Articles

Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit DORLY, DORLY; TJITROSEMITO, SOEKISMAN; POERWANTO, ROEDHY; JULIARNI, JULIARNI
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 15, No 3 (2008): September 2008
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (293.533 KB)

Abstract

Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest diameter of the secretory ducts was found in the endocarp. There were continuous secretory ducts from fruit stalk to the fruit. Ultrastructural observation showed that the ducts surrounded by specific epithelial cells, which were living cells containing dense cytoplasm with plastid, mitochondria and golgi apparatus organelles. The qualitative test indicated that the yellow latex collected from stem bark, outer part of fruit, young fruit pericarp, mature aril and young aril contained terpenoid, flavonoid and tannin, but not alkaloid, saponin and steroid, except in the young aril containing the steroid. Key words: secretory ducts, yellow latex, endocarp, aril, epithelial cells
Changes of Gibberellin and Total Sugar Content in Flower Developmental Stages of Mangosteen RAI, I NYOMAN; POERWANTO, ROEDHY; DARUSMAN, LATIFAH KOSIM; PURWOKO, BAMBANG SAPTA
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 13, No 3 (2006): September 2006
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (117.38 KB)

Abstract

The objectives of this experiment were to study the changes of gibberellic acid and total sugar content in flower developmental stages of mangosteen. The result showed that flower development of mangosteen consisted of four stages: induction, differentiation, maturition of flower organs, and anthesis. Floral induction was microscopically characterized by the swelling of the basal structure of the new shoot. It was found that induction stage of mangosteen flowering was characterized by sharp decrease of gibberellic acid (GA3, GA5, GA7) and increase of total sugar content of leaf. On the other hand, it was found that leaf of the non-flowering shoot apices had high gibbrellic acid and low total sugar. Key words: mangosteen, flowering, induction, gibberellic acid
Pollen Viability and Pollen Tube Growth of IPB’s Papaya Suketi, Ketty; Tuharea, Cenra Intan Hartuti; Widodo, Winarso Dradjad; Poerwanto, Roedhy
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (367.237 KB)

Abstract

The purpose of the research  was to examine the pollen germination process and growth rate of pollen tubes of papaya. Pollen tube growth of nine genotypes of papaya (IPB 1, IPB 2, IPB 3, IPB 4,  IPB 5, IPB 7, IPB 8,  IPB  9,  and  IPB 10) was investigated in this experiment in order to study their pollen germination rate and pollen viability. The fresh pollen were excised from the flowers of papaya grown at Tajur Field Station of  Research Center for Tropical Fruit, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor. The extracted pollen was cultured aseptically on the Brewbaker and Kwack medium (pH 7.3) at ambient  temperature of 26-28 °C. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth was observed under optical microscope with 100 and 400 magnification. Papaya pollen viability was not associated with size-based categories of papaya fruits. IPB 4 had the longest pollen tube at first 30 minutes after germination  (115.5 µm), whereas IPB 10 had the shortest (99.5 µm).  The distance  from  stigma  to   ovary  in  hermaphrodite  flowers  varies with genotypes, ranging from 7.38 to 13.44 mm.  Average length of pollen tube within four hours of germination for small papaya fruit category (IPB 1, IPB 3, and IPB 4) was 1,030.67 ± 19.14 #m, while the distance between stigma and ovary was short (14.85 ± 2.19 mm) so that the expected of  fertilization process occurred sooner.  At the end of the experiment (four hours after germination), IPB 1 genotype  had the longest pollen tube (1,052 µm) while IPB 9 genotype (913 µm) had the shortest  pollen tube.  Genotype with the highest percentage of germination  at the end experiment was IPB 2 (65.65%), whereas the lowest was IPB 7 (42.56%).   Keywords: Carica papaya, germination rate, pollen germination
Karakter Fisik dan Kimia Buah Pepaya pada Stadia Kematangan Berbeda Suketi, Ketty; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sujiprihati, Sriani; Sobir, ,; Widodo, Winarso Drajad
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 38, No 1 (2010): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (153.04 KB)

Abstract

The objective of the experiment was to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of three stadia of maturity based on a range of peel color from green to yellow or based on percentage of the yellow area of fruit peel (stadium 1 = 25-49 % yellow, stadium 2 = 50-74 % yellow, and stadium 3 = above 75 % yellow) on six genotypes of papaya. Each genotype exhibited different days to maturity for each stadium. The fruits of stadium 1, 2 and 3 for IPB 1 were picked at 130, 135, and 140 days after anthesis (DAA); IPB 10A at 160, 165, and 170 DAA;  IPB 1 x PB 174 at 135, 140 and 145 DAA; while PB 174,  IPB 1 x IPB 10A and IPB 10A x PB 174 were picked at 140, 145 and 150 DAA, respectively. The results indicated that peel firmness was affected by maturity stage on female fruit of IPB 10A. Maturity stage affected chemical characteristics of papaya included total soluble solids (TSS) content (IPB 10A, female fruit of  PB 174, female fruit of IPB 1 x IPB 10A, and female fruit of IPB 1 x PB 174), vitamin C content (hermaphrodite fruit of 10 A, female fruit of IPB 1 x IPB 10A) and juice pH (hermaphrodite fruit of  IPB 1).  IPB 1 genotype can be harvested at all stadia of maturity stage. Hermaphrodite and female fruit of IPB 10 A, female fruit of  PB 174, female fruit of  IPB 1 x IPB 10A and female fruit of IPB 1 x  PB 174 genotype would be better harvested at stadium 3 of maturity stage.   Keywords: Carica papaya, papaya genotype, hermaphrodite fruit, female fruit, fruit quality, fruit maturity stage
Effect of Sector (Position in Canopy) on Allocation of 13 C-photosynthates in Mangosteen Setiawan, Eko; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Fukuda, Fumio; Sugiyama, Nobuo; Saitoh, Kuniyuki; Kubota, Naohiro
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 2 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (386.657 KB)

Abstract

We investigated the effect of sector (position in canopy) on translocation and distribution of 13C-photosynthates in  mangosteen trees and related the findings to previous analyses of fruit quality. Our experiment was conducted on three 25-year-old mangosteen trees. Tree canopies were divided into 9 sectors based on height (bottom, middle, top) and width (inner, center, outer). One branch from each sector was labeled with 13CO2 in December 2003. Immediately after labeling, 13C concentration in leaves from middle sectors was higher than that in leaves from other positions. 13C concentration in all leaves decreased rapidly for 24 h after 13C feeding, followed by a gradual decrease. In contrast, 13C concentration increased over time in the pericarp and aril of fruits. Translocation of 13C-photosynthates into fruit was high in Sectors 4 and 5, and in top positions (Sectors 7 to 9). At 96 h after 13C feeding, the highest distribution ratio of 13C-photosynthates was observed in stems, followed in descending order by pericarp, leaf, and aril. 13C distribution ratio in the aril was generally highest in fruits from inner and center positions. The relationship between partitioning of photosynthates and quality of mangosteen fruit, which differs among sectors, has been discussed. Keywords: fruiting positions, Garcinia mangostanaL., photosynthate partitioning, 13C, tree branches
Pengaruh Media Induksi terhadap Multiplikasi Tu nas dan Pertumbuhan Planlet Pisang Rajabulu (AAB) dan Pisang Ta nduk (AAB) pada Berbagai Media Multiplikasi Kasutjianingati, ,; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Widodo, ,; Khumaida, Nurul; Efendi, Darda
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 3 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (189.759 KB)

Abstract

 The aim of this research was to study the effects of explant from various induction media on multiplication and growth of cv Rajabulu  (AAB) and Tanduk (AAB) plantain.  This research was arranged in factorial complete randomized design with two factors. The first factor was two kinds of explant which came from induction media I1 (MS + BA 2 mg L-1 + IAA 3 mg L-1), and from induction media I2 (MS + BA 2 mg L-1 + IAA 3 mg L-1 + TDZ 0.09 mg L-1); the second factor was 4 kinds of multiplication media, i.e. MS0 (control/without PGR), MS + BA 0.20 mg L-1 + IAA 0.01 mg L-1 (M1), MS + BA 1 mg L-1 + IAA 0.25 mg L-1 (M2), MS + BA 2 mg L-1 + IAA 0.5 mg L-1 (M3).  The experiment results were the use of TDZ in the induction medium reduced the use of high cytokinin in the multiplication level. The use of Rajabulu explant that came from media I2 produced more shoots (4.3 shoots per explan) compared to explant from media I1 (3.2 shoots per explan). The use of multiplication media M3 and M2 produced the highest shoot number. The best shoot morphogenesis produced when the shoots after subculture in media with PGR (M3 or M2) to media MS0 (big shoot 3.1 and medium shoot 3.5). Tanduk plantain’s shoot was  responsive to cytokinin. The best treatment is I1-M3 with the highest number of shoots and the highest percentage of big and medium shoot is (33%) compared  to  other  treatments  (
Character, Xanthone Content and Antioxidant Properties of Mangosteen Fruit’s Hull (Garcinia mangostana L.) at Several Fruit Growth Stadia Kurniawati, Ani; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sobir, ,; Effendi, Darda; Cahyana, Herry
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 3 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (148.77 KB)

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangosteen fruit’s hull, xanthone content, and antioxidant potential on various stadia of mangosteen fruit development. The experiment  was conducted in September 2006 until July  2008 using randomized complete block design, with three replications at maturation stage i.e. 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after anthesis. The parameters being observed were fruit’s hull characters, xanthone content, and antioxidant capacity.  The results of this study showed that fruit diameter and fruit weight increased until three months after anthesis and then did not change significantly once they entered the process of maturity. Thickness of fruit’s hull differed significantly among maturation stage. The thickness of fruit hull was observed at two months and the highest weight was at three months after anthesis. Xanthone content of mangosteen fruit’s hull at a month up to four months after anthesis did not differ significantly however capacity of antioxidant differed significantly among fruit ages, the IC50 values increased with the increase of fruit maturation.   Keywords: Antioxidant, fruit growth, fruit’s hull, mangosteen, xanthone
Rekomendasi Pemupukan Kalium untuk Tanaman Nenas Berdasarkan Status Hara Tanah Safuan, La Ode; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Susila, Anas Dinurrohman; Sobir, ,
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (179.796 KB)

Abstract

Potassium (K) is required in a large amount for plant growth and production of most fruit crops, including pineapple. However, excess application may decrease its growth and production. Therefore, fertilizer application must be site specific, based on soil nutrient status and plant requirements. The aims of the research were (1) to determine the soil K nutritional status of pineapple and (2) to determine the optimum dosage of  K fertilization for pineapple grown in Sawah Baru, Darmaga, Bogor.  The research was conducted using split plot randomized block design with five soil K status as main plots i.e. 0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 kg K2O ha-1 representing status levels of very low, low, moderate, high, and very high, respectively. The sub plot was dosage of  K fertilizer i.e. 0, 200, 400, 600, and 800 kg K2O ha-1. The result of the research showed   that plant growth and production of pineapple were improved by soil K nutrient status and dosage of K application.  The  level  of  soil K  nutrient  availability  was  classified  into  low  (50 ppm K2O). Potassium fertilizer is recommended for the soil with low  soil K status of 634 kg K2O ha-1.    Keywords: Ananas comosus, fertilization, potassium, soil nutrient status
Studi Pemberian Kalsium untuk Mengatasi Getah Kuning pada Buah Manggis (Garcinia mangostana L.) Dorly, ,; Wulandari, Indah; Tjitrosemito, Soekisman; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Efendi, Darda
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 39, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (193.751 KB)

Abstract

Gamboge is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness because it is one of the major factors lowering fruit quality. Calcium is one of the important elements that strengthening cell wall; it is which was binding with the pectin as a middle lamella component. The objectives of the research were to study the effect of calcium application on the presence of gamboge spots, physical, and chemical properties of mangosteen fruit. Trial was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two consecutive years.  The calcium source was dolomite, applied in four different dosages, i.e. 0, 18, 24, and 34 ton ha-1 for the fi  rst year and 0, 12.5, 15, and 17.5 ton ha-1 for the second year. The results showed that calcium application raised soil pH and calcium content of the soil, exocarp and mangosteen leaves. Dolomite applications using 18 and 24 ton ha-1 in the first year and 17.5 ton ha-1 in the second year were effective to reduce gamboge spots on the outer part of fruit, however they were not effective to reduce gamboge in aril. Dolomite applications did not increase transversal diameter, fruit weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acids, and ratio of total soluble solids with total titratable acids of the fruits.   Keywords: aril, cell wall, dolomite, exocarp
Aktivitas Kitinase dan Peroksidase dari Ekstrak Kasar Protein Asal Kalus dan Berbagai Jaringan Tanaman Trichosanthes cucumerina var. anguina Sukma, Dewi; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Sudarsono, ,; Khumaida, Nurul; Artika, I Made; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 40, No 3 (2012): JURNAL AGONOMI INDONESIA
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

Show Abstract | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (296.26 KB)

Abstract

Chitinase and peroxydase are important bioactive proteins or are specific enzymes that are related to plant resistance to pathogens. The aims of the research were to analyze the chitinase and peroxidase activities of crude protein extract from calli, stem, leaves and roots of T. cucumerinavar. anguina. In the first experiment, chitinase and peroxydase activities were analyzed from in vitro calli, leaves and roots obtained from 2-month-old of field grown plants. The media for calli induction were Murashige and Skoog medium with addition of 1 µM NAA + 1 µM BA, 2 µM NAA + 2 µM BA, 3 µM NAA + 3 µM BA, or 4 µM NAA + 4 µM BA. In the second experiment, the chitinase and peroxydase activities from crude protein extract of roots, stems and leaves were analyzed. The extracts were from 3-week-old seedling (less than a month), 1-month and 2-month-old plants. The first and the second experiment results showed that crude protein extracts of plant roots from the field grown plants had the highest chitinase and peroxidase activities. Stem of field grown plants had the similar level of chitinase activities with the plant roots. Chitinase activities of in vitro calli were not significantly different from those of plant roots so that it could be used as an alternative for plant roots in studying chitinase from T. cucumerinavar. anguina. Chitinase activities in crude protein extracts of roots appeared constant whereas peroxidase tend to increase with plant age. Keywords: calli, enzyme activities, leaves, roots, stem
Co-Authors ', Sobir , Dorly , Kasutjianingati , Lizawati , Sakhidin , Sobir , Sudarsono , Trikoesoemaningtyas , Widodo , Yudiwanti - Juanasri . SUHARSONO Abdul Qadir Achmad Surkati AGUS PURWITO Ahmad Ghozi Manshuri Ahmad Ghozi Mansyuri Ahmad S. Abidin Akmal, Ajmir Anas D Susila Anas D. Susila Anas Dinurrohman Susila ANDRIA AGUSTA Ani Kurniawati Ansyori Ansyori, Ansyori Asmini Budiani Bambang S . Purwoko Bambang S. Purwoko Bambang Sapta Purwoko Cenra Intan Hartuti Tuharea CICIK SURIANI D Fatria Darda Efendi Darda Effendi Darmawan Darmawan DEDY DURYADI DEWI SUKMA DIDY SOPANDIE Djoko Santoso DORLY DORLY E Efendi, E Edi Santosa Eko Setiawan Endang Gunawan Fauziyah Harahap Fumio Fukuda H., Nian Rimayanti HAJRIAL ASWIDINNOOR Hanifah Muthmainnah, Hanifah Heni Purnamawati Herry Cahyana Hiroshi Inoue I Hidayati, I I MADE ARTIKA I NYOMAN RAI Iman Rusmana Inanpi Hidayati Sumiasih, Inanpi Hidayati Indah Wulandari Iskandar Lubis Jawal Muhammad Anwarudinsyah JULIARNI JULIARNI Jumawati, Riana Kasutjianingati . Ketty Suketi Kuniyuki Saitoh Kurniadinata, Odit F. Kurniawan, Vandra La Ode Safuan Latifah K. Darusman LATIFAH KOSIM DARUSMAN Lukman Liferdi Maulana, Mohamad Akhbar Memen Surahman Muhammad Arif Nasution Muhammad Darmawan, Muhammad Nadhirah Karimatul Ilmi, Nadhirah Karimatul Naohiro Kubota Nobuo Sugiyama Nono Sutrisno Nur Wahyu Sariningtias, Nur Wahyu Nurfitri Ramadhani, Nurfitri Nurul Khumaida Odit Ferry Kurniadinata, Odit Ferry Rahmat Budiarto Ramdan Hidayat Rd. Selvy Handayani Resa Sri Rahayu, Resa S Susanto SAMANHUDI, . Septirosya, Tiara Slamet Susanto Soaloon Sinaga sobir . SOEKISMAN TJITROSEMITO Sri Astuti Rais Sri Yuliani SRIANI SUJIPRIHATI Suci Rahayu SUDARSONO SUDARSONO SUDIRMAN YAHYA SURYO WIYONO Sutrisno sutrisno T Purnama Tanari, Yulinda Taruna Shafa Arzam, Taruna Shafa Tetty Chaidamsari, Tetty Titin Purnama TRI KOESOEMANINGTYAS Tri Muji Ermayanti Widodo . winarso D widodo Winarso D. Widodo Winarso D.Widodo, Winarso Winarso Dradjad Widodo Winarso Drajad Widodo Y A Purwanto, Y A Yunita, Roza Yunus, Ismadi