MADE PHARMAWATI
Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Udayana, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Bali, Indonesia

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Chloroplast DNA Copy Number May Link to Sex Determination in Leucadendron (Proteaceae) PHARMAWATI, MADE; YAN, GUIJUN; FINNEGAN, PATRICK
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 16, No 1 (2009): March 2009
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.4308/hjb.16.1.21

Abstract

Leucadendron (Proteaceae) is a South African genus, the flowers of which have become a popular item in the Australian cut-flower industry. All species are dioecious. In general the female flowers are the more desirable as cut flowers. The availability of a molecular marker linked to sex determination is therefore needed both to maximize the efficiency of breeding programs and to supply markets with flowers from the preferred sex. The polymerase chain reaction-based method of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) combined with mirror orientation selection (MOS) were applied in an attempt to identify genome differences between male and female plants of Leucadendron discolor. Screening of 416 clones from a male-subtracted genomic DNA library and 282 clones from a female-subtracted library identified 13 candidates for male-specific genomic fragments. Sequence analyses of the 13 candidate DNA fragments showed that they were fragments of the chloroplast DNA, raising the possibility that chloroplast DNA copy number is linked to sex determination in Leucadendron. Key words: Leucadendron, sex determination, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH)
The Genetic Relationships of Grevillea Hybrids Determined by RAPD Marker PHARMAWATI, MADE; MACFARLANE, IAN JAMES
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 20, No 4 (2013): December 2013
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.4308/hjb.20.4.196-200

Abstract

Grevillea (Proteaceae) is native to Australia and is known as garden plant. The flowers have high diversity colors, which range over orange, yellow, pink, red and green. It is a large genus, consisted of 357 species. This genus is economically important and there are hundreds of Grevillea hybrids with beautiful color and shape of flower.  Information of the genetic relationships of Grevillea hybrids is not available. Ten Grevillea hybrids were used in this study to evaluate the genetic relationships between hybrids and with their parents. PCR-RAPD technique was employed in this study with seven RAPD primers. The dendrogram of Grevillea hybrids was performed using Neighbor-Joining analysis based on genetic distance. The analysis revealed that ‘Moonlight’, ‘Caloundra Gem’, and Little Pink Willie’ were clustered with Grevillea banksii. The three hybrids were hybrid of G. banksii and other Grevillea species.  ‘Superb’ was closely related to ‘Robyn Gordon’ as they are hybrid of G. banksii and G. bipinnatifida.
A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CAROTENOIDS OF SEAWEEDS Pharmawati, Made; Astarini, Ida A.
Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology Vol. 1, No. 1 Januari 2007
Publisher : Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology

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Abstract

Carotenoids are natural pigments that have high antioxidant potential and give benefit to health.  Only bacteria, phytoplankton, plants, seaweeds can synthesize carotenoids.  Human and animal depend on other organism-producing carotenoids.  The demand of carotenoids as medicine, food supplement as well as cosmetics increases rapidly.  Nowadays the demand of carotenoids reaches 887 million US dollar and it is predicted that in the year 2009 the demand will become 1 billion US dollar.  Algae, both micro- and macro- algae are potential producer of carotenoids.  Indonesia which has a large marine area should become a big carotenoid producer. In this study, identification of carotenoids on seaweeds from two locations in Bali was conducted as a preliminary study.  Preliminary screening of 23 seaweed species showed that the main pigment colours separated were green and yellow.  Based on the Rf value, the main carotenoids identified are b-carotene, pheophytin, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b.
CA2+ INTRASELULER TERLIBAT DALAM MEKANISME PEMBUKAAN STOMATA AKIBAT PENGARUH AUXIN PHARMAWATI, MADE; DEFIANI, MADE RIA; ARPIWI, Ni LUH
Jurnal Biologi Vol XII, No 1
Publisher : Jurnal Biologi

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Abstract

Research was done to elucidate the role of Ca2+ intracellular in stomatal movement induced by auxin. Two types of auxin (IAA and NAA) increased stomatal opening and the increase was concentration dependent. The addition of EGTA, Ruthenium red and Procaine as the modulator of Ca2+ concentration , inhibited stomatal opening induced by auxin. EGTA and procaine significantly inhibited somatal opening at 100 uM and 1 mM. Ruthenium red worked at lower concentrations which were 10 uM, 50 uM and 100 uM on LAA-induced stomatal opening, while on NAA-induced stomatal opening, Ruthenium red had an effect at 10 uM, 50 uM, 100 uM dan 1 mM. It is suggested that Ca2+ involves in stomatal opening induced by LAA and NAA as signaling agent.
PEMBERIAN KOLKHISIN DENGAN LAMA PERENDAMAN BERBEDA PADA INDUKSI POLIPLOIDI TANAMAN PACAR AIR (IMPATIENS BALSAMINA L.) Wiendra, Ni Made Sastriyani; Pharmawati, Made; Astiti, Ni Putu Adriani
Jurnal Biologi Vol XV, No 1
Publisher : Jurnal Biologi

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Abstract

The purpose of this research was to induce polyploidy on Impatiens balsamina L. Seedlings of I. balsamina was immersed in 0,01% colchicines solution for 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Chromosome of I. balsamina was visualized using squash method stained with aceto-orcein. Morphological observations were conducted on plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and width, number of branches flowering time and size of flower. The result revealed that 0,01% solution of colchicine was able to induce polyploidy on I. balsamina. Obsevation on morphological characteristic showed that colchicine treatment increased plant height, stem circumference, leaf length and number of branches. Colchicine treatment induced earlier flowering time, but flower size was unaffected. Twelve chromosomes (2n = 2x = 12) were observed in the diploid seedlings while 25 chromosomes were observed in the tetraploid (2n = 4x = 24 seedlings.
IDENTIFIKASI MAKROZOOBENTHOS DI TUKAD BAUSAN, DESA PERERENAN, KABUPATEN BADUNG, BALI Suartin, Ni Made; Sudatri, Ni Wayan; Pharmawati, Made; Raka Dalem, A. A. G.
Ecotrophic, Journal of Environmental Science Vol 5, No 1
Publisher : Udayana University

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A macrozoobenthos study was conducted at Bausan River, Pererenan village, Badung regency, Bali between September and December, 2006. There were six sampling stations were determined purposively. At each station, five unit of square plots of 40 cm x 40 (in maximum solum depth) samples were taken. The result showed that there were seventeen species of macrozoobenthos were found. There was no protected species found in this study. The macrozoobenthos had 2,28 level of index diversity. This indicated that the ecosystem at this area was in a stable condition with a medium level of macrozoobenthos diversity.
MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L.) AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION Saraswati, I Gusti Agung Eka; Pharmawati, Made; Junitha, I Ketut
Jurnal Biologi Vol XVI, No 1
Publisher : Jurnal Biologi

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Abstract

Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3) was used as mutagen in chili pepper in order to obtain genetic variations that are useful in  increasing its  production.  The research was designed in  randomized  block  design. The observations were made on the response of plant morphology at generative stage, including plant height, number of branch, number of leaf, leaf length and leaf width.  The results showed that sodium azide increased plant height, branch number, leaf number and leaf length.  Sodium azide at concentrations of 2 mM and 5 mM were most effective in increasing plant height, number of leaves and number of branches. Keywords: Capsicum frutescens L., morphology, mutation, sodium azide
KEANEKARAGAMAN ANGGREK EPIFIT DI KAWASAN TAMAN WISATA ALAM DANAU BUYAN-TAMBLINGAN Pradnya Paramitha, I Gusti Ayu Agung; Ardhana, I Gede Putu; Pharmawati, Made
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 1 No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

Orchids are often found growing naturally in the tropical rain forest. Destruction of tropical rain forests can reduce the germplasms of natural orchids. One of the tropical rain forest areas which is often visited by tourists in Bali is Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park. Research conducted from December 2011 until April 2012. The results showed that in the Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park there are 30 species of epiphyte orchids. The epiphyte orchids which have the highest individual number is Appendicula elegans Rchb. f with total individual number was 198 individuals/ha. The Shannon-Wienner diversity index value of epiphyte orchid in Buyan-Tamblingan Nature Tourism Park is 1,1561.
PENGARUH MUTAGEN KIMIA SODIUM AZIDA TERHADAP MORFOLOGI TANAMAN CABAI BESAR (Capsicum annuum L.) Yunita Sari, Ni Kadek; Pharmawati, Made; Junitha, I Ketut
Metamorfosa: Journal of Biological Sciences Vol 1 No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Prodi Magister Ilmu Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to examine the effects of sodium azide at concentration of 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM, 4 mM and 5 mM on the morphological characters of Capsicum annuum L. The method used for the observation of morphological characters was direct observation by measuring plant height, leaf length and width as well as counting the number of leaves. The results showed that effect of sodium azide at 3 mM caused an increase in plant height, while concentration of 1 mM, 2 mM, 4 mM dan 5 mM caused a decrease in plant height. Similar trends were found for number of leaf. Leaf length and width tended to increase in sodium azide treatments.
Aksi Ethyl Methane Sulphonate terhadap Munculnya Bibit dan Pertumbuhan Cabai Rawit(Capsicum frutescens L.) (Ethyl Methane Sulphonate Action on Seed Emergence and Growth of (Capsicum frutecens L.)) Rustini, Ni Kadek Dewi; Pharmawati, Made
JURNAL BIOS LOGOS Vol 4, No 1 (2014): JURNAL BIOSLOGOS
Publisher : Universitas Sam Ratulangi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.35799/jbl.4.1.2014.4836

Abstract

Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati pengaruh lama perendaman biji dengan 1% EMS terhadap persentase munculnya bibit dan karakter pertumbuhan tanaman cabai rawit pada umur 4 minggu setelah tanam (MST). Benih cabai rawit direndam dalam air selama 6 jam, selanjutnya direndam 1% EMS dalam buffer fosfat pH 7, selama 6 jam, 9 jam dan 12 jam. Tiap biji disemai dalam bumbungan kertas. Munculnya bibit diamati setiap hari. Setelah berumur 3 minggu, bibit dipindahkan ke bedengan. Hasil menunjukkan perlakuan 1% EMS memperlambat munculnya bibit. Pada 10 hari setelah semai (HSS) munculnya bibit pada perlakuan dapat mencapai 100%. Perlakuan 1% EMS berpengaruh nyata terhadap tinggi tanaman dan jumlah daun, sedangkan panjang, dan lebar daun dengan perendaman 6 jam tidak berbeda dengan kontrol, namun berbeda dengan perendaman 9 jam dan 12 jam. Kata kunci : EMS, bibit, pertumbuhan, Capsicum frustescens L.   Abstract This research aimed to evaluate the influence of different exposure durations of 1% EMS on seedling emergence and growth characters of C, fustescent at 4 week after planting (WAT). Seeds were soaked in water for 6 hours, then soaked in 1% EMS in phosphate buffer pH 7, for 6 hours, 9 hours and 12 hours. Each seed was then sowed in a single paper tube. Seedling emergence was observed every day. At 3 weeks after sowing, seedlings were transferred to field. Results showed that soaking seeds in 1% EMS inhibited seedling emergence. At 10 days after sowing, the percentages of seedling emergence at control and treated seed were 100%. Treatments of 1% EMS have a significant effect on plant height, and the number of leaf, while length, and width of leaf with 6 hour exposure were not different with control, but differ from exposure of 9 hours and 12 hours. Keywords: EMS, seed emergence, growth, Capsicum frutescens L.