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RECONSTRUCTION OF HINDU PRIEST IN THE DYNAMICS OF THE INTER TRI SADHAKA AND SARWA SADHAKA IN BALI Redana, Made; Wirawan, A.A. Bagus; Parimartha, I Gde; Anom Kumbara, A.A. Ngurah
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Volume 12, Number 2, May 2019
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24843/cs.2019.v12.i02.p.01

Abstract

The reconstruction of Hindu Pandita in Bali marked a polarization of Hindu Pandita set in the difference of the clan (Soroh) and the belief system needs to be examined more deeply. The fact shows that there are still many Hindus who think that the Hindu Pandita belong to the Brahmin clan. This gap can be a stimulant misintensity against the issue of the Kapanditan and the condition to construct "Homo hierarchicus versus Homo ecqualis are engaged in Bali in war without End". The research aims to (1) understand the foundations of the thinking of the reconstruction of the Hindu Pandita (RPH) in the dynamics between Tri-Sadhaka and the unconscious Chi Wildlife Station in the Balinese people, (2) understand the driving factors of Hindu's pandy reconstruction in Bali in The dynamics between Tri-Sadhaka ? Sarwa Sadhaka, and (3) analyzing the implications of Balinese Hindu's impartiation. This research uses a mix method with the priority of using qualitative methods, which are supported by quantitative methods with value inventory techniques. The theory used as a foundation is the theory of power relations, structuration, deconstruction. The results of this study pertain to three things; First, reconstruction of the fundamentals of Hindu Pandita Thinking in the dynamics between Trisadaka and Chi Wildlife Station Sadaka is the efforts of the description of attitudes and personalities, value-conscious competence, and integrality. In the sense of the Hindu Pandita, which is personally integral, intact, and that is considered sacred, glorious, since he was in prayer beads spiritually through the process of diksa. Secondly, the impetus factors of Hindu reconstruction in the dynamics between Tri-saddleted and a Godly Chi wildlife station in Balinese people concerning historical and geneological dimensions, increased knowledge and chastity factors as a mode of adaptation to Pandita, a social movement in the competition's status, and ideas for movement change. Thirdly, the implications in the dynamics of competition between Trisadaka and Sarwasadaka are concerned with the ideological, social and economic pragmatism and importance of power.   Keywords: the reconstruction of Hindu priest, the dynamics, tri and sarwa sadhaka, economic pragmatism and power
THE HEGEMONY IMPOSED BY THE GOVERNMENT AND THE RESISTANCE OF WETU TELU SASAKNESE ETHNIC GROUP AT BAYAN DISTRICT, NORTH LOMBOK REGENCY Wirata, I Wayan; Parimartha, I Gde; Suastika, I Made; Subagiasta, I Ketut
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 Januari 2010
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

This research is entitled ?The Hegemony Imposed by the Government and theResistance of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group at Bayan District, North Lombok?.The interaction between the government and the Wetu Telu Sasaknese community atBayan District has resulted in differences in views, ideas, and behaviors leading tofriction and refusal or opposition from the community.This research is focused on 1) how has the hegemony imposed by thegovernment upon the Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency taken place? 2) what has been done by the people of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan Distrik, North Lombok to resist to thehegemony imposed by the government upon them? and 3) what are the effects andmeanings of the hegemony imposed by the government and the resistance of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group on the multicultural community life at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency?The data needed were collected by interview, observation, and documentationand were descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively analyzed. The theories used togive answers to the problems formulated above are the theory of hegemony (Gramsci),the theory of deconstruction (Jacques Derrida), and the theory of discourse (Foucault).The results show that the hegemony imposed by the government has taken placein a number of particular aspects such as the religious aspect, socio political aspect,cultural aspect and educational aspect. Being marginalized and being not free indeveloping their tradition and culture, the people of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Groupresiding at Bayan District, North Lombok Regency, have been responsible for theirresistance to the government and the followers Islam Waktu Lima. The resistance hasbeen shown by avoiding, refusing and even opposing what is considered not inaccordance with their tradition and culture.One of the effects of the hegemony imposed by the government and theresistance made by the people of the Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing atBayan District is that there has been imbalanced communication between the followersof Islam Waktu Lima (which collaborates with the government) and the Wetu TeluSasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District leading to a social conflict. The othereffects have been that such a social conflict has disturbed the social life of the community, has led to a paradox of cultural preservation, and has narrowed the power ofthe Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District. From the meaningpoint of view, what has taken place at Bayan District has philosophical and multiculturalmeaning as well as the meanings of struggle for identity, cultural preservation anddynamism.
IMPLEMENTATION OF HINDU RELIGION EDUCATION AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES Tanu, I Ketut; Suastika, I Made; Parimartha, I Gde; Subagia, I Wayan
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 2 Juli 2009
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

Religious education was firstly implemented based on the Act of Number 4 year1950, concerning education and teaching. In one of its articles, it is stated that Indonesia is areligion-based country. The govern ment has the right and is obliged to arrange religiouseducation starting from Kindergarten to University and the time allocated for this is 2 (two)hours per week. However, an imbalance has occurred as far as Hindu Religion education isconcerned, that is, the students at particular educational institutions are not provided withHindu Religion education as intended by the Act.In Article 30 of the Act of Number 20 year 2003 concerning national educationsystem, on the other hand, it is stated that: any religious education can be carried out by thegovernment and or a community?s group belonging to a particular religion in accordancewith the applicable regulations. It is also stated that religious education is functioned toprepare the students to be able to comprehend and apply their religious teaching values and orto be experts in religions. In addition, it is also stated that religious education can be formallyand informally conducted in the forms of diniyah, pesantren, pesraman, phabaja, smnera,and the like.How Hindu Religion educa tion is implemented at Elementary School Number 17Dauh Puri and Dwijendra Elementary School Depasar cannot be separated from theinfrastructure, facilities, curri culum and teachers available, and the government?s policy.Therefore, this study is focused on 1) the existence of the components needed forimplementing Hindu Religion education, 2) the factors influencing the implementation ofHindu religion education, and 3) the meaningfulness and attempts done to implement HinduReligion education if related to the inventory of Balinese culture.This study is conducted to explain, describe, criticize, and analyze theimplementation of Hindu Religion education at Elementary School Number 17 Dauh Puri andDwijendra Elementary School Denpasar. The benefit that is intended to be achieved in thisstudy is to contribute to the inventory of Hinduism and to serve as something to be taken intoaccount when any decision related to Hindu Religion education is made.Researches on Hinduism have been conducted by some researchers. However, onlya few have been carried out related to Hindu Religion education. Further matters related toHindu Religion education provided at elementary school need to be done. The concepts madeavailable in this study are very essential. The reason is that such concepts serve as theguidelines in this study. The concepts employed are those related to the implementation ofeducation, general education, Hindu Religion education, Elementary School, and culturalstudies.The theories employed to answer the matters related to the implementation of HinduReligion education at Elementary School Number 17 Dauh Puri and Dwijendra Elementary School Depasar are: 1) the Derida?s theory of deconstruction, 2) Gramsci?s theory ofHegemony, and 3) Piaget?s constructivistic theory. In addition, a research model is alsoemployed in this study. The reason is that it serves as the researcher?s thinking flow indescribing and reporting the research.The methods employed in this study include the research planning, the researchlocation, the types and sources of data, the informant determination, the researchinstruments, the data collecting technique, the data analysis, and how the results arepresented. The purpose is to obtain objective data concerning the implementation of HinduReligion education at elementary school. The objective research method is able to describetotally and objectively how Hindu Religion education is implemented at Elementary SchoolNumber 17 Dauh Puri and Dwijendara Elementary School Denpasar.The novelty in this study is that the learning infrastructure and facilities needed tocarry out Hindu Religion education both at Elementary School Number 17 Dauh Puri andDwijendra Elementary School Depasar have not been in accordance with the minimumstandard of service , that the curriculum has not been totally oriented towards the schools?potentials and students, that the teachers have not been innovated in the learning process, andthat the government?s policy has not been made for multicultural education. In the process oflearning Hindu Religion, the schools have attempted to increase the quality of Hindu Religioneducation, to develop school-based management, and to apply multidisciplinary approach.
RELIGIOSITY IN ART INSPIRED BY SAMUAN TIGA AND TEJAKULA, BALI: UNITY IN DIVERSITY Butler, Diane Carol; Ardika, I Wayan; Sedyawati, Edi; Parimartha, I Gde
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 5, No. 2 Juli 2011
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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At the dawn of this third millennium, growing numbers of forums worldwide are focused on the issue of how to sustain the diversity of the nature and of cultures for the well-being of the Earth and humanity. Concurrently, intercultural and interreligious dialogue is deemed essential for social cohesion. This dissertation advances the contributions of religiosity in art through a qualitative reflective account and chronicle of the art and dialogues offered by people of diverse cultures and faiths from 1999 to 2004 during Sharing Art & Religiosity in the vicinity of Pura Samuan Tiga in Bedulu, Bali and Sharing Art Ocean? Mountain at  the  seacoast village of Tejakula, North  Bali;  seen in  tandem  with creative transformations that occurred through Sharing Art in and with other cultural environments of the world. Methodologically this study stemmed from and demonstrates the merits of public participatory   practice-based   art   programs   whereby   activities   are   conceived   by   and implemented with the people of a locale. Participants generated the data and interpretations via mutual cooperation, dialogue, and creative praxis. The Balinese principle of Tri Hita Karana, that aims toward a harmonious human-nature-God/Source of Life relationship in accord with the place-time-conditions, provided a holistic perspective to analyze and derive meaning from the results. Findings indicate sharing in the arts, religiosity, and nature fosters a common field such that traditional and modern cultures can study and engage in creative dialogue together. Moreover, interreligious innovations that have continued to develop since the seminal deliberation  of  reconciliation  between  Bali  Aga,  Çiwaist,  and  Buddhist  faith  groups  at Samuan Tiga circa CE 989 to 1011 and intercultural egalitarian innovations since the seventeenth century dialogue of indigenous and migrant mountain and maritime cultures in Tejakula ? constitute a model for furthering bhinneka tunggal ika unity in diversity in the world today. Recommendations outline how the findings can be used for cooperative exchanges between villages and between villages and cities of diverse regions and countries to support interculture in cultural environments. Appendices provide two video compact discs; seventy- nine  reflective  essays  by artists,  religious/spiritual leaders,  scholars,  and  educators  from across the world; and nine transcriptions of initial public dialogues.
EXPLOITATION AND PROTECTION OF TURTLES AT SERANGAN AND TANJUNG BENOA VILLAGES SOUTH BALI IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES Sudiana, I Gusti Ngurah; Ardika, I Wayan; Parimartha, I Gde; Titib, I Made
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 2 Juli 2009
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

The people at Serangan and Tanjung Benoa Villages have a habit to kill turtles for sale,consumption, custom and religion. They were all restless when their habit was hegomonized bythe government by applying the Act concerning scarce animal conservation. The people urgedthat they be provided with freedom in killing turtles, but the government still intends to stopkilling turtles at the two villages. The two different interests have resulted in a controversy overthe exploitation of turtles making the Bali community as a whole called the killers of turtles.The title of this study is the Exploitation and Protection of Turtles at Serangan andTanjung Benoa Villages, South Bali: in the Perspective of Cultural Studies. The subjectsdiscussed are how the exploitation and protection of turtles implemented, what factorsmotivating their exploitation and protection, what meaningfulness is made to appear by theirexploitation and protection.Qualitative method was used. The data needed were collected by interview,observation, documentation of the secondary data. The data were descriptively and qualitativelyanalyzed using the theory of discourse, the theory of deconstruction, the theory of hegemony andthe perspective of cultural studies.The research findings show that before the Acts Number 7 and 8 of 1999 concerningconservation of scarce animals, exploitation of turtles was part of the people?s life in South Bali.However, after 2005, such constitution has changed from being done in an extractive way tobeing done in a non-extractive way. Meaningfulness to turtles has also changed, from beingexploited to being conserved. Such a conservation has been done by releasing tukiks ( turtles?babies) to the sea. Since 2005, a change has also taken place with regard to the turtles killed forreligious and traditional ceremonies. Formerly, many big turtles were used for religious andtraditional ceremonies, but now only a few and small ones are used. If none is found, ducks areused to replace the turtles.
THE BALINESE WOMEN’S POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN THE GENERAL ELECTIONS CONDUCTED FROM 1997 TO 2004 (IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES) Rahayu, Luh Riniti; Putra Astiti, Tjok. Istri; Suastika, I Made; Parimartha, I Gde
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 5, No. 2 Juli 2011
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

This study discusses the Balinese women?s political participation in thegeneral elections conducted in 1997, 1999 and 2004. During these years, in spiteof being supported by reformation, there was a gap with regard to the Balinesewomen?s participation in politics, which was assumed to result from numerousfactors. Therefore, the problems formulated in this study are (1) how the Balinesewomen politically participated in the general elections conducted in 1997, 1999and 2004; (2) what factors affected their political participation in the generalelections conducted in 1997, 1999 and 2004?; (3) what were the effects andmeanings of their political participation in the general election conducted in 1997,1999 and 2004 viewed from the values of equality in gender? Qualitative methodwith multidisciplinary approach from the perspective of cultural studies wasadopted in this study. Several critical social theories were employed forsharpening the analysis.The results of the study show that the Balinese women?s politicalparticipation in the general election conducted in 1997 was 11.11%; that therecruitment system still referred to the concepts applied in the New Order, that is,through the women?s organizations established by the government with highnepotism. While their political participation in the general election conducted in1999 decreased by 1.62% as a consequence of reformation, in the general electionconducted in 2004 it rose by 7.27%, resulting from the changes in the generalelection regulations. The factors which encouraged the Balinese women toparticipate in politics were that they were influenced by the men who werepoliticians and close to them such as their husbands and fathers, the women?smovements and the general election regulations. As far as the domestic domain isconcerned, their political participation was positive. What is meant is that theywere able to acquire asymmetric relation of power; however, negatively, they hadmultiple responsibilities resulting from the multiple roles they played. In thepolitical domain, they were dominated by men; in addition, their politicalparticipation gave the meanings of equality, being constitutional and beingprestigious.
NEWLY-PACKAGED BALI TOURIST PERFORMING ARTS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES Ruastiti, Ni Made; Parimartha, I Gde; Sedyawati, Edi; Suastika, I Made
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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Abstract

This research is focused on the newly packaged tourist performing arts; they are anew concept and seem to be different from the general tourist performing arts. They arepackaged from various components of Balinese arts and managed as large scale-touristperforming arts in terms of materials, space, and time of their performances. The researchercalls them new types of Bali tourist performing arts because how they are presented isnew and different from the traditional tourist performing arts which are simply performed.In this research, the newly-packaged performing arts are analyzed in the perspective ofcultural studies.The research was carried out at three palaces in Bali; they are Mengwi Palace inBadung regency, Anyar Palace at Kerambitan, Tabanan regency, and Banyuning Palace atBongkasa, Badung regency. There are three main problems to be discussed: firstly, how dothe tourist performing arts emerge in all the palaces? Secondly, are they related to thetourist industry developed in the palaces?, thirdly, what is the impact and meaning of themfor the sake of the palaces, society, and Balinese culture? The researcher uses a qualitativemethod and an interdisciplinary approach as characteristics of cultural studies. The theoriesused are hegemony, deconstruction, and structuration.The result shows that the tourism development at all the palaces has made the localsociety become more critical. The money-oriented economy based on the spirit of gettingbenefit has made the emergence of comodification in all sectors of life. The emergence oftourist industry at the palaces has led to the idea of showing all of the useful art and culturalpotentials which at the palaces and their surroundings. Theoretically, the palaces can bestated to have deconstructed the concept of presenting the Bali tourist performing arts into anew one, that is, ?the newly packaged Bali tourist performing arts?.It has been observed that all the palaces have developed t ?Newly packaged Balitourist Performing Arts? but they are different in themes. At Mengwi Palace the theme is?procession of religious rituals?, at Anyar Palace, Kerambitan, the theme is ?ritualprocession of welcoming the kingdom?s guests? and at Banyuning Palace, Bongkasa, thetheme is ?ritual procession of wedding?. The differences can be seen in the componentspresented in the performances.
THE REPRESENTATION OF THE DIVINE AND HUMAN BEING IMAGERY IN THE ENTITY OF RITUS SA’O NGAZA IN GURU SINA, NGADA, FLORES Yohanes Vianey, Watu; Maryah, Emiliana; Parimartha, I Gde; Meko Mbete, Aron
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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This dissertation discusses the representation of the Divine and human being imagery in theentity of ritus Sa?o Ngaza in the village of Guru Sina in Ngada Regency, Flores. The empiricproblems of this dissertasion are connected with the marginalized phenomenon of the local religionthat submerged in the entity of ritus Sa?o Ngaza and its ritual practices. This probelm is relevant tobe investigated from the perspectives cultural studies.The problems raised in this study are : 1) the representation of the Divine and human beingimagery in the entity of ritus Sa?o Ngaza, 2) the representation of the relationhip between the Divineand human being in ritual practices of Sa?o Ngaza, and 3) the meaning of the representation of theDivine and human being imagery in the entity of ritus Sa?o Ngaza. This study applies the qualitativemethod and the data collection was done using techniques of intensive interview, participationobservation,and documentation. The data were analyzed using the theory of ritus, the theory ofprocess,the theory of semiotics, and the theory of deconstruction.The findings of the study can be explained as follows. Firstly, the representation of theDivine imagery is dyadic and triadic. In the dyadic imagery representation, The Divine is depicted as?The Giver of an Unlimited Love and at the same time as ?The Unpredictable Taker of Love?. In thetriadic representation, The Divine is depicted as The Sacred, in the attributive as ?The Beginning?,?The End?, and ?The Present Throughout?. In the dyadic imagery, the human being consists of theelements of the body and the soul, and in the triadic imagery, the human being consists of theelements of the body, the psyche, and the spirit.Secondly, the relation between the Divine and human being is representatively revealed inthe ritual practices of legitimating Sa?o Ngaza. This relation centers in the methapor of relationshipbetween the simbolic body dan the religious body, and affirms the status of human being as ?thewrapper of divinity seed? and ?His image?.Thirdly, the meaning of the representation of the Divine and human being imagery in theentity of ritus Sa?o Ngaza is sacral , spiritual, and moral. The sacral value pertains to the dinamicrelationship between the human being and the Divine in a sacral way and the sacral place. TheSpiritual value pertains to the relation intra-human being and his spiritual opened and connectedthrough inner feeling with the One Sacral in the strong effort of making the human being perfect.The moral value pertains to a good relationship among human beings themselves in accordance withtheir norms of community.The findings of the study enrich the theory of process about the concept of the Divine fromWhitehead and contrast with the theory of ritus as the choreography of violence from Smedal. In theentity of ritus Sa?o Ngaza, there is a unique concept of human being in the design of ulu palicarvings, which describes the ideology of leadership in the local tradition. The finding of thisconcept can become the model of implementation of the decostruction theory and the semiotictheory which removes and deconstructs binary opposition between the leader (ulu) and the follower(eko).
CUSTOMARY CONFLICT AND BANISHMENT ‘KASEPEKANG’ AT BUNGAYA TRADITIONAL VILLAGE, KARANGASEM REGENCY, BALI: IN THE PERPECTIVE OF CULTURAL STUDIES Windia, I Wayan; Parimartha, I Gde; Putri Astita, Tjok Istri; Drama Putra, Nyoman
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 3, No. 1 Januari 2009
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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MERCANTILSM OF KNOWLEDGE IN EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY AT MELATI SUKMA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL DENPASAR Suda, I Ketut; Bawa Atmaja, I Nengah; Ardika, I Wayan; Parimartha, I Gde
E-Journal of Cultural Studies Vol. 4, No. 1 Januari 2010
Publisher : Cultural Studies Doctorate Program, Postgraduate Program of Udayana University

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This study discusses?Mercantilism of Knowledge in Education: a Case Study atMelati Sukma Elementary School Denpasar?. The matter observed is a shift ofeducational paradigm, from enlightenment paradigm into instrumental paradigm. Whenthe system of market economy influenced the Indonesian economic system in 1960s or inthe beginning of 1970s, which is now getting more materialistic-capitalistic, socialorganizations such as educational organizations (read: schools) have found it difficult toavoid it. This study aims at exploring why the management of Melati Sukma ElementarySchool Denpasar has implemented ?mercantilism of knowledge? in education, and whythe consumers have accepted it. This study also aims at identifying the mechanism ofhow ?mercantilism of knowledge? has occurred at Melati Sukma Elementary SchoolDenpasar, and its implications on the pupils, the school, the learning-teaching process,and on the community.Qualitative method was employed for conducting the research. In this context,various types of information related to why the school management has implemented themercantilism of knowledge, the mechanism of how it has occurred, and its implicationson the pupils, the school, the process of learning and teaching process in the classrooms,and the community were obtained. Firstly, problems were identified, then theories forexamining the data were selected, later the primary and secondary data were collected,next the selected data were analyzed and interpreted. Finally, the report writing and theresults of the research were constructed. The theories employed are Comodificationtheory, Hegemony theory, and Deconstruction theory.The results are as follows: firstly, those which have been responsible for themercantilism of knowledge are the fact that the teachers have been getting marginalizedfrom the process of national development, the system of market economy and theconsumptive attitude of the community including the teachers have been getting stronger.The parents? motivation to send their children to that school has also been in included inthe first result. Secondly, the mercantilism of knowledge at Melati Sukma ElementarySchool has also been implemented through the domination, hegemony, and power of theschool management over the pupils? parents in the forms of sales of various industrialproducts, provision for additional lessons, and other types of payments. Thirdly, themercantilism of knowledge has also resulted from the attempts made by the school management to make the school look more glorious. The learning process has not beenoriented towards the attempts made to increase the pupils? intelligence but towards theeconomic advantages. Where the parents will send their children does not depend on thequality of education but on the prestige instead.