SAHAT M. PASARIBU
Indonesian Center for Agricultural Socio Economic and Policy Studies

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MEMAHAMI PENYEBAB KEBAKARAN HUTAN DAN LAHAN SERTA UPAYA PENANGGULANGANNYA: KASUS DI PROVINSI KALIMANTAN BARAT

SOCA (SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF AGRICULTURRE AND AGRIBUSINESS) Vol. 8, No. 1 Februari 2008
Publisher : Program Studi Agribisnis, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Udayana Jalan PB.Sudirman Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Telp: (0361) 223544 Email: soca@unud.ac.id

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Abstract

Land and forest fire have grabbed much concern and been considered as national issue. Theevent occurs repeatedly year by year, specifically in Sumatra and Kalimantan islands.Government institutions and local community, including farmers and estate enterprises have avery close linkage in such disaster. The smoke produced by the fire has been transformed intoa widespread of thick cloud and immediately affects health conditions of the community. Thesmoke also directly interfere river, land, and air transport systems, thus influencing basicsocio-economic life of human being. This paper is aimed at understanding about how forestfire occurs and its effect on agricultural sector. With rapid rural appraisal method, this papereventually comes to main results and findings as follows: (a) elaboration of five identifiedtypologies of land and forest fire, (b) analysis of direct and indirect impacts of the fire onagricultural sector, (c) identification of who and why land and forest fire occur, and (d)recommendation of programs to persuasively eliminate land and forest fire. Many partieshave its own share and proportion to contribute to land and forest fire. Imbalanced-natureoccurs and causes specific disaster with environment degradation. People have manydifficulties to recover from such situation. The successful to get rid of land and forest fire isheavily depending on how alternative applied technologies can easily be adopted and lawenforcement can widely be implemented.

STRATEGI PERCEPATAN TRANSFORMASI KELEMBAGAAN GAPOKTAN DAN LEMBAGA KEUANGAN MIKRO AGRIBISNIS DALAM MEMPERKUAT EKONOMI DI PERDESAAN

Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Vol 10, No 1 (2013): Vol. 10 No. 1, Maret 2013
Publisher : Graduate Program of Management and Business Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThe objective of this paper was to formulate institutional transformation strategies for rural economic institutions gapoktan and LKM-A (Micro Finance Institution-Agribusiness) in order to support agribusiness development in the rural areas. The method used is the institutional case study approach on gapoktan and LKM-A in Bojonegoro and Lumajang regencies. The performance of gapoktan and LKM-A’s lending and saving businesses in Bojonegoro and Lumajang regencies indicates a moderate level but open to opportunity on positive and higher trend if there are efforts to transform and improve toward progressive institutions. The performance of gapoktan and LKM-A in creating and assisting businesses in Bojonegoro and Lumajang was indicated at mid-level, but the chance to improve the performance were there if there is an attempt to transform and improve the institutions. Better gapoktan and LKM-A performance could be characterized by the support of complete organizational structure of these institutions along with strong role of each part enabling effective coordination system, the well development of the direct cash support of PUAP, and with the diversity of productive economic activities. The strategies to transform gapoktan and LKM-A institutions could be implemented through: 1) the addition of new structures following the integrated agribusiness system with the reliable support from LKM-A; 2) the focused expansion and/or the strengthening of clear economic objectives to be achieved; 3) the development of horizontal solid bond on economic activities; 4) the addition of new and familiar economic activities to the existing ones. The gapoktan institution is projected to have legal support as farmers-owned business entity, while the LKM-A could be transformed into cooperative institutions, such as lending and saving cooperative or various businesses cooperatives. Keywords: microfinance, gapoktan, LKM-A, rural areas, transformABSTRAKTujuan makalah ini adalah merumuskan strategi transformasi kelembagaan gapoktan dan Lembaga Keuangan Mikro-Agribisnis (LKM-A) mendukung pengembangan agribsinis di perdesaan.  Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan pendekatan studi kasus melalui kajian kelembagaan gapoktan dan LKMA di Kabupaten Bojonegoro dan Lumajang. Kelembagaan gapoktan dan unit usaha simpan pinjam/LKM-A di Kabupaten Bojonegoro dan Lumajang menunjukkan kinerja pada level moderat dan berpeluang untuk berkembang jika ditranformasikan ke arah kelembagaan yang lebih maju. Kinerja Gapoktan dan LKM-A dalam menciptakan dan membantu usaha-usaha di Kabupaten Bojonegoro dan Kabupaten Lumajang terindikasi pada level menengah namun ada kesempatan untuk membaik bila ada usaha untuk transformasi dan memperbaiki institusi tersebut. Kinerja kelembagaan gapoktan dan LKM-A yang baik ditunjukkan oleh terbangunnya struktur organisasi gapoktan dan LKM-A secara cukup lengkap, peran masing-masing bagian telah dimainkan dengan baik, sistem koordinasi berjalan cukup efektif, berkembangnya dana BLM PUAP, dan makin beragamnya kegiatan usaha ekonomi produktif. Strategi transformasi kelembagaan gapoktan dan LKM-A dapat dilakukan dengan: 1) penambahan struktur baru, mengikuti sistem dan usaha agribisnis terpadu yang didukung oleh kelembagaan LKM-A yang handal; 2) perluasan dan atau pendalaman tujuan yang ingin dicapai kelembagan gapoktan dan LKM-A; 3) pembentukan ikatan-ikatan horisontal secara lebih kuat; 4) penambahan dan pendalaman aktivitas ekonomi baru pada aktivitas yang telah ada. Perlu dilakukan transformasi kelembagaan gapoktan menjadi kelembagaan yang berbadan hukum dengan akta notaris seperti badan usaha milik petani.  Sementara itu, LKM-A dapat ditransformasikan menjadi koperasi simpan pinjam atau koperasi serba usaha. Kata kunci: keuangan mikro, gapoktan, LKM-A, ekonomi perdesaan, transformasi

Tingkat Pencurahan Kerja Rumah Tangga di Pedesaan: Studi Kasus di Empat Desa Kabupaten Kudus dan Klaten, Jawa Tengah

Forum penelitian Agro Ekonomi Vol 1, No 1 (1982): Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi
Publisher : Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

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Abstract

IndonesianPenelitian-penelitian ketenagakerjaan di Indonesia sebagian besar mendasarkan diri pada konsep Labor Force yang mengelompokkan angkatan kerja ke dalam kategori bekerja atau menganggur. Pendekatan tersebut tidak menggambarkan tingkat penggunaan tenaga kerja yang sebenarnya. Tulisan ini menyajikan analisa tingkat pencurahan kerja rumah tangga di pedesaan yang merupakan hasil studi kasus di Kabupaten Kudus dan Klaten Jawa Tengah. Dalam telaahan ini dinadingkan tingkat pencurahan kerja antar kelompok rumahtangga menurut luas garapan sawahnya. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa petani kecil mempunya tingkat pencurahan kerja yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan kelompok petani yang mempunyai tanah lebih luas. Namun demikian, tingkat pendapatan yang diperoleh ternyata lebih kecil.

STRATEGI PERCEPATAN TRANSFORMASI KELEMBAGAAN GAPOKTAN DAN LEMBAGA KEUANGAN MIKRO AGRIBISNIS DALAM MEMPERKUAT EKONOMI DI PERDESAAN

Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis Vol 10, No 1 (2013): Vol. 10 No. 1, Maret 2013
Publisher : School of Business, Bogor Agricultural University (SB-IPB)

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThe objective of this paper was to formulate institutional transformation strategies for rural economic institutions gapoktan and LKM-A (Micro Finance Institution-Agribusiness) in order to support agribusiness development in the rural areas. The method used is the institutional case study approach on gapoktan and LKM-A in Bojonegoro and Lumajang regencies. The performance of gapoktan and LKM-A’s lending and saving businesses in Bojonegoro and Lumajang regencies indicates a moderate level but open to opportunity on positive and higher trend if there are efforts to transform and improve toward progressive institutions. The performance of gapoktan and LKM-A in creating and assisting businesses in Bojonegoro and Lumajang was indicated at mid-level, but the chance to improve the performance were there if there is an attempt to transform and improve the institutions. Better gapoktan and LKM-A performance could be characterized by the support of complete organizational structure of these institutions along with strong role of each part enabling effective coordination system, the well development of the direct cash support of PUAP, and with the diversity of productive economic activities. The strategies to transform gapoktan and LKM-A institutions could be implemented through: 1) the addition of new structures following the integrated agribusiness system with the reliable support from LKM-A; 2) the focused expansion and/or the strengthening of clear economic objectives to be achieved; 3) the development of horizontal solid bond on economic activities; 4) the addition of new and familiar economic activities to the existing ones. The gapoktan institution is projected to have legal support as farmers-owned business entity, while the LKM-A could be transformed into cooperative institutions, such as lending and saving cooperative or various businesses cooperatives. Keywords: microfinance, gapoktan, LKM-A, rural areas, transformABSTRAKTujuan makalah ini adalah merumuskan strategi transformasi kelembagaan gapoktan dan Lembaga Keuangan Mikro-Agribisnis (LKM-A) mendukung pengembangan agribsinis di perdesaan.  Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan pendekatan studi kasus melalui kajian kelembagaan gapoktan dan LKMA di Kabupaten Bojonegoro dan Lumajang. Kelembagaan gapoktan dan unit usaha simpan pinjam/LKM-A di Kabupaten Bojonegoro dan Lumajang menunjukkan kinerja pada level moderat dan berpeluang untuk berkembang jika ditranformasikan ke arah kelembagaan yang lebih maju. Kinerja Gapoktan dan LKM-A dalam menciptakan dan membantu usaha-usaha di Kabupaten Bojonegoro dan Kabupaten Lumajang terindikasi pada level menengah namun ada kesempatan untuk membaik bila ada usaha untuk transformasi dan memperbaiki institusi tersebut. Kinerja kelembagaan gapoktan dan LKM-A yang baik ditunjukkan oleh terbangunnya struktur organisasi gapoktan dan LKM-A secara cukup lengkap, peran masing-masing bagian telah dimainkan dengan baik, sistem koordinasi berjalan cukup efektif, berkembangnya dana BLM PUAP, dan makin beragamnya kegiatan usaha ekonomi produktif. Strategi transformasi kelembagaan gapoktan dan LKM-A dapat dilakukan dengan: 1) penambahan struktur baru, mengikuti sistem dan usaha agribisnis terpadu yang didukung oleh kelembagaan LKM-A yang handal; 2) perluasan dan atau pendalaman tujuan yang ingin dicapai kelembagan gapoktan dan LKM-A; 3) pembentukan ikatan-ikatan horisontal secara lebih kuat; 4) penambahan dan pendalaman aktivitas ekonomi baru pada aktivitas yang telah ada. Perlu dilakukan transformasi kelembagaan gapoktan menjadi kelembagaan yang berbadan hukum dengan akta notaris seperti badan usaha milik petani.  Sementara itu, LKM-A dapat ditransformasikan menjadi koperasi simpan pinjam atau koperasi serba usaha. Kata kunci: keuangan mikro, gapoktan, LKM-A, ekonomi perdesaan, transformasi

Revitalizing Institutions to Enhance Climate Forecast Application in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian Vol 5, No 3 (2007): Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian
Publisher : Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

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Abstract

Climate prediction is important in the overall development.NTTProvinceis considered as the area to which climate data and information are very critical. This region needs to optimize its programs to enhance climate forecast application for better regional development. The available climate information is not adequately used for early warning information for agricultural planning and development. The climate equipment and tools are owned and maintained by several institutions with the data used for their own purposes. This paper suggests that the quality of climate information is necessary to improve, so are the climate equipment and tools. The establishment of Climate Forum is required to revitalize related institutions dealing with climate information and to integrate various related resources for development.

Developing of Small and Medium Enterprises for Poverty Alleviation in Indonesia: Lesson Learned from OTOP Program in Thailand

Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian Vol 5, No 1 (2007): Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian
Publisher : Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

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Abstract

The Government of Thailand has launched programs to help alleviate the people from poverty.  Thailandis considered as a consistent country in terms of rural development amid some experiences in political discourages.  Despite the negative impact of economic crisis, Thailandhad shown their capability to recover from such a difficult situation.  With the participation of the people, this country is currently taking their opportunities to improve domestic economy through small and medium enterprises development. OTOP (One Tambon One Product) Program is one out of many policies to support groups of people to develop local wisdom in cooperation with private sectors under the guidance of local administration to produce and to enhance local-specific high value commodities. Indigenous knowledge and inherited wisdom are explored to its fullest for modern and commercial products.  Three-way coordination policy practiced in rural development management has been improved to certain level shown by the increasing production of varied high grade commodities entering both domestic and international market. Government efforts to produce reliable database is the key point to initiate and encourage investment in rural areas.  This paper describes the experience ofThailand in rural development, specifically the success of their OTOP Program in global market and discusses the potential ofIndonesia to adopt similar program for market expansion and poverty alleviation.

Efektivitas Kebijakan Perbenihan Kentang

Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian Vol 10, No 1 (2012): Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian
Publisher : Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

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Abstract

Kebijakan sistem perbenihan kentang bertujuan untuk mendorong produksi dan peredaran benih kentang bermutu, serta mendorong petani lebih banyak mengadopsi penggunaan benih kentang bermutu. Berbagai produk hukum terkait sistem perbenihan kentang sudah dibuat. Sebagian besar peraturan yang ada ditujukan agar benih, termasuk benih kentang, diproduksi secara baik sesuai standar dan prosedur resmi. Walaupun demikian masih ada peraturan yang menghambat, misalnya pembatasan pemilikan modal asing dalam industri perbenihan yang merupakan disinsentif bagi investor asing. Dalam rangka otonomi maka pemerintah daerah diberi peran lebih besar dalam hal pengusulan varietas, impor dan ekspor benih, dan pendaftaran produsen benih. Berbagai daerah juga berupaya membuat kebijakan yang mendorong produksi benih kentang bermutu melalui pendirian pusat pengembangan benih kentang. Berbagai peraturan yang ada, lembaga-lembaga penghasil benih sumber, dan banyaknya produsen benih kentang belum bisa merangsang sebagian besar petani untuk menggunakan benih kentang bermutu. Disamping itu juga belum sepenuhnya peraturan ditegakkan, misalnya larangan peredaran benih tidak bersertifikat dan impor benih kentang yang berlangsung terus-menerus. Perlu kebijakan yang membuat industri benih kentang lebih efisien, yaitu produksi benih kentang lebih banyak, harganya lebih murah, dan tersedia sepanjang tahun bagi petani, tetapi produsen masih mendapatkan untung yang wajar.

Policy Support for Climate Risk Adaptation the Role of Microfinance

Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian Vol 8, No 1 (2010): Analisis Kebijakan Pertanian
Publisher : Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

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Abstract

Agricultural development in Indonesia is being faced by the unpredictable climate situation. With such a high risk, however, Indonesia should be able to provide sufficient food for all of the people and access to food at affordable prices. In this regard, the climate field school is important to improve farmer’s konowledge to anticipate such climate change. While adapting to the climate change, agricultural activities should be protected and reduced the risk to the lowest possible level. Agricultural insurance is introduced to protect the farms, share the risk, and favor the farmers. Rice farm insurance, in particular, is applicable to share the risk of harvest failure caused by flood, drought and pest and disease infestations. Government support to provide subsidy for premium payment is encouraged. Such subsidy would be reduced gradually and integrated in the farm cost of production. In the absence of agricultural bank in Indonesia, microfinance institution is required to provide sufficient fund to cover cost of production. For a short-term follow up action, the current Rural Agribusiness Development Program (PUAP) is expected to help farmers through its microfinance institution in funding the farm activities. The role of microfinance is part of the climate change anticipation strategy and is very significant to help farmers to envisage the effect of harvest failure risk.

Analisa Biaya dan Keuntungan Usaha Penangkapan Ikan Skala Kecil di Langkat, Sumatera Utara

Forum penelitian Agro Ekonomi Vol 5, No 1-2 (1987): Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi
Publisher : Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

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Abstract

IndonesianTulisan ini menyajikan analisa biaya dan keuntungan usaha penangkapan ikan skala kecil di kabupaten Langkat, Sumatera Utara. Analisa dilakukan berdasarkan jenis alat tangkap, dan ukuran kekuatan mesin (HP), dan musim ikan. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa alat tangkap pukat Tuamang dan Belat memberikan penerimaan bersih yang relatif besar, dan Belat merupakan alat yang paling efisien jika ditinjau dari rasio keuntungan terhadap biaya yang dikeluarkan. Makin besar ukuran mesin kapal, makin besar penerimaan bersih dari usaha penangkapan ikan, naum kapal dengan mesin berukuran 5-7 HP memberikan efisiensi penggunaan biaya yang paling besar. Seperti diharapkan, pada musim sepi ikan, penerimaan nelayan dari usaha menangkap ikan relatif kecil.

Beberapa Aspek Ekonomi Ubikayu di Propinsi Jawa Timur

Forum penelitian Agro Ekonomi Vol 1, No 1 (1982): Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi
Publisher : Pusat Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Pertanian

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Abstract

IndonesianDi Jawa Timur selama 10 tahun terakhir (1966-1977) luas tanam ubikayu dan sahamnya terhadap nilai total keluaran tanaman pangan menurun. Telaahan ini ingin mengetahui beberapa aspek ekonomi ubikayu di daerah ini, khususnya yang berkaitan dua hal penting yang menjadi penyebabnya yaitu (a) pendapatan per hektar usahatani ubikayu monokultur lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan usahatani ubikayu dengan tumpangsari dan usahatani tanaman pangan lainnya, (b) ubikayu merupakan bahan makanan pokok inferior pada golongan pendapatan tertentu, sehingga konsumsi ubikayu cenderung menurun dengan meningkatnya pendapatan. Telaahan ini menyimpulkan bahwa prospek pengembangan tanaman ubikayu di Jawa Timur tidak secerah alternatif pengembangan tanaman pangan lainnya.