satu komoditas penting pangan dunia. Salah satu hama penting padatanaman padi adalah penggerek batang padi kuning, Scirpophaga incertulas . Salah satu cara pengendalianyang dapat diterapkan adalah dengan menggunakan insektisida nabati. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahmenentukan sinergisme ekstrak buah Piper aduncum dan daun Tephrosia vogelii terhadap larva S.incertulas . Perlakuan ekstrak P. aduncum dan T. vogelii baik secara terpisah maupun campuran pada nisbahkonsentrasi 1:1, 2:1, dan 1:2 efektif terhadap larva S. incertulas . Perlakuan ini dapat menimbulkan kematianpada S. incertulas dengan gejala kerusakan jaringan larva instar 1 pada 72 jam setelah perlakuan. Bahan ujiyang paling beracun terhadap larva S. incertulas adalah campuran ekstrak P. aduncum dan T. vogelii dengannisbah konsentrasi 1:2. LC50 dan LC95 ekstrak P. aduncum masing-masing 0,175% dan 0,126%. Sementara ituLC50 dan LC95 ekstrak T. vogelii masing-masing 1,620% dan 2,075%. Campuran ekstrak P. aduncum dan T.vogelii pada nisbah konsentrasi 1:1 memiliki LC50 0,056% dan LC95 0,143%. Sementara itu campuran ekstraktersebut pada nisbah konsentrasi 2:1 memiliki LC50 0,025% dan LC95 0,149%. LC50 dan LC95 campuranekstrak tersebut pada nisbah konsentrasi 1:2 masing-masing 0,016% dan 0,083%. Campuran ekstrak P.aduncum dan T. vogelii pada ketiga nisbah konsentrasi lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan ekstraktunggalnya dan bersifat sinergis terhadap larva S. incertulas .Kata kunci: Insektisida Nabati, Piper aduncum, Tephrosia vogelii , Scirpophaga incertulas , Sinergisme.
PENGARUH PEMANASAN DAN PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA EKSTRAK LERAK (Sapindus rarak) PADA LARVA Crocidolomia pavonana (F.) (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE) Mediana, Gracia; Prijono, Djoko
Agrovigor Vol 7, No 2 (2014): September
Publisher : Trunojoyo University of Madura

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Abstract

Hama Crocidolomia pavonana merupakan salah satu kendala biotik penting pada budi daya tanaman sayuran famili Brassicaceae. Salah satu sarana pengendalian hama yang ramah lingkungan ialah insektisida nabati. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan pengaruh pemanasan dan penyimpanan terhadap aktivitas insektisida ekstrak buah lerak (Sapindus rarak) pada larva C. pavonana. Irisan buah lerak digiling dalam akuades menggunakan blender. Tiga macam ekstrak lerak yang diuji ialah (1) ekstrak tanpa pemanasan dan langsung digunakan, (2) ekstrak yang disiapkan dengan pemanasan pada suhu 40 °C dan langsung digunakan, serta (3) ekstrak dengan pemanasan dan disimpan pada suhu  ruang selama 7 hari. Setiap ekstrak diuji pada enam taraf konsentrasi dengan menggunakan metode perlakuan daun pakan. Larva instar II C. pavonana diberi pakan daun kubis perlakuan selama 2 hari dan daun tanpa perlakuan pada 2 hari berikutnya. Data kematian larva uji dicatat setiap hari sampai hari ke-4 dan diolah dengan analisis probit. Secara umum mortalitas larva C. pavonana pada semua perlakuan meningkat tajam antara 24 dan 48 jam setelah perlakuan (JSP). Berdasarkan LC95 pada 96 JSP, ekstrak lerak dengan pemanasan (LC95 2,53%) sekitar 1,7 kali lebih toksik terhadap larva C. pavonana daripada ekstrak lerak tanpa pemanasan (LC95 4,19%), tetapi toksisitas ekstrak tersebut menurun sekitar 2,9 kali lipat setelah disimpan pada suhu ruang selama 7 hari (LC95 7.43%). Selain mengakibatkan kematian, perlakuan dengan ekstrak lerak juga dapat menghambat perkembangan larva C. pavonana dari instar II ke instar IV.Kata kunci: insektisida nabati, ketahanan simpan, cara penyiapan, toksisitas.