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PENGARUH COMPACTION RATIO TERHADAP SIFAT PAPAN LANTAI PARTIKEL KAYU JATI DAN SENGON Widayanto, Widayanto; Morisco, Morisco; Prayitno, T.A.
Civil Engineering Forum Teknik Sipil Vol 17, No 2 (2007): MEI 2007
Publisher : Civil Engineering Forum Teknik Sipil

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Abstract

Wood particle board is one of building materials which can be used as floor like solid wood. To utilize particle boards with appropriate compaction ratio, study should be conducted to know the influence of compaction ratio on the particle board characteristics of two wood species namely teak and sengon, and the research result could be used as a base of the assessment to particle board for building. The preliminary test was done to know the density of teak and sengon wood. This study used teak and sengon wood particles with 10% by weight of particle urea formaldehyde adhesive UA-147. This study was arranged in the completely randomised design with factorial experiment. The factors in this experiment were compaction ratio and wood species, while the parameters which observed were density, water content, water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bonding, hardness, MOE, and MOR. The research result showed that the higher compaction ratio, the higher density, internal bonding, hardness, MOR and MOE of both species particle board, the higher thickness swelling, and the lower water absorption of sengon particle board. The highest average density of the teak particle board was 0,80 g/cm3 (J1K3) and 0,67 g/cm3 for sengon (J2K6). The highest average internal bonding of the teak particle board was 5,20 kg/cm2 (J1K3) and 5,85 kg/cm2 for sengon (J2K6). The highest average hardness of the teak particle board was 666,7 kg/cm2 (J1K3) and 533,3 kg/cm2 for sengon (J2K6). The highest average MOR of the teak particle board was 145,9 kg/cm2 (J1K3) and 162,7 kg/cm2 for sengon (J2K6). The highest average thickness swelling of the sengon particle board was 30,76% (J2K4) and 11,84% the lowest (J2K3). The highest average MOE of the sengon particle board was 18605,45 kg/cm2 (J2K6) and 22580,41 kg/cm2 for the teak (J1K3). The highest average water absorption of the sengon particle board was 170,30% (J2K1) and 72,12% the lowest (J2K6). With the same compaction ratio of the teak and sengon particle board, the teak wood species had the better physic and mechanic characteristics than sengon. Based on the comparation result with some industries standard of the particle board, it showed that particle boards J2K1, J2K2, and J2K3 did not correspond to some industries standard.
KUAT TEKAN BAMBU LAMINASI DAN APLIKASINYA PADA RUMAH TRADISIONAL BALI (BALE DAJE/BANDUNG) Eratodi, I.G.L. Bagus; Morisco, Morisco; Prayitno, T.A.
Civil Engineering Forum Teknik Sipil Vol 18, No 1 (2008): JANUARI 2008
Publisher : Civil Engineering Forum Teknik Sipil

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Abstract

Building material technological development recently is very fast, and in every technological innovation creation, it’s inspired by some of the main purpose, such as: cost efficiency, material use optimization, conservation and development of natural material, smart building material technology and ecologically friendly. Lamination bamboo technology is a product that can act as substitution material of wood that can be customized with the need. In the effort to support the innovation of lamination bamboo as a wood substitution in Balinese traditional building, the characteristic mechanics of lamination bamboo as column in supporting axial loading should be known. Lamination bamboo for the experiemnt was made in the form of column with two kind of longitudinal section dimension, size 20x20 mm with slenderness value (λ) of 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150, and size 120x120 mm with the length of 2400 mm (as the dimension in Balinese traditional building). The bamboo used were petung bamboo made of blade about 5x20 mm attached to glue of Urea Formaldehyde (UF) and pressed with a pressure of 2,0 MPa. The research stage was physical property test and the mechanic of petung bamboo material, and continued with a process of making the lamination bamboo column and carving. Pressure axial loading for testing of column the lamination bamboo used hinge placement bamboo until maximum loading, big deformation and not until collapse. The technological innovation of lamination bamboo was able to increased the pressure strength of blade until 36,02% compared to the bamboo material used. The role of glue and pressing given a substantial contribution on pressure strength of lamination bamboo, so besides having a capability to be made with dimension and form us want, lamination bamboo also had high pressure strength. Lamination bamboo pressure strength of petung bamboo in variety of slenderness had pressure strength less with the higher slenderness. The pressure voltage in the smallest slenderness, λ=50 is 60,093 MPa until the blade with the highest slenderness, λ=150 is 12,946 MPa while for the plain and carved structural model they were 25,578 MPa and 23,529 Mpa respectively. The formula of proposal in column pressure strength modeling of lamination bamboo material for for λ< λb , σtk = σd [1-0.4 λr2] and λ> λb, σtk = (π2E)/λ r2. The treatment of carving in structural lamination bamboo column weakens the support to average axial load of 41,15% and the decrease of average pressure voltage of 8,009%.
Uji Ekstrak Etanol Kumis Kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) sebagai Pengawet Alami Kayu Azis, Abdul; Prayitno, T.A.; Hadikusumo, Sutjipto A; Santoso, Mahdi
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 7, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

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Abstract

The utilization of plants as a natural preservative agent of wood has not much been explored although the amount and kind of plants are relatively abundant. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the extract of kumis kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) plant at the extract concentration to solvent of 1:12 , 1:8 and 1:4 against the dry wood termites (Cryptotermes sp.). The tested parameters were termite mortality, mass loss, and degree of damage of the test samples (filter paper). Research was carried out by impregnating the ethanol extract of the leaves and twigs mixtures in the filter papers and then the papers were fed to dry-wood termites. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The analysis of variance showed that treatment concentration has a highly significant effect to the mortality levels of the termites. Further, at the concentration of 1:4, the extract exhibited the highest efficacy (mortality of 65 % and mass loss of 2.71 %) and the lowest levels were shown by the controls or 0 (zero) concentration (mortality of 1 % and mass loss of 37.86 %). The concentration of the extract also affected the degree of damage. The higher the concentration, the lower the degree of damage that occurred. The degree of damage due to termite attacks at the treatment from the lowest (1:12) to the highest (1:4) concentration could be classified as heavy to light. Thus, ethanol extract of the kumis kucing at concentration of 1:4 is potent for wood preservatives because it could reduce the degradation of cellulosic materials due to dry wood termites. Intisari Pemanfaatan tumbuhan belum banyak dilakukan sebagai bahan alami pengawet kayu padahal jumlah dan jenisnya cukup melimpah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak etanol tumbuhan kumis kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) pada konsentrasi ekstrak terhadap pelarut 1:12, 1:8 dan 1:4 terhadap mortalitas rayap kayu kering (Cryptotermes sp.), pengurangan berat dan derajat kerusakan contoh uji (kertas saring) dalam rangka aplikasinya sebagai pengawet alami kayu. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengimpregnasi ekstrak etanol campuran daun dan ranting kumis kucing pada kertas saring lalu diumpankan pada rayap kayu kering. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan analisis varian. Analisis varian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan konsentrasi berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap mortalitas rayap kayu kering. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol kumis kucing pada konsentrasi 1:4 menunjukkan efektifitas paling tinggi (mortalitas rayap kayu kering sebesar 65 % dan pengurangan berat contoh uji 2,71 %) dan terendah ditunjukkan oleh kontrol atau konsentrasi 0 (mortalitas rayap sebesar 1 % dan pengurangan berat 37,86 %). Konsentrasi ekstrak juga mempengaruhi besar derajat kerusakan. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi maka semakin rendah derajat kerusakan yang terjadi. Derajat kerusakan pada perlakuan dengan konsentrasi terendah (1:12) hingga tertinggi (1:4), serangan rayapnya dapat digolongkan sebagai berat hingga ringan. Ekstrak etanol tumbuhan kumis kucing konsentrasi 1:4 berpotensi sebagai bahan alami pengawet kayu karena dapat mengurangi degradasi bahan selulosa oleh rayap kayu kering.Katakunci: Orthosiphon sp., Cryptotermes sp., ekstrak daun, anti rayap, pengawet alami.
VARIASI GENETIK SIFAT-SIFAT KAYU UJI KETURUNAN ACACIA MANGIUM UMUR 5 TAHUN DI WONOGIRI, JAWA TENGAH Susanto, Mudji; Naiem, Mohammad; Hardiyanto, Eko Bhakti; Prayitno, T.A.
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 20, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Uji keturunan A. mangium generasi pertama dari Papua New Guinea and Queensland-Australia telah dibangun di Wonogiri - Jawa Tengah pada Desember 1993. Seleksi pohon di dalam famili telah dilakukan menggunakan variabel pertumbuhan, namun belum menggunakan variabel sifat-sifat kayu.  Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh provenans maupun famili terhadap keragaman diameter dan sifat-sifat kayu A. mangium tersebut pada umur 5 tahun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berat jenis kayu tergolong sedang yaitu rata-rata sebesar 0,44 dan panjang serat tergolong serat pendek yaitu rata-rata sebesar 1,04 mm. Di uji keturunan A. mangium tersebut terdapat keragaman antar famili di dalam provenans dan keragaman antar provenans pada sifat prsentase kayu teras, berat jenis kayu, dan kadar air.  Heritabilitas individu untuk diameter batang dan persentase kayu teras sangat rendah (h2i=0,03 untuk diameter dan h2i=0,05 untuk persentase kayu teras), sementara sifat-sifat kayu mempunyai heritabilitas individu yang tergolong rendah  sampai tinggi yaitu h2i=0,10-0,56. Hasil dari penelitian tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa seleksi pohon menggunakan sifat-sifat kayu seharusnya dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kualitas kayu. 
Sifat Mekanika Bambu Petung Laminasi Setyo H., Nor Intang; Satyarno, Iman; Sulistyo, Djoko; Prayitno, T.A.
Dinamika Rekayasa Vol 10, No 1 (2014): Dinamika Rekayasa - Februari 2014
Publisher : Jenderal Soedirman University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1040.072 KB) | DOI: 10.20884/1.dr.2014.10.1.59

Abstract

Laminated bamboo is a kind of engineered structure to improve mechanical properties of bamboo. It is done in order to meet the need of building materials to the building structure. Laminated bamboo are constructed by gluing a slice bamboo, so it has its advantages can be made in any size and a more uniform mechanical properties of natural bamboo. Mechanical properties is required for structural analysis. Good modeling in structural analysis and numerical properties must be supported by valid mechanical properties. ASTM D143 explains the procedure in getting the mechanical properties of wood . This study refers to ASTM D143 to get laminated bamboo mechanical properties of the material are then arranged in a linear elastic lamina mulitilayer Orthotropic . Proficiency level parameter values for bamboo laminate is Youngs Modulus ( E ) , EL = 11 840 MPa ; ER = 511.14 MPa ; ET = 814.39 MPa , Poisson ratio νLR = 0.179 ; νLT = 0.229 ; νRT = 0.231 , and Modulus Slide (G , MPa) GLR = 2.6112 ; GLT = 1.0435 ; GRT = 1.0435.
ANALISA PARAMETER GENETIK SIFAT KAYU KOMBINASI UJI PROVENANS DAN UJI KETURUNAN ACACIA MANGIUM DI KALIMANTAN SELATAN Susanto, Mudji; Hardiyanto, Eko Bhakti; Prayitno, T.A.
Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Vol 6, No 3 (2012): Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan
Publisher : Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement (CFBTI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (158.273 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jpth.2012.6.3.131-142

Abstract

Combination of provenance progeny trial of Acacia mangium from Claudie River-Queensland- Australia was established in Pelaihari, South Kalimantan. The objective of this research is to find variation on diameter, wood specific gravity and fiber lenght between provenance seedlot and family within provenance seedlot in provenance progeny trial of A. mangium on 22 months old.The results showed that the mean of wood specific gravity and was 0.40 and mean of fiber length was 0.89 mm. Variation of diameter, wood specific gravity, and fiber length were significant difference among provenance seedlot or between family within provenance seedlot in the trial. Individual heritability of diameter, wood specific gravity, and fiber length were medium (hi 2=0.49 for diameter; hi 2=0.33 for specific gravity and hi 2=0.39 for fiber length). The results of investigation from this trial indicate that diameter, wood specific gravity, and fiber length are necessary to be used for tree selection to improve growth wood quality in the combination of provenance progeny trial of A. mangium.
Uji Ekstrak Etanol Kumis Kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) sebagai Pengawet Alami Kayu Azis, Abdul; Prayitno, T.A.; Hadikusumo, Sutjipto A; Santoso, Mahdi
Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan Vol 7, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/jik.6137

Abstract

Pemanfaatan tumbuhan belum banyak dilakukan sebagai bahan alami pengawet kayu padahal jumlah dan jenisnya cukup melimpah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak etanol tumbuhan kumis kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) pada konsentrasi ekstrak terhadap pelarut 1:12, 1:8 dan 1:4 terhadap mortalitas rayap kayu kering (Cryptotermes sp.), pengurangan berat dan derajat kerusakan contoh uji (kertas saring) dalam rangka aplikasinya sebagai pengawet alami kayu. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengimpregnasi ekstrak etanol campuran daun dan ranting kumis kucing pada kertas saring lalu diumpankan pada rayap kayu kering. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan analisis varian. Analisis varian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan konsentrasi berpengaruh sangat nyata terhadap mortalitas rayap kayu kering. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol kumis kucing pada konsentrasi 1:4 menunjukkan efektifitas paling tinggi (mortalitas rayap kayu kering sebesar 65 % dan pengurangan berat contoh uji 2,71 %) dan terendah ditunjukkan oleh kontrol atau konsentrasi 0 (mortalitas rayap sebesar 1 % dan pengurangan berat 37,86 %). Konsentrasi ekstrak juga mempengaruhi besar derajat kerusakan. Semakin tinggi konsentrasi maka semakin rendah derajat kerusakan yang terjadi. Derajat kerusakan pada perlakuan dengan konsentrasi terendah (1:12) hingga tertinggi (1:4), serangan rayapnya dapat digolongkan sebagai berat hingga ringan. Ekstrak etanol tumbuhan kumis kucing konsentrasi 1:4 berpotensi sebagai bahan alami pengawet kayu karena dapat mengurangi degradasi bahan selulosa oleh rayap kayu kering.Katakunci: Orthosiphon sp., Cryptotermes sp., ekstrak daun, anti rayap, pengawet alami. Ethanol Extracts Test of Kumis Kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) Leaves as Natural Preservative of WoodAbstractThe utilization of plants as a natural preservative agent of wood has not much been explored although the amount and kind of plants are relatively abundant. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the extract of kumis kucing (Orthosiphon sp.) plant at the extract concentration to solvent of 1:12 , 1:8 and 1:4 against the dry wood termites (Cryptotermes sp.). The tested parameters were termite mortality, mass loss, and degree of damage of the test samples (filter paper). Research was carried out by impregnating the ethanol extract of the leaves and twigs mixtures in the filter papers and then the papers were fed to dry-wood termites. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The analysis of variance showed that treatment concentration has a highly significant effect to the mortality levels of the termites. Further, at the concentration of 1:4, the extract exhibited the highest efficacy (mortality of 65 % and mass loss of 2.71 %) and the lowest levels were shown by the controls or 0 (zero) concentration (mortality of 1 % and mass loss of 37.86 %). The concentration of the extract also affected the degree of damage. The higher the concentration, the lower the degree of damage that occurred. The degree of damage due to termite attacks at the treatment from the lowest (1:12) to the highest (1:4) concentration could be classified as heavy to light. Thus, ethanol extract of the kumis kucing at concentration of 1:4 is potent for wood preservatives because it could reduce the degradation of cellulosic materials due to dry wood termites.
SEBARAN, POTENSI DAN KUALITAS KAYU EBONI (Diospyros celebica Bakh.) DI SULAWESI Asdar, Muhammad; Prayitno, T.A.; Lukmandaru, Ganis; Faridah, Eny
Agroland: Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Pertanian Vol 22, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Tadulako

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Abstract

Ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh.) isan endemic species of Sulawesi. The heartwood of ebony is composed of a series of axial and alternating black and paler streaks. Thisstreak pattern determinesof wood quality. Excessive exploitation causes ebony become scarce and has been classified as vulnerable by IUCN and Appendix II by UNEP - WCMC. Currentdistribution, potency (standing stock) and wood quality of each natural habitat of ebony in Sulawesi are not yet known. This study aims to determine the distribution, potency and wood quality on its natural habitat in Sulawesi. Standing stock data obtained with inventory and the results of the previous inventory.  GPS coordinates of each habitat is taken to make a map. Streaks quality class based on ebony factory standard in Palu and Makassar. The results showed that habitat of ebony was naturally found in Districts of Gowa, Maros, Pangkep, Barru, Sidenreng Rappang, Luwu, Luwu Timur (South Sulawesi Province), Mamuju (West Sulawesi Province), Donggala, Parigi Moutong, Poso and Morowali (Central Sulawesi Province).  The highest standing stock was found at Cenrana, Maros which is about 95,05 m3ha-1.  Most of the remaining ebony habitat were found in the protected areas. Wood quality class A and B were found in Sausu and Poso while other areas classified as class C. Key Words:  Ebony Wood,  Endemic Species Of Sulawesi, Strike Quality