Articles
16
Documents
PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR BERMUATAN BUDI PEKERTI PADA PEMBELAJARAN MENULIS CERPEN UNTUK SISWA KELAS IX

SASINDO Vol 1, No 1 Januari (2013): SASINDO
Publisher : SASINDO

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

The problems in this research is the development of teaching material for writing short stories containing ethical themes for students of class IX. The subproblemsare divided into: (1) how is the extent of learning characteristic ofwriting short stories containing ethical themes for students of class IX, (2) how isthe development of writing short stories containing ethical themes for students ofclass IX, (3) how is the effectiveness of learning material for writing short storiescontaining ethical themes for students of class IX. The purposes of this researchare: (1) to decribe the characteristics of short stories on the subject of writingshort stories containing ethical themes for students of class IX, (2) to develop thecharacteristics of short stories on the subject of writing short stories containingethical themes for students of class IX, (3) determine the effectiveness of teachingmaterial on the subject of writing short stories containing ethical themes forstudents of class IXThis study used research and development approach by applying a tenstepimplementation, referring to the theory of Borg and Gall (2002:571) whichare summarized into seven steps.Based on the research analysis and discussion, it is summarized into someconclusions; (1) a description of short stories characteristics in learning writingshort stories containing ethical values for IX grade students, which includes (a) adescription of short stories characteristics based on the short stories conditions,(b) a description of short stories characteristics based on the theme, setting, plot,characters, and the types of short stories, (c) a description of teaching materialscharacteristics in writing short stories is based on the book’s cover like the shape,the size, and thickness of books. (d) a description of teaching materialscharacteristics in writing short stories is based on the language used in the book.(e) while in the supporting aspect.Key words: Improvement of teaching, writing short stories, character building.

Sumbangan All-Trans Asam Retinoat (ATRA) Bagi Penyembuhan Periodontitis

MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2011:MMI Volume 45 Issue 3 Year 2011
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (74.225 KB)

Abstract

ABSTRACTAll-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) contribution to periodontitis healingBackground: In inflammation and infection of periodontal ligament i.e periodontitis, collagen fiber is damaged. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), metabolite of vitamin A, has potency to depress damage in inflammation. Indonesia with high vitamin A deficiency, facing to delayed recovery of periodontitis. The disease is vastly suffered by common people in this country. The study aimed to know the collagen status of periodontal ligament suffering periodontitis treated with tetracycline and ATRA supplementation.Method: The experimental study using post test only design in 12 adult male Wistar rat was done in 7 days. The animal study were induced periodontitis through Porphyromonas gingivalis inoculation. Tetracycline 90 mg/kg was given, beside ATRA supplementation of 10 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg. Four experimental groups were chosen randomly. Group of periodontitis + tetracycline was the control of the study. The independent variables were ATRA supplementation of those high and low dose. The dependent variable was collagen status. Collagen status consist of degradation and synthesis of collagen, indicated by mRNA MMP-2 and mRNA P1CP respectively. They were measured by reversed transcriptase polymerizing chain reaction and thin layer chromatography. All-trans retinoic acid concentration was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The dataanalyzed using t-test, Oneway ANOVA, post hoc duncan and least significant differences.Result: In group receiving 10 mg ATRA/kgBB, the ATRA level was highest but the collagen degradation was lower although not significant compared to the low dose ATRA group. In both groups the degradation was significantly lower than the control group (p=0.007). The synthesis of collagen in the low dose ATRA group was higher than the high dose ATRA group and the control group.Conclusion: High dose of ATRA supplementation contribution to less degradation of collagen, but in term of collagen synthesis, low dose ATRA supplementation gives better result.Keywords: ATRA supplementation, collagen degradation, periodontitis ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Pada peradangan dan infeksi kronik ligamentum periodontal yaitu periodontitis, terjadi kerusakan serat kolagen. All-trans asam retinoat (ATRA), metabolit vitamin A, berpotensi menekan kerusakan pada peradangan. Tingginya defisiensi vitamin A di Indonesia, menghambat proses penyembuhan periodontitis yang banyak diderita masyarakat luas. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui status kolagen ligamentum periodontal periodontitis yang mendapat pengobatan tetrasiklin dan suplementasi ATRA.Metode: Studi eksperimental dengan rancangan post test only pada 12 tikus Wistar jantan dewasa telah dilakukan selama 7 hari. Hewan coba diinduksi periodontitis melalui inokulasi bakteri Porphyromonas gingivalis. Diberikan tetrasiklin 90 mg/kg, juga suplementasi ATRA 10 mg/kg dan 5 mg/kg. Empat kelompok studi dipilih secara acak. Kontrol adalah kelompok sakit + tetrasiklin. Variabel bebas adalah suplementasi ATRA dosis tinggi dan dosis rendah, variabel tergantung adalah status kolagen. Status kolagenmencakup degradasi dan sintesis, berturut-turut dengan petanda mRNA MMP-2 dan mRNA P1CP, diukur menggunakan reverse transcriptase polymerizing chain reaction dan thin layer chromatography. Kadar ATRA diukur dengan high performance liquid chromatography. Data dianalisis dengan uji t, Oneway ANOVA, post hoc Duncan dan least significant differences.Hasil: Pada kelompok yang menerima suplementasi ATRA 10 mg/kgBB kadar ATRA tertinggi, tetapi degradasi kolagennya lebih rendah walau tidak bermakna. Kedua kelompok sumplementasi degradasi kolagennya lebih rendah secara bermakna dibanding kelompok kontrol (p=0,007), dalam sintesis kolagen,kelompok yang mendapat suplementasi ATRA 50 mg/kgBB sintesisnya lebih baik dibanding kelompok yang mendapat ATRA 10 mg/kgBB maupun kelompok kontrol.

Pola Makan dan Pertumbuhan Bobot Tubuh Tikus yang Diinokulasi Porphyromonas gingivalis Sebelum dan Sesudah Terjadinya Periodontitis

MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA 2009:MMI VOLUME 43 ISSUE 5 YEAR 2009
Publisher : MEDIA MEDIKA INDONESIANA

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Food pattern and body weight growth of rat inoculation by porphyromonas gingivalis before and after periodontitisBackground: The rat model of periodontitis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) were selected to prove that energy requirement is rising in periodontitis, as well as the body mass erosion that giving influence to growth. This study aimed to get food consumption pattern and the lowest growth of body weight which would give information about time period to deliver nutrients needed to increase body weight to fasten healing.Methods: Experimental study was done using 63 Wistar adult, healthy male rat in Laboratorium Penelitian dan Pengujian Terpadu Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta in 2007-2008. The subject study were induced periodontitis by bacterial innoculation using P. gingivalis. The objects of the study were food consumption pattern and growth of body weight. Food consumption pattern was percentage of subject finishing food devided by total subject, before and during periodontitis period. Growth of body weight is mean of increasing body weight of 2 adjacent periodontitis period devided by length of day between the 2 periods.Results: The beginning of subject finishing the food was the time when periodontitis identified by Pathology Anatomic examination. Amount of subject finishing the food was variable according to periodontitis process. The growth of body weight before and during periodontitis was inclining by age. The highest incremental of mean body weight per day was observed before periodontitis until the beginning of periodontitis. The lowest incremental of mean body weight was found between the beginning of periodontitis tochronical period 1, as long as 7 days.Conclusions: The subject study began to finish the food since the beginning of periodontitis. During 7 days period from the beginning of periodontitis to chronical period 1, there was the lowest incremental body weight.Keywords: Periodontitis, food pattern, weight growthABSTRAKLatar belakang: Model tikus yang mengalami periodontitis dengan inokulasi P. gingivalis dipilih untuk membuktikan bahwa kebutuhan energi pada periodontitis meningkat dan terjadi erosi massa tubuh yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan. Tujuan penelitian adalah diperolehnya pola makan serta pertumbuhan bobot tubuh (BT) terendah, yang akan memberikan gambaran periode waktu pemberian zat-zat gizi untuk meningkatkan bobot tubuh guna mempercepat penyembuhan.Metode: Dilakukan studi eksperimental pada 63 ekor tikus Wistar jantan dewasa di Laboratorium Penelitian dan Pengujian Terpadu Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta tahun 2007-2008. Subyek studi diinokulasi dengan P. gingivalis hingga terjadi periodontitis. Penilaian periodontitis dengan pemeriksaan Patologi Anatomik dari sediaan jaringan periodontal. Pola makan yaitu persentase subyek dengan pakan habis terhadap keseluruhan subyek studi, sebelum dan selama periodontitis. Pertumbuhan BT adalah rerata bobot tubuh 2 periode periodontitis yang berurutan dibagi lama hari antara 2 periode tersebut.Hasil: Awal pakan habis dimulai dari teridentifikasinya periodontitis melalui pemeriksaan Patologi Anatomik. Besaran subyek dengan pakan habis bervariasi menurut proses periodontitis. Pertumbuhan BT sebelum dan selama periodontitis menunjukkan peningkatan dengan bertambahnya umur. Peningkatan rerata BT per hari menunjukkan nilai tertinggi pada periode sebelum periodontitis ke awal periodontitis. Nilai terendah peningkatan rerata BT terdapat pada awal periodontitis ke periode kronik 1, selama 7 hari.Simpulan: Subyek studi mulai menghabiskan pakan sejak dimulai periodontitis. Selama 7 hari dari awal periodontitis sampai periode kronik 1, terjadi peningkatan rerata BTterendah

EFEKTIVITAS METODE KOOPERATIF TIPE GI DAN STAD DITINJAU DARI KEMAMPUAN AWAL

Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Fisika Vol 3, No 1/april (2012): JP2F
Publisher : Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Fisika

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: 1) Perbedaan penggunaanmetode pembelajaran kooperatif tipe GI dan STAD terhadap prestasibelajar fisika. 2) Perbedaan kemampuan awal tinggi dan kemampuanawal rendah terhadap prestasi belajar fisika. 3) Interaksi antarametode pembelajaran dan kemampuan awal siswa terhadap prestasibelajar fisika. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen. Populasi dalampenelitian ini adalah semua siswa SMPN 1 Barat. Sebagai sampeldiambil dua kelas sebanyak 68 siswa yang kemudian dijadikan kelaseksperimen I dan kelas eksperimen II. Kelas VIIIB sebanyak 34 siswasebagai kelas eksperimen I diberikan pendekatan menggunakanmetode pembelajaran kooperatif tipe GI sedangkan kelas VIIIDsebanyak 34 siswa sebagai kelas eksperimen II diberikan pendekatanmenggunakan metode pembelajaran kooperatif tipe STAD denganteknik pengambilan sampel cluster random sampling. Teknik analisisdata yang digunakan adalah analisis variansi (anova) dua jalan.Hasilpenelitian dengan α = 5% dapat disimpulkan bahwa: (1) Metodekooperatif tipe GI lebih baik daripada metode kooperatif tipe STADdengan Fhitung = 92,77. (2) Siswa dengan kemampuan awal tinggimempunyai prestasi belajar fisika yang lebih baik dibandingkandengan siswa yang mempunyai kemampuan awal rendah dengan Fhitung = 4,199. (3) Ada interaksi antara metode pembelajaran dankemampuan awal siswa terhadap prestasi belajar fisika (F hitung =5,16), metode GI dan STAD cenderung berinteraksi pada kemampuanawal rendah.Kata kunci : Metode GI, STAD, Kemampuan Awal, Prestasi Belajar

3-ACETYL -2,5,7-TRIHYDROXY-1,4-NAPHTALENEDIONE, AN ANTIMICROBIAL METABOLITE FROM THE CULTURE OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS COELOMYCETES TCBP4 FROM Tinospora crispa

Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Vol 23, No 3 Sep (2013)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Abstract Isolation, identification and testing of antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites of endophytic fungal culture TCBP4 isolated from bratawali (Tinospora crispa) has been performed. The fungus TCBP4 was cultivated in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) for 1 month, media and fungi extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract was separated and purified by several chromatographic techniques, from which 9 fractions were obtained. Fraction 3e was purified again and was obtained 6 fractions (3e1-3e6). Fractions 3e3-3e6 were tested against bacteria isolates Staphylococcus aureus Bacillus subtilis,Eschericia coli and yeast isolate Candida albicans by microdillution method. Antimicrobial activity test result showed that fractions 3e3-3e5 had better antibacterial activity compared to chloramphenicol as commercial antibiotic. It was indicated by MIC value of the fractions was lower (8 ug/ml) compared with the antibiotic chloramphenicol (16 ug/ml). Fraction 3e3 had better antifungal activity compared to commercial antifungal nystatin and cabisidin against C. albicans. GC-MS analysis showed that the chemical constituent of 3e5 fraction was identified as 3-acetyl -2,5,7-trihydroxy-1,4-naphtalenedione . Key words : Tinospora crispa, endophytic fungi, isolation, identification, antimicrobial Abstrak Isolasi, identifikasi dan uji aktivitas antimikrobia terhadap metabolit sekunder dari kultur jamur endofit TCBP4 yang diisolasi dari tumbuhan bratawali (Tinospora crispa). Jamur endofit TCBP4 dikultivasi pada media Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) selama 1 bulan, selanjutnya media dan jamur diekstrak dengan pelarut etil asetat. Ekstrak dipisahkan dan dimurnikan dengan beberapa teknik kromatografi sehingga diperoleh 9 fraksi. Fraksi 3e dimurnikan kembali dan diperoleh 6 fraksi (3e1-3e6). Fraksi 3e3-3e6 diuji aktivitas antibakterinya terhadap beberapa isolate bakteri Staphylo-coccus aureus Bacillus subtilis, Eschericia coli dan isolate khamir Candida albicans dengan metode mikrodilusi. Hasil uji antimikrobia menunjukkan bahwa fraksi 3e3-3e5 mempunyai aktivitas antibakteri lebih baik bila dibandingkan dengan chloramfenikol, dimana nilai MIC dari fraksi (8 ug/ml) lebih rendah dari antibiotika chloramfenikol (16 ug/ml). Fraksi 3e3 mempunyai aktivitas antijamur lebih baik bila dibandingkan dengan antijamur komersial nistatin dan kabisidin terhadap  C. albicans. Analisis GC-MS menunjukkan bahwa komponen kimia dari fraksi 3e5 diidentifikasi sebagai 3-acetyl -2,5,7-trihydroxy-1,4-naphtalenedione . Kata kunci : Tinospora crispa, jamur endofit, isolasi, identifikasi, antimikrobia

EVALUASI, UJI STABILITAS FISIK DAN SINERESIS SEDIAAN GEL YANG MENGANDUNG MINOKSIDIL, APIGENIN DAN PERASAN HERBA SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.)

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 42, No 4 Des (2014)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

AbstractMinoxidil, apigenin and celery are believed to have the same bioactivity as a vasodilator that can widen blood vessels. This study discusses about the gel formulation in the scope of evaluation of gel preparation, using carbomer as a gelling agent each containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice. The method used in gel evaluation were organoleptic observation, homogeneity, pH, consistency and viscosity; physical stability at 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C and syneresis. Based on the result, all gel formulations showed their consistency and viscosity were higher after 8 weeks of storage at room temperature. The rheogram of three gel formulations in term of flow properties remain unchanged after 8 weeks of storage. It was indicated that the flow properties of gel formulation was pseudoplastis tixotropic. The gel containing minoxidil, apigenin and celery juice showed good physical stability at 28±2 °C and 40±2 °C, but less stable at 4±2 °C after 14 weeks of storage. The highest number of syneresis was found in a gel containing celery juice.Keywords : Celery, Apigenin, Gel, StabilityAbstrakMinoksidil, apigenin dan seledri memiliki aktivitas biologi yang sama sebagai vasodilator yang dapat memperlebar pembuluh darah. Penelitian ini sebagai evaluasi sediaan gel, menggunakan karbomer sebagai gelling agentyang mengandung masing-masing minoksidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri. Metode yang digunakan dalam evaluasi gel adalah pengamatan organoleptis, homogenitas, pH, konsistensi dan viskositas; stabilitas fisik pada suhu 40±2 °C, 28±2 °C, 4±2 °C dan sineresis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ketiga formula gel menunjukkan konsistensi dan viskositas yang lebih tinggi setelah 8  minggu  penyimpanan  pada  temperatur  ruang.  Hasil  rheogram  dari  ketiga  formula gel  menunjukkan  sifat  alir  yang  tetap  tidak  berubah  setelah  8  minggu  penyimpanan, yaitu pseudoplastis tiksotropik. Gel yang mengandung minoxidil, apigenin dan perasan herba seledri menunjukkan stabil fisik pada penyimpanan suhu 28±2 °C dan 40±2 °C, tetapi kurang stabil pada suhu 4±2 °C setelah 14 minggu penyimpanan. Angka sineresis tertinggi terdapat pada gel yang mengandung perasan herba seledri.Kata kunci : Seledri, Apigenin, Gel, Stabilitas

Antibacterial Activity and Mode of Action of (+)-2,2-Epicytoskyrin A

Microbiology Indonesia Vol 9, No 1 (2015): March 2015
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Antibacterial activity of (+)-2,2-epicytoskyrin A, a main metabolite from culture of fungal endophyte Diaporthe sp. GNBP-10, was investigated against several strains of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and one strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis. (+)-2,2-Epicytoskyrin A exhibited prominent activity against Staphylococcus aureus BCC 1452 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.06 μg mL-1. The effect of (+)-2,2-epicytoskyrin A treatment to S. aureus, resulted in alteration of bacterial cell membrane with an increase of cation efflux, while the cytoplasmic content was not leaked out and finally resulted in cell damage.

UJI ANTIBAKTERI Lasianthus (RUBIACEAE) SEBAGAI TUMBUHAN BERKHASIAT OBAT DAN UPAYA PERBANYAKANNYA

Buletin Kebun Raya Vol 13, No 2 (2010): Buletin Kebun Raya Vol. 13 (2) July 2010
Publisher : Center for Plant Conservation Bogor Botanic Garden, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Lasianthus, a member of the family Rubiaceae has potential for medicinal plants. The aims of the research were to find out the potential antibacterial activity of Lasianthus leaf extract and to investigate the effectiveness of plant propagation by stems cutting. The species tested were Lasianthus laevigatus Blume, L furcatus (Miq.) Bremek and L. cf. obscurus Blume. The extracted leaves in n-hexana, ethyl acetate and methanol were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coil activities that grown on medium of Mueller-Hinton agar. The methanol extracts of each plant material showed significant antibacterial activities on S. aureus and E. coll. Antibacterial activity increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. Plant propagation by stems cutting were done as a first step of conservation effort for respective species. Stems cutting of L. laevigatus, L. purpureus, L. furcatus, L. acuminatus, L rhinocerotis. and L. cf. obscurus with length of 10 cm were applied with Rotoon F to stimulate root growth. The result of plant propagation research showed that only the stems cutting of L. cf. obscurus grew well although roots did not grow until 4 months.

EFEKTIVITAS METODE KOOPERATIF TIPE GI DAN STAD DITINJAU DARI KEMAMPUAN AWAL

Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Fisika Vol 3, No 1/april (2012): JP2F
Publisher : Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Fisika

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: 1) Perbedaan penggunaanmetode pembelajaran kooperatif tipe GI dan STAD terhadap prestasibelajar fisika. 2) Perbedaan kemampuan awal tinggi dan kemampuanawal rendah terhadap prestasi belajar fisika. 3) Interaksi antarametode pembelajaran dan kemampuan awal siswa terhadap prestasibelajar fisika. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen. Populasi dalampenelitian ini adalah semua siswa SMPN 1 Barat. Sebagai sampeldiambil dua kelas sebanyak 68 siswa yang kemudian dijadikan kelaseksperimen I dan kelas eksperimen II. Kelas VIIIB sebanyak 34 siswasebagai kelas eksperimen I diberikan pendekatan menggunakanmetode pembelajaran kooperatif tipe GI sedangkan kelas VIIIDsebanyak 34 siswa sebagai kelas eksperimen II diberikan pendekatanmenggunakan metode pembelajaran kooperatif tipe STAD denganteknik pengambilan sampel cluster random sampling. Teknik analisisdata yang digunakan adalah analisis variansi (anova) dua jalan.Hasilpenelitian dengan α = 5% dapat disimpulkan bahwa: (1) Metodekooperatif tipe GI lebih baik daripada metode kooperatif tipe STADdengan Fhitung = 92,77. (2) Siswa dengan kemampuan awal tinggimempunyai prestasi belajar fisika yang lebih baik dibandingkandengan siswa yang mempunyai kemampuan awal rendah dengan Fhitung = 4,199. (3) Ada interaksi antara metode pembelajaran dankemampuan awal siswa terhadap prestasi belajar fisika (F hitung =5,16), metode GI dan STAD cenderung berinteraksi pada kemampuanawal rendah.Kata kunci : Metode GI, STAD, Kemampuan Awal, Prestasi Belajar

PENAPISAN FITOKIMA DAN BILANGAN PEROKSIDA (POV) TIGA JENIS TUMBUHAN FAMILI MORACEACE (Artocarpus sp., A.elasticus, dan Ficus sp.) DARI TAMAN NASIONAL BOGANI NANI WARTABONE (SULUT)

BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 6, No 4 (2003)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (3804.176 KB)

Abstract

The  aim of study were to determine the chemical compounds and peroxide values (POV) of methanol extract of three plants species belongs to Moraceae family (Artocarpus (Artocarpus sp., A.elasticus, dan Ficus sp.). Their chemical compounds were identified by Cuiley method, while peroxide value was done by iodometri titration. Methanol extract percentage of Artocarpus sp., A.elasticus, dan Ficus sp. were 20.80%, 3.10% and 4.10% respectively. All of the extract tested contained essential oil, sterol and triterpenoid, aglicon flavonoid, tannin, flavonoid glicoside and saponin. POV of Artocarpus sp., A.elasticus, dan Ficus sp. were 325.24, 306.25 and 1580.07 respectively and POV of q tocopherol was 363.96. So, it can be concluded taht all of three methanol extract act as reductor, because their POV less that POV of q tocopherol and might be act antioxidant. These correalted with their chemical compounds such as flavonoid, tannin and peroxide sugar.