Wongchan Petpichetchian
Assistance Professor, Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand

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Does Foot Massage Relieve Acute Postoperative Pain? A Literature Review

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 3, No 1 (2013): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 3 NO. 1 YEAR 2013
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the current state of knowledge regarding foot massageto determine if foot massage has an effect on relieving acute postoperative pain.Method: The following questions were used to guide this review: How does pain occur?What is the pain management modalities used in relieving acute postoperative pain? Does footmassage relieve acute postoperative pain? A comprehensive systematic search of publishedliterature and journal articles from Science Direct, CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest and fromrelevant textbooks was conducted. The universal case entry website, Google-scholar was usedas well. The following keywords were used: foot massage, pain management, andpostoperative pain. Eight studies on foot massage and more than thirty related articles werereviewed.Result: Postoperative pain is caused by tissue damage that induces release of chemicalmediators from the surgical wound. The four processes of pain are transduction, transmission,perception and modulation. Pain medication is the goal standard for acute postoperative painrelief. In addition, foot massage is a modality that can be used in relieving acute postoperativepain. Massage stimulates large nerve fibers and dermatome layers which contain tactile andpressure receptors. The receptors subsequently transmit the nerve impulse to the centralnervous system. The gate control system in the dorsal horn is activated through the inhibitoryinterneuron, thus closing the gate. Subsequently, the brain does not receive the pain message.Eight reviewed studies demonstrated that foot massage relieves acute postoperative pain.However, there were some methodological limitations of these studies.Conclusion: It is recommended to examine the effect of foot massage on acute postoperativepain with high homogenous samples using various duration of massage and range of time forpain measurement at different settings.Key words: foot massage, pain management and postoperative pain.

Development of Foot Massage Program on Nausea and Vomiting for Cancer Patients: A Literature Review

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 2, No 1 (2012): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 2 NO. 1 YEAR 2012
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Objective: This study aims to develop a foot massage program to support care activity in reducing nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Two phases, a literature review and the development of a foot massage program were conducted. The literature review was to analyze state of the art massage techniques by reviewing problems, related theories and supporting evidence. Method: Eight published studies in the English language were reviewed. A massage can be performed for different durations, from 10 minutes up to 60 minutes for three to six weeks and can be applied on various body areas. We found that the soft stroke/effleurage seems to be the best method and is most suitable for patients with cancer. It is also evident that foot massaging can be applied as a modality to reduce nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Result: We developed a foot massage program specifically for patients with cancer. The foot massage program comprised of three sessions, including 1) education session, 2) preparation session, and 3) foot massage session. In the education session, patients obtain brief information about the definition of a foot massage, the benefits and contraindication of foot massaging. During the preparation phase, foot soaking and warming up are performed. Subsequently, the foot massage is applied and should last for 30 minutes. Further research is recommended to test the effectiveness of the proposed foot massage program for nausea and vomiting in cancer patients across countries including Indonesia. Key Words: Foot massage program, chemotherapy, nausea and vomiting

Nausea, Vomiting and Retching of Patients with Cervical Cancer undergoing Chemotherapy in Bali, Indonesia

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 2, No 2 (2012): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 2 NO. 2 YEAR 2012
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Background: Nausea, vomiting and retching (NVR) was the frequently reported and troublesome adverse effect for patients receiving chemotherapy. Purpose: This study is a part of a larger study which aims to describe the NVR symptom experience in cervical cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in Bali, Indonesia, and examine relationships with individuals risk factors. Method: Sixty-six patients with stage II and III cervical cancer receiving Paxus (Paclitaxel)-Cisplatin at the second or the third cycle were enrolled. NVR was measured by the Index of Nausea, Vomiting and Retching (INVR) at the second day of their chemotherapy. This current study included only patients with age ranged between 32 to 65 years (M = 47.15, SD = 9.64, min-max age 35 – 65 years). Result: The result showed that the NVR score was at a moderate level. Younger subjects (age 32-50 years old) reported significantly higher NVR scores than that of older subjects (age 51-65 years old) (t = 2.76, p = .007). The subjects with higher anxiety scores reported significantly higher NVR scores than those with lower anxiety scores (t = -2.41, p = .019). Subjects who had experience in motion sickness had significantly higher NVR scores (M = 12.69, SD = 2.60) than those who did not (M = 9.23, SD = 2.86) and the difference was statistically significant (t = 4.98, p <.01). Meanwhile, no significant difference was found between subjects who reported their expectation to have nausea and those who did not (t = 0.08, p = .94). Conclusion: The findings provide valuable information regarding NVR and the individual risk factors among patients with cervical cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Nurses should assess the anxiety level and a history of motion sickness of patients planned for chemotherapy and offer preventive interventions to prevent and control NVR occurrence and its distress.Keywords: cervical cancer, chemotherapy, nausea, vomiting and retching

Acute Postoperative Pain of Indonesian Patients after Abdominal Surgery

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 2, No 2 (2012): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 2 NO. 2 YEAR 2012
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Background: Pain is the most common problem found in postoperative patients.Purpose: The study aimed to describe pain intensity and pain distress at the first 24-48 hours experienced by the patients after abdominal surgery.Method: The study employed a descriptive research design. The samples consisted of 40 adult patients older than 18 years who underwent major abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were admitted at Doctor Kariadi Hospital Semarang, Central Java Province Indonesia during November 2011 to February 2012. A Visual Numeric Rating Scale was used to measure the pain intensity scores and the pain distress scores at the 5th hour after subjects received 30 mg of Ketorolac injection intravenously, a major analgesic drug being used at the studied hospital. Minimum-maximum scores, mean, standard deviation, median and interquartile range were used to describe pain intensity and pain distress.Result: The findings revealed that on average, postoperative patients had experienced moderate to severe pain, both in their report of pain intensity and pain distress as evidenced by the range of scores from 4 to 9 out of 10 and median score of 5 and 6 (IQR = 2), respectively. It indicated that postoperative pain was common symptom found in patients after abdominal surgery.Keywords: pain intensity, pain distress, abdominal surgery.

The Effect of A Self-Management Support Program on The Achievement of Goals in Diabetic Foot Care Behaviors in Indonesian Diabetic Patients

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 1, No 2 (2011): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 1 NO. 2 YEAR 2011
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Introduction: Diabetic foot care behaviors (DFCB) are a fundamental component of the prevention of diabetic foot complications. This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the effect of a self-management support program on the achievement of DFCB goals in Indonesian diabetic patients.Method: Thirty-five subjects were recruited from the diabetic unit of a district hospital in West Java, Indonesia. The subjects received a five-week diabetic foot care self-management (SM) support program. This program consisted of three sequential phases based on the self-management method proposed by Kanfer and Gaelick-Buys (1991): self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement. The strategies used in this program consisted of individual foot care education, goal setting and action planning, and brief weekly counseling and follow-ups. The goals achieved from the second to the fourth weeks were evaluated weekly by phone call follow-ups with a face-to-face interview evaluation in the fifth week. The level of goal achievement was determined by counting the number of successfully implemented actions based on the subject’s action plans. The actual goal achievement was then classified into three levels: goal completely achieved, goal partially achieved and no behavioral change (no action) at all. Results Most of the subjects (94.3%) were able to completely achieve their first week goals whereas only approximately two-thirds of the subjects were able to completely achieve their goals in the second to the fourth weeks. Throughout the program, less than half of the subjects (42.9%) completely achieved all four weekly goals although only one subject (2.9%) was unable to achieve any of the weekly goals. The most improved DFCB component in each of the first to fourth weeks was foot hygiene, footwear, toenail care and a combination of foot hygiene and footwear, respectively.  Conclusion: This SM support program effectively improved the Indonesian diabetic patients’ foot care behaviors. Therefore, nurses can apply this program in practice in enhancing DFCB in order to prevent diabetic foot ulceration.

Perceived Ability to Practice in Disaster Management among Public Health Nurses in Aceh, Indonesia

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 1, No 2 (2011): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 1 NO. 2 YEAR 2011
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Background: The increasing number of disaster events around the world has challenged every country to develop better disaster-management strategies. As a part of healthcare system, public health nurses (PHNs) should be involved in caring for people in disasters. Currently, there is no known study whether PHNs of Aceh, Indonesia, working with community people who are at high risk of confronting natural disasters, are able to perform their roles and functions regarding disaster management. Methods: 252 PHNs from twenty-seven public health centers in Aceh were studied during November to December 2010 to evaluate their perceived ability to practice regarding disaster management at each disaster phase: preparedness, response, and recovery phase. The perceived ability to practice was assessed by using the 30-statement, five-point Likert-scale (0-4) of Public Health Nurses’ Perceived Ability to Practice Regarding Disaster Management Questionnaire (PHNPP-DMQ). The composite scores of each phase and the total score were calculated and transformed to percentage for ease of presentation across disaster phases.Results: Overall, the PHNs’ perceived ability to practice regarding disaster management in Aceh was at a moderate level (M=74.57%, SD=13.27). The highest mean score was for the recovery phase (M=78%), and the lowest mean score was in the preparedness phase (66.15%).Conclusion: The finding of this study evokes challenges to the local government of Aceh province to further prepare PHNs to increase their ability in disaster management.Keywords: Disaster management, practice, public health nurses

Review: Public Health Nurses’ Roles and Competencies in Disaster Management

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 1, No 1 (2011): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 1 NO. 1 YEAR 2011
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Background: Currently, the incidence of disasters the biggest catastrophes that threaten people’s livelihoods, health, and even lives has been increasing around the world. This situation provides the challenge for health care professionals, particularly public health nurses (PHNs), to be actively involved in disaster management.Purpose: The purposes of this study are to review PHNs’ roles and competencies in disaster management in facing with natural disaster. Method: A relevant literature searched from databases: PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane and ProQuest Medical Library, and Science Direct were conducted. Key words used to retrieve included role and competency of PHNs or community nurses in disaster, disaster management, and disaster nursing. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication starting from 2000. Results: Twenty-eight related studies were intensively reviewed. Several roles for PHNs in disaster management were identified. PHNs hold major roles in providing health management and assistance throughout the community and public healthcare system during all disaster phases including preparedness, response, and recovery phase. Moreover, determining PHNs’ involvement in disaster management requires certain competencies to assure their contribution in disaster events. In addition, training and education, and the experience with disaster event can influence the PHNs’ competency in responding to disaster occurrences. Conclusion: Literatures showed that PHNs play roles as one of the valuable resources and are actively involved in disaster management. PHNs’ roles and competencies in disaster management is necessary because they are well-recognized and trusted in the community and frequently work closely with the disadvantaged and vulnerable group who often affected by disasters.Key words: disaster management, public health nurses, roles, competency.

Case Study: Evidence-Based Interventions Enhancing Diabetic Foot Care Behaviors among Hospitalized DM Patients

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 1, No 1 (2011): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 1 NO. 1 YEAR 2011
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Background: Improving diabetic patients’ foot care behaviors is one of the most effective strategies in minimizing diabetic foot ulceration and its further negative impacts, either in diabetic hospitalized patients or outpatients.Purpose: To describe foot care knowledge and behaviors among hospitalized diabetic patients, to apply selected foot care knowledge and behaviors improvement evidence, and to evaluate its effectiveness.Method: Four diabetic patients who were under our care for at least three days and could communicate in Thai language were selected from a surgical ward in a university hospital. The authors applied educational program based on patients’ learning needs, provided diabetic foot care leaflet, and assisted patients to set their goal and action plans. In the third day of treatment, we evaluated patients’ foot care knowledge and their goal and action plan statements in improving foot care behaviors.Result: Based on the data collected among four hospitalized diabetic patients, it was shown that all patients needed foot care behaviors improvement and the educational program improved hospitalized patients’ foot care knowledge and their perceived foot care behaviors. The educational program that combined with goal setting and action plans method was easy, safe, and seemed feasibly applicable for diabetic hospitalized patients.Conclusion: The results of this study provide valuable information for improvement of hospitalized diabetic patients’ foot care knowledge and behaviors. The authors recommend nurses to use this evidence-based practice to contribute in improving the quality of diabetic care.Keywords: Intervention, diabetic foot care, hospitalized diabetic patients

Spirituality Intervention and Outcomes: Corner stone of Holistic Nursing Practice

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 1, No 1 (2011): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 1 NO. 1 YEAR 2011
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Background: Holistic nursing results in healing the whole person as human being that has interconnectedness of body mind social cultural spiritual aspect.Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of Islamic spirituality interventions on health outcomes in nursing.Method: Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published since 1994 to 2010 were included.Results: Spirituality intervention mainly composes of prayer, recitation of the holy Qur’an, remembrance of Allah, fasting, charity, prophets’ methods, and modified Islamic methods. Thirteen studies found that various outcomes have been highlighted when applied in several areas of nursing, such as stimulating baby’s cognitive ability in maternal nursing, promoting health during eating halal food, fasting, abstinence of alcohol and tobacco consumption, performing regular exercise, reducing anxiety, and pain in medical-surgical nursing. In mental health nursing, six studies explored effects of prayer and religious psychotherapy to enhance happiness and physical health and alleviate anxiety, and depression. Three studies reported Islamic cognitive therapy to alleviate the auditory hallucination, bereavement, and depression. In critical care nursing, three studies employed reciting the holy Qur’an and talqin in end of life care.Conclusion: Although the literature is limited in the amount and quality of spirituality interventions, some evidences have shown as integrative energy in nursing practice to promote health and minimize some symptoms. Spirituality interventions should be performed to acknowledge the high priority in holistic nursing and support interventions.Keywords: spirituality intervention, holistic nursing, Islam

CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

Nurse Media Journal of Nursing Vol 1, No 2 (2011): NURSE MEDIA JOURNAL OF NURSING VOL. 1 NO. 2 YEAR 2011
Publisher : School of Nursing, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency