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GROUNDWATER IN THE DISTRICT OF WAJO IS STORED IN SIWA-POMPANUA BASIN COVERING AN AREA OF 93,900 HA AND DISCHARGE OF AROUND 379 MILLIONS M3/YR.  THE GROUNDWATER IS UTILIZED TO IRRIGATE RAIN-FED RICE FIELDS PRIVATELY BY FARMERS BY MEANS OF WELLS.  THE DISTANCE BETWEEN WELLS AND PUMPING RATE ARE DESIGNED WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AQUIFER AND ADEQUATE IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT SO THAT DAMAGE IN ENVIRONMENT MIGHT OCCUR AND CONSEQUENTLY FARMING MIGHT NOT BE SUSTAINABLE.  A RESEARCH ., Suhardi; Pawitan, Hidayat; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Waspodo, Roh Santoso B.
Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol. 31 No. 3 (2008): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Groundwater in the District of Wajo is stored in Siwa-Pompanua basin covering an area of 93,900 ha and discharge of around 379 millions m3/yr.  The groundwater is utilized to irrigate rain-fed rice fields privately by farmers by means of wells.  The distance between wells and pumping rate are designed without considering the characteristics of the aquifer and adequate irrigation management so that damage in environment might occur and consequently farming might not be sustainable.  A research was conducted with the objectives to study the aquifer characteristics and to develop environmentally friendly groundwater management.  Mathematical models were developed by combining equations of conservation of fluid mass (continuity equations) and Darcy?s law, whereas models of groundwater management were based on crop water requirement and aquifer characteristics.  Test of the model resulted in coefficient of determination equal to 0.848 for the prediction of the drawdown groundwater head.  The result of the model optimization indicated the optimum discharge of each of the wells was different.  One of the wells had a the biggest discharge of 1,268.33 m3/day irrigating 27.58 ha and one other  of the wells had a the smallest discharge of 279.54 m3/day irrigating 6.08 ha of paddy fields based on the irrigation water requirement of 45.99 m3/ha.day.  The reasonable minimum area (ha) determined with equation of power function in x, where x are irrigated hours per season.  For one of planting season/yr, the coefficients of the power (?) equal to 0.0123 and the power functions (?) equal to 0.7247, while for two of planting season/yr with ? equal to 0.0047 and ? equal to 0.8413.   Key words: sustainable groundwater utilization, paddy field irrigation, groundwater management model
MODEL SIMULASI TRANSFER HUJAN-ALIRAN PERMUKAAN (MODEL H2U) UNTUK PENDUGAAN DEBIT DAERAH ALIRAN SUNGAISIMULATION MODEL OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF TRANSFER/H2U MODEL FOR CALCULATE DISCHARGE OF WATERSHED Heryani, Nani; Pawitan, Hidayat; Irianto, Gatot
Agromet Vol. 16 No. 1 & 2 (2002): December 2002
Publisher : PERHIMPI (Indonesian Association of Agricultural Meteorology)

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THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS RESEARCH IS TO DEVELOP REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES WITH HYDROLOGICAL APPROACH FOR CRITICAL LAND IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING. THIS RESEARCH WAS DONE BY WEIGHTING METHOD USING THREE VARIABLES, I.E., SLOPE, RUNOFF CURVE NUMBER AND PERCENT LAND COVER DERIVED FROM DIGITAL AND VISUAL ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES. CRITICAL LAND IDENTIFICATION WAS KNOWN BY INTEGRATING RUNOFF CURVE NUMBER RESULTED FROM COMBINATION OF LAND USE AND HIDROLOGICAL SOIL GROUP, SLOPE AND PERCENT LAND COVER. LA Parsa, I Made; Wiradisastra, Uup S.; Pawitan, Hidayat
Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika Vol. 9 No. 2 (2003)
Publisher : Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB University)

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The objective of this research is to develop remote sensing and GIS techniques with hydrological approach for critical land identification and mapping. This research was done by weighting method using three variables, i.e., slope, runoff curve number and percent land cover derived from digital and visual analysis techniques. Critical land identification was known by integrating Runoff Curve Number resulted from combination of land use and Hidrological Soil Group, Slope and Percent Land Cover. Land use and Percent Land Cover information were derived from Landsat data, while Hidrological Soil Group results were from 1:50000 soil type map, and slope was from 1;25000 scale of topographic map. Critical land modelling was done using three parameters, slope, runoff Curve Number and percent land cover. This research examined thirteen a, b and c combinations. Mapping accuracy of the model was evaluated using erosion hazard based on USLE formula: A=RKLSCP. The study shows that remote sensing data can be used to produce land use/land cover for curve number prediction and land cover percent as critical land identicication and mapping variables, having accuracy of 62, 59 percent.  
MODEL PREDIKSI TIGGI MUKA AIR SUNGAI KALI GARANG SEMARANG DENGAN JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN Windarto, Joko; Pawitan, Hidayat; Suripin, Suripin; J.P., M. Januar
TEKNIK Volume 29, Nomor 3, Tahun 2008
Publisher : Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro

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One of the big rivers flowing in center of Semarang city is Garang river with watershed area about 220km2 and having characteristic such as big flood discharge and flash flood. Where flash flood on January25th 1990, caused more than 45 people died and goods losses until 8.5 billion rupiahs. One of some modelsto pedict water level is used black box model. Artificial Neural Network one’s of the black bock model . Inthis research, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with back propagation method is used to predict waterlevel in Garang river where as input are rainfall in upstream of Garang river during two days, while asoutput is water level in downstream of Garang river for two hour later. Result of optimum predicting haveMSE 0.0037 and average of error 1.18 %.
TANGGAP FISIOLOGIS TANAMAN JAGUNG DAN KACANG TANAH DALAM SISTEM TUMPANGSARI DI LAHAN BERIKLIM KERINGTHE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MAIZE PEANUT - INTERCROPPING SYSTEM IN TROPICAL SEMI-ARID DRYLAND Sabaruddin, Laode; Koesmaryono, Yonny; Pawitan, Hidayat; Djoefrie, H.M.H Bintoro
Agromet Vol. 17 No. 1 & 2 (2003): June 2003
Publisher : PERHIMPI (Indonesian Association of Agricultural Meteorology)

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LONG TERM HYDROLOGIC BALANCE OF THE CITARUM BASIN AND JAVA ISLANDKESEIMBANGAN HIDROLOGI JANGKA PANJANG DAS CITARUM DAN PULAU JAWA Pawitan, Hidayat
Agromet Vol. 16 No. 1 & 2 (2002): December 2002
Publisher : PERHIMPI (Indonesian Association of Agricultural Meteorology)

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PEMODELAN SISTEM DINAMIK PENILAIAN KESESUAIAN AGROKLIMAT BERDASAR HUBUNGAN RADIASI DAN CURAH HUJAN DENGAN FASE PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN KELAPA SAWITDYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING OF AGROCLIMATE LAND SUITABILITY BASE ON RELATIONSHIP OF RADIATION AND ... Sibuea, Lukman H.; Pawitan, Hidayat; Baharsyah, Yustika S.; Koesmaryono, Yonny; Karama, Syarifuddin; Dahuri, Rokhmin
Agromet Vol. 17 No. 1 & 2 (2003): June 2003
Publisher : PERHIMPI (Indonesian Association of Agricultural Meteorology)

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Watershed Modeling with ArcSWAT and SUFI2 In Cisadane Catchment Area: Calibration and Validation of River Flow Prediction Ridwansyah, Iwan; Pawitan, Hidayat; Sinukaban, Naik; Hidayat, Yayat
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 6, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

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Increasing of natural resources utilization as a result of population growth and economic development has caused severe damage on the watershed. The impacts of natural disasters such as floods, landslides and droughts become more frequent. Cisadane Catchment Area is one of 108 priority watershed in Indonesia. SWAT is currently applied world wide and considered as a versatile model that can be used to integrate multiple environmental processes, which support more effective watershed management and the development of better informed policy decision. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of SWAT model for modeling mountainous catchments, focusing on Cisadane catchment Area in west Java Province, Indonesia. The SWAT model simulation was done for the periods of 2005 – 2010 while it used landuse information in 2009. Methods of Sequential Uncertainty Fitting ver. 2 (SUFI2) and combine with manual calibration were used in this study to calibrate a rainfall-runoff. The Calibration is done on 2007 and the validation on 2009, the R2 and Nash Sutchliffe Efficiency (NSE) of the calibration were 0.71 and 0.72 respectively and the validation are 0.708 and 0.7 respectively. The monthly average of surface runoff and total water yield from the simulation were 27.7 mm and 2718.4 mm respectively. This study showed SWAT model can be a potential monitoring tool especially for watersheds in Cisadane Catchment Area or in the tropical regions. The model can be used for another purpose, especially in watershed management.
Pengembangan Metode Prediksi Produksi Air DAS untuk Sungai-sungai Utama di Aceh Husnan, Husnan; Pawitan, Hidayat; Irianto, Gatot; Laksono, Kukuh Murti; Basri, Hairul
Jurnal Agrista Vol 12, No 3 (2008): Volume 12 Nomor 3 Desember 2008
Publisher : Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

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Developing Prediction Method of Watershed for Main Rivers in AcehABSTRACT. The conversion of rural land to urban land usually increases erosion, discharge and volume of storm runoff in watershed. It also causes other problem that effect soil and water. An urban or urbanizing watershed is one in which impervious surface cover or will soon cover a considerable area. Impervious surface includes roads, side walk, parking lots and building. Natural flow paths in the watershed may be replaced or supplemented by paved gutters, storm sewers or other elements of artificial drainage. Hydrologic studies to determine runoff and peak discharge should ideally be base on long-term stationary stream flow records for the area, such records are seldom available for small drainage areas. Even were they are available, accurate statistical analysis of them is usually impossible because of the conversion of land to urban uses during period of record. It therefore is necessary to estimate peak discharge with hydrologic models based on measurable watershed characteristics. Only through understanding of these characteristic and experience in using these models can be make sound judgments on how to alter model parameter to reflect changing watershed conditions.
AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS FOR ASSESSING AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT IN UPPER BRANTAS WATERSHED, INDONESIA Shofiyati, Rizatus; Honda, Kiyoshi; Pawitan, Hidayat
Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science Vol 12, No 2 (2011): October 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development - MOA

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In Indonesia, drought disasters have been reoccurring more frequently in recent years. The 1997-1998 El Nino had caused the worst drought to Indonesia in the last 50 years and disrupted rice production. Remote sensing (RS) and geographic informa-tion system (GIS) provide good capability to achieve spatially distributed information over wide area coverage and multi-temporal data to give sufficient information to anticipate those situations. The study aimed to develop a method using GIS combined with satellite data for monitoring and assessing agri-cultural drought in Brantas Watershed, Indonesia. The drought factors were determined based on expert knowledge analysis. Risk assessment method was developed using weighting which is determined based on significant factors of drought, i.e. rainfall pattern, irrigation status, ground water capacity, soil drainage, and land cover. Satellite data were used to analyze the characteristics of temporal variations of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) against drought factors. Weighting scores were determined by analyzing NDVI character using changes in NDVI and normal line diagram of each factor. The accuracy of drought risk map was evaluated by comparing drought risk level and NDVI value. The results indicated that expert knowledge analysis of the drought factors showed significant influence on NDVI value. Drought risk and drought status showed a high positive correlation with R2 = 0.85 for NOAA AVHRR, meaning that there is a significant correlation between the two (r = 0.92). The results of this study can be used to determine spatially location of drought-prone areas based on bio-physical factor causes. Therefore, it can be make recom-mendation for prevention of agricultural drought in the future.