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EKSTRAKSI KONTINYU DENGAN SIMULASI BATCH TIGA TAHAP ALIRAN LAWAN ARAH: PENGAMBILAN MINYAK BIJI ALPUKAT MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT N-HEXANE DAN ISO PROPIL ALKOHOL Pramudono, Bambang; Ardi Widioko, Septian; Rustyawan, Wawan
REAKTOR Volume 12, Nomor 1, Juni 2008
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (159.091 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.12.1.37-41

Abstract

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji rendemen dan selektivitas dari ekstraksi biji alpukat dengan pelarut n-hexane dan isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Ekstraksi dilakukan dengan sistem kontinyu simulasi batch bertahap tiga aliran lawan arah pada temperatur 82 oC (untuk pelarut n- hexane) dan 69 oC (untuk pelarut IPA), selama 2 jam dengan perbandingan bahan dan pelarut sebesar 20 gr/250 gr. Rendemen yang diperoleh pada penggunaan n-hexane dan IPA sebesar 18,69 % dan 17,87 %. Kedua minyak yang dihasilkan baik dari penggunaan n-hexane maupun IPA memenuhi spesifikasi minyak biji alpukat. Dari besarnya rendemen yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa secara kuantitatif  pelarut n-hexane lebih baik daripada IPA, tetapi dari segi kualitatif (kandungan impuritas) pelarut IPA lebih baik daripada n-hexane.
PEMBUATAN SURFAKTAN POLYOXYETHYLENE DARI MINYAK SAWIT: Purwaningtyas, Ery Fatarina; Pramudono, Bambang
REAKTOR Volume 12, Nomor 3, Juni 2009
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (902.972 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.12.3.175 – 182

Abstract

Minyak sawit masih bisa ditingkatkan nilai tambahnya melalui pengubahan menjadi surfaktan. Surfaktan berbasis minyak nabati bersifat mudah terurai (biodegradable), dan ramah lingkungan. Salah satu surfaktan yang dapat disintesis dari minyak sawit adalah polyoxyethylene mono-digliserid (POE-MDG) melalui proses gliserolisis yang dilanjutkan dengan proses etoksilasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji parameter proses pada gliserolisis maupun etoksilasi. Proses glyserolisis menggunakan katalis MgO dan pelarut n-butanol, dilakukan dengan memvariasikan suhu, rasio gliserol: minyak, dan rasio n-butanol: minyak. Dari penelitian ini diperoleh variable yang berpengaruh pada proses glyserolisis adalah rasio glyserol: minyak, konversi tertinggi 0,785. Hasil gliserolisis adalah MDG, selanjutnya dietoksilasi untuk mendapatkan surfaktan (POE-MDG). Proses etoksilasi MDG menggunakan katalis MgO, dengan memvariasi perbandingan MDG : polietilen glikol (PEG). Berdasarkan analisa Forrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) memberikan puncak baru pada 1743,65 cm-1 yang menunjukkan pembentukan ikatan C-O-O. Analisis dengan kolom kromatografi memberikan hasil  polyoxyethylen (POE) tertinggi 9,20 % pada rasio MDG : PEG = 4, waktu reaksi 120 menit, temperatur 1600C, kecepatan pengadukan 400 rpm, konsentrasi katalis 2%. Hasil uji kestabilan emulsi menunjukkan bahwa surfaktan POE-MDG mempunyai efek emulsifier
EKSTRAKSI OLEORESIN DARI KAYU MANIS BERBANTU ULTRASONIK DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PELARUT ALKOHOL Jos, Bakti; Pramudono, Bambang; Aprianto, Aprianto
REAKTOR Volume 13, Nomor 4, Desember 2011
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (65.961 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.13.4.231-236

Abstract

ULTRASOUND ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF CINNAMON OLEORESIN FROM CINNAMON BARK USING ALCOHOLS AS SOLVENTS. Cinnamon oleoresin is a complex mixture of resin and essential oil extracted from cinnamon burmanii by using organic solvent, and is primarily used as a coloring and flavoring in food products. Major component in essential oil is cinnamic aldehyde. Extraction was usually performed by percolation or soxhlet with various solvents. Several studies on the extraction of oleoresin have been completed by using polar organic solvents. Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) solvents, which are safe to use in food, were considered as alternative extraction solvents. Hildebrand solubility parameter concept was also used to choose the solvent. In this research, oleoresin from cinnamon was extracted by using ultrasound assisted extraction. Methanol, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol were used as the solvent to determine the extraction time, extraction rate and the kinetic model correspond to the yield of oleoresin. The result showed that the optimal time and extraction intensity are 66 minutes and 20% respectively, oleoresin yield by using solvent extraction of methanol, ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol were 22.86%, 17.87%, and 14.64% respectively. The results were similar compared to conventional extraction. Kinetic study confirmed that the second-order kinetic model is suitable for this research and the extraction rate constant for the second-order kinetic model of these solvents were 0.098, 0.057, and 0.089 respectively.  Abstrak  Oleoresin kayu manis merupakan campuran komplek antara resin dan minyak atsiri sebagai hasil ekstraksi kayu manis dengan menggunakan pelarut organik. Oleoresin banyak digunakan sebagai pewarna dan flavor dalam industri makanan. Komponen utama dalam minyak atsiri kayu manis adalah cinnamic aldehyde. Pada umumnya ekstraksi kayu manis menggunakan cara perkolasi atau soxhlet dengan berbagai pelarut. Beberapa studi ekstraksi oleoresin yang telah dilakukan, menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan pelarut polar lebih baik dibandingkan pelarut non polar. Pemilihan pelarut yang digunakan untuk ekstraksi harus mempertimbangkan pelarut GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) dan juga parameter kelarutan Hildebrand. Penelitian ini menggunakan metanol, etanol, dan isopropil alkohol sebagai pelarut untuk mengekstraksi oleoresin dari kayu manis yang menggunakan ultrasonik. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh waktu dan intensitas ekstraksi berbantu ultrasonik dan juga menentukan model laju ekstraksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa waktu optimal dan intensitas optimal masing-masing adalah 66 menit dan 20%, sedangkan kadar oleoresin yang dihasilkan dengan pelarut metanol, etanol, dan isopropil alkohol berturut-turut  sebesar 22,86%, 17,87%, dan 14,64%, dimana hasil ini relatif sama dengan hasil ekstraksi dengan menggunakan metode konvensional. Studi kinetika menunjukkan bahwa model laju ekstraksi orde dua lebih sesuai untuk penelitian ini dan dari hasil penelitian diperoleh nilai konstanta laju ekstraksi, k berturut-turut 0,098; 0,057; dan 0,089
PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI ECENG GONDOK (EICCHORNIA CRASSIPES) : KAJIAN KONSISTENSI DAN pH TERHADAP BIOGAS DIHASILKAN Yonathan, Arnold; Prasetya, Avianda Rusba; Pramudono, Bambang
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

Water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) is one of the weeds type which has the fastest growth amongothers, but it can be used in the biogas production because it contains large number ofhemiselulosa. Anaerobic digestion is a process where the microorganism is doing a biodegradablematerial split within the oxygen devoid. The biogas making process begins at cutting up the waterhyacinth, to be added with the water and to be blended with cow dung later. When the mixedsolution is already well-suited with the operation variable, pour it into the pre-treatmentbiodigester by adding the H2SO4 into the (substrat). The process will present the result atcomposition variable, which is showing the largest biogas production at 2:2,5 composition in1.162,97mL, and the smallest biogas production at 2:1 composition in 12,85mL. The bestcomposition from the fermentation process has done before is used as the dependent variable witha pH variable change. The result shows at the pH interval 4 -7, the biogas production isincreasing, and will decrease at the pH 8. The largest biogas production is at the variable pH 7 inthe amount of 1.162,97mL. The GC analysis result shows the metana that contains inside thebiogas is 0,03mol/100gr water hyacinth.
INOVASI PRODUKSI MINYAK KAYU MANIS DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN TEKNIK HIDRODISTILASI VAKUM Rusliawan, Andita; Wijayanti, Dina Mukti; Pramudono, Bambang
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 1, Nomor 1, Tahun 2012
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

Cinnamon oil is processed from cinnamon bark that has a high selling price. Cinnamon oil can be produced through a process either distillation or extraction. In this study, cinnamon bark is washed, dried, milled, and sieved to obtain size 2-3; 0.85-2; <0.85 mm. Then vacuum hydrodistillation is carried out with 800mL of water, 100 grams of cinnamon bark, at 70 ° C and 450mmHg (0.59 atm). Product from vacuum hydrodistillation is then measured and analyzed for levels cinnamic aldehyde. Optimum variables in this study are 0.85-2mm particle size and 4.5 hours which give the greatest yield is 3.02 (g oil produced/100 g cinnamon bark). Product of cinnamon oil with vacuum hydrodistillation have a good quality with  72.60% cinnamic aldehyde and fulfilling the standards of cinnamon oil.
PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI ECENG GONDOK (EICCHORNIA CRASSIPES) : KAJIAN KONSISTENSI DAN pH TERHADAP BIOGAS DIHASILKAN Yonathan, Arnold; Prasetya, Avianda Rusba; Pramudono, Bambang
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 2, Tahun 2013
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar

Abstract

Water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes) is one of the weeds type which has the fastest growth amongothers, but it can be used in the biogas production because it contains large number ofhemiselulosa. Anaerobic digestion is a process where the microorganism is doing a biodegradablematerial split within the oxygen devoid. The biogas making process begins at cutting up the waterhyacinth, to be added with the water and to be blended with cow dung later. When the mixedsolution is already well-suited with the operation variable, pour it into the pre-treatmentbiodigester by adding the H2SO4 into the (substrat). The process will present the result atcomposition variable, which is showing the largest biogas production at 2:2,5 composition in1.162,97mL, and the smallest biogas production at 2:1 composition in 12,85mL. The bestcomposition from the fermentation process has done before is used as the dependent variable witha pH variable change. The result shows at the pH interval 4 -7, the biogas production isincreasing, and will decrease at the pH 8. The largest biogas production is at the variable pH 7 inthe amount of 1.162,97mL. The GC analysis result shows the metana that contains inside thebiogas is 0,03mol/100gr water hyacinth.
PEMBUATAN VIRGIN COCONUT OIL (VCO) : PEMECAHAN EMULSI DENGAN METODE ULTRASONIK R., Nely Fatwatun; Chusna, Kaunaini; Pramudono, Bambang
JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI Volume 2, Nomor 4, Tahun 2013
Publisher : JURNAL TEKNOLOGI KIMIA DAN INDUSTRI

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Abstract

Coconut tree is one of the strategic commodities which became the pre-eminent national. In addition to being one of the strategic commodities, coconut tree has many benefits start from the root, stem, leaf, fruit, up to they sheath. VCO is one product of the coconut plant has bigger added value and beneficial to health. Research needs to be done to study the manufacture of VCO that is created by using ultrasonic waves and compare it with the existing method of VCO by using secondary data. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of temperature and ratio of water and coconut in the manufacture of VCO with ultrasonic method, analyze the physical properties chemical VCO and compare the results with SNI, comparing the results of ultrasonic method with VCO created with another method, as well as find out the methods and conditions of operation of VCO with good quality and high yield. Manufacture of VCO is done by the method of ultrasonic wave using time 60 minutes with frequency 70kHz. Changing variables used are coconut water ratio of 1:1; 1,5:1; 2:1 and the temperature is 30OC, 40OC, 50OC. The resulting calculated oil yield and quality are analyzed. Analysis undertaken include organoleptic analysis, moisture content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, number Iod, and Fe contamination. The research results showed that ultrasound can be used to break down the emulsion VCO-water. Ratio of the coconut and water as well as in the manufacture of coconut milk and temperatures when ultrasonic affects yield. physical and chemical properties of two samples VCO with the highest yield has according to SNI. VCO is made by the method of ultrasonic have the lowest yield, but the quality is the best if compared to the method of fermentation, enzimatis, pumping and centrifugation. Ultrasonic methods, variables coconut and water ratio of 2:1 at temperature 30OC is the maximum operating conditions which produced the VCO with good quality and high yield, but ultrasonic method is not a method that can produce the highest yield, despite having the best quality.
KARAKTERISASI FILM KOMPOSIT ALGINAT DAN KITOSAN Rokhati, Nur; Pramudono, Bambang; Widiasa, Nyoman; Susanto, Heru
REAKTOR Volume 14, Nomor 2, Oktober 2012
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (517.1 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.14.2.158-164

Abstract

CHARACTERIZATION OF ALGINATE AND CHITOSAN COMPOSITE FILM. Due to the specific characteristics of (thin) films, the use of polymer films in various aplications has singnificantly increased. Alginate and chitosan are natural polymers, which have potential as a raw material for the manufacture of composite films. This paper presents the preparation and characterization of alginate, chitosan and chitosan-alginate composite films. The film characterization included permeability test, degree of swelling, mechanical property, morphology (by SEM), and surface chemistry (by FTIR). The results showed that alginate films have a higher permeability ​​and degree of swelling (DS) than chitosan films. Both permeability and DS decreased with increasing concentration for both alginate and chitosan films. DS experiments showed that the films have the highest DS in water followed by ethanol 95% and ethanol >99.9%, respectively. The mechanical strength of chitosan films was larger than alginate films. Alginate-chitosan composite films prepared by layer by layer method showed better characteristics than the composite films prepared by blending of alginate and chitosan solutions. Meningkatnya aplikasi film polimer di berbagai industri tidak terlepas dari keunggulan yang dimiliki. Alginat dan kitosan merupakan polimer alam yang mempunyai potensi sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan film komposit. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pembuatan dan karakterisasi film komposit berbasis alginat dan kitosan. Karakterisasi film yang dilakukan meliputi uji: permeabilitas, derajat swelling, mekanik, morfologi (dengan SEM), dan struktur kimia permukaan (dengan FTIR). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa film alginat mempunyai nilai permeabilitas maupun derajat swelling yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan film kitosan. Baik pada kitosan maupun alginat memberikan fenomena bahwa semakin besar konsentrasi larutan maka semakin kecil nilai permeabilitas maupun derajat swelling, dengan derajat swelling terhadap air adalah yang  paling besar kemudian diikuti oleh ethanol teknis (± 95%) dan yang terkecil adalah ethanol PA (> 99,9%). Kekuatan mekanik film kitosan lebih besar dibanding dengan film alginat. Film komposit alginat-kitosan yang dibuat dengan metode layer by layer memberikan karakteristik yang lebih baik dibanding dengan film komposit yang dibuat dengan pencampuran larutan alginat dan larutan kitosan.
PEMBUATAN FILM KOMPOSIT KITOSAN –TAPIOKA : PENGARUH KOMPOSISI TERHADAP KARAKTERISTIK FILM Rokhati, Nur Rokhati; Pramudono, Bambang; Widiasa, I. Nyoman
METANA Vol 9, No 01 (2013): Volume 9 No. 01 Juli 2013
Publisher : METANA

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Abstract

Abstract Cassava starch can readily be cast into films. However, the cassava starch film is brittle and weak leading to inadequate mechanical properties. Therefore it is necessary blending with other biopolymers that can overcome these drawbacks. In this study, composite film prepared by blending of cassava starch and chitosan solutions with ratio 2:8, 3:7, 4:8, and 5:5. The results show that the mechanical strength of the film increase with increasing the chitosan content. The significant decline in both permeability and degree of swelling with increasing the content of chitosan in the composite film. The hydrophobic acetyl groups of chitosan caused a notable reduction of wettability as well as water permeability. The degree of swelling experiments showed that the films have the highest degree of swelling in water followed by technical ethanol (±95%) and pure analysis ethanol (>99.9%). SEM photographs of the surface of film with the ratio 5:5 have more homogeneous than the ratio 2:8. The amino group peak in IR spectrum of chitosan molecule shifted from 1581 to 1587 cm−1 with the incorporation of starch. These results suggested that these two film-forming components were compatible and an interaction existed between them. Keywords: Chitosan–starch films; composition, characterization
PENINGKATAN YIELD BIODISEL DARI MINYAK BIJI NYAMPLUNG MELALUI TRANSESTERIFIKASI DUA TAHAP Prihanto, Antonius; Pramudono, Bambang; Santosa, Herry
MOMENTUM Vol 9, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : MOMENTUM

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Abstract

Telah  dilakukan  penelitian  tentang  peningkatan  yield  biodisel  dari  minyak  biji  nyamplung melalui  transesterifikasi  dua tahap.  Transesterifikasi  dua  tahap  digunakan  untuk  menggeser reaksi ke arah kanan, sehingga diharapkan dapat meningkatkan yield biodisel. Penelitian ini dilakukan  untuk  mengkaji  pengaruh  rasio  molar  metanol-minyak,  pengaruh  suhu   dan pengaruh  konsentrasi  katalis  terhadap  yield  biodisel  dari  minyak  nyamplung.  Perlakuan pendahuluan  untuk  pemurnian  bahan  baku  yang  dilakukan  meliputi  proses  degumming, esterifikasi  dan  netralisasi.  Transesterifikasi  dua  tahap  dilakukan  dengan  menggunakan variasi rasio molar metanol-minyak (6:1; 7:1; 8:1; 9:1; 10:1), suhu (30 oC, 40 oC, 50 oC, 60 oC, 70 oC) dan konsentrasi katalis KOH (1 %, 1,25 %, 1,5 %, 1,75 %, 2,0 %). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio molar metanol-minyak, suhu dan konsentrasi katalis berpengaruh terhadap  yield  biodisel.  Pada  rasio  molar  metanol-minyak  8:1,  suhu  60 oC  dan  konsentrasi katalis KOH 1,25  % memberikan yield biodisel maksimal sebesar 92,98  %.  Sebagian besar parameter biodisel dari kondisi terbaik yang diuji telah memenuhi standar  SNI 04-7182-2006. Transesterifikasi  dua  tahap  dapat  meningkatkan  yield  biodisel  dari  minyak  nyamplung, walaupun tidak begitu besar.Kata kunci : yield biodisel, nyamplung (Callophyllum inophyllum), transesterifikasi dua tahap