Gustan Pari
Pusat Litbang Hasil Hutan, Badan Litbang dan Inovasi, Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan (Ministry of Environtment and Forestry of Indonesia)

Published : 138 Documents
Articles

IDENTIFIKASI SENYAWA BIOAKTIF ANTIFEEDANT DARI ASAP CAIR HASIL PIROLISIS SAMPAH ORGANIK PERKOTAAN Haji, Abdul Gani; Mas’ud, Zainal Alim; Pari, Gustan
Bumi Lestari Journal of Environment Vol 12, No 1
Publisher : Udayana University

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Abstract

The research aims to identify antifeedant bioactive substance in liquid smoke derived from pyrolisis of organic municipal waste. Samples were pyrolyzed in drum reactor at 505oC for five hours to produce char and condensed smoke turning into liquid smoke. The liquid smoke components are separated into n-heksan, etil asetat, metanol and water consecutively. The result is thickened with rotary evaporator. The resulting crude’s activity towards Spodoptera litura Linn larvae was tested with antifeedant method. The chemical components of active fraction are identified with GCMS. Crude resulting from thickening fractions of n-heksan, etil asetat, metanol and water are 0.3465 g; 2.3736 g; 0.8775 g and 0.3679 g consecutively. The highest activity of liquid smoke, fractions of water, methanol, etil asetat and n-heksan towards S. litura larvae at 1.00% concentration are 44.68%; 62.07%; 80.65%; 28.57% and 23.40%. Result of probit analysis towards these fractions shows that the highest activity is methanol fraction with EI50 value at 0.71. Identification with GCMS shows that the fractions contain 14 types of bioactive antifeedant substances with ?-butyrolacton as the main component
OPTIMASI SUHU DAN LAMA AKTIVASI DENGAN ASAM PHOSFAT DALAM PRODUKSI ARANG AKTIF TEMPURUNG KEMIRI DARMAWAN, Saptadi; PARI, Gustan; SOFYAN, Kurnia
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol 2, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

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Abstract

Candlenut shell as a lignocelullose raw material is a potential by-product for produce activated charcoal. It’s quality are affected by raw material and activated process i.e. temperature, activation time and activating agent.  This paper intends to study the properties of activated charcoal made from candlenut shell. Candlenut shell was carbonization at 500 °C for 5 hour. Then activated using phosphoric acid in three different temperatures: 600 °C, 700 °C and 800 °C, in the duration time of 90, 120 and 150 minutes.  The result shows that candlenut shell activated charcoal more influence of temperature than activation time. Overall, the activated charcoal met the Indonesian Standard requirement for commercialised activated charcoal with optimation activation at 800 °C  for 120 minute.   Keywords :    Candlenut shell, activated charcoal, optimation, activation, phosphoric acid
PERUBAHAN SUHU PIROLISIS TERHADAP STRUKTUR KIMIA ASAP CAIR DARI SERBUK GERGAJI KAYU PINUS WIJAYA, Mohammad; NOOR, Erliza; IRAWADI, Tun Tedja; PARI, Gustan
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Hasil Hutan Vol 1, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Ilmu Teknologi Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Departemen Hasil Hutan, IPB

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of  pyrolysis temperature to the wood vinegar chemical composition by be produced wood vinegar, charcoal, biofuel  etc. The variation of pyrolysis  temperatures were 110, 200, 300, 400 and 500 °C at 5 hours. That pine wood vinegar yield obtained were 13.80%, 16.12%, 11.99%, 15.51% and 0.90 %.  Analysis  DTA (Diferential Thermal Analysis)  showed thermal decompotition occurs at  227, 320.2 and 349.7 °C.  Identification of GC-MS of pine sawdust could provide compounds that mostly derived from acid group and was dominated by acetic acid produced was 31.65%. At distillate of teak smokes was obtained three yield of liquid smokes resulted from conversion of pine wood  wastes can be utilized to preserve fishes.   Keywords :  Pine sawdust,  pyrolysis, wood vinegar, and preserve  fishes
ARANG DAN CUKA KAYU : PRODUK HASIL HUTAN BUKAN KAYU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN DAN SERAPAN HARA KARBON Komarayati, Sri; Gusmailina, Gusmailina; Pari, Gustan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 31, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4587.22 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.2013.31.1.49-62

Abstract

Arang dan cuka kayu merupakan sumber karbon yang dihasilkan dari proses karbonisasi, dan multi manfaat untuk digunakan sebagai pemacu pertumbuhan maupun meningkatkan serapan hara karbon. Tulisan ini menyajikan hasil penelitian uji coba arang dan cuka kayu terhadap media tumbuh anakan sengon, jabon dan pohon penghasil gaharu selama enam bulan di kebun penelitian. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui respon pertumbuhan anakan sengon, jabon dan pohon penghasil gaharu, mengetahui kandungan karbon, nitrogen, fosfor dan kalium dalam tanah dan dalam biomasa tanaman setelah diberi arang dan cuka kayu. Penambahan arang dilakukan dengan cara mencampurkan arang dan tanah secara merata, sedangkan cuka kayu disiramkan pada tanah. Untuk pemeliharaan tanaman, dilakukan penyemprotan cuka kayu pada batang, tangkai dan daun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan arang dan cuka kayu pada media tumbuh anakan sengon dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman sebesar 127% dan 208%, untuk diameter 109% dan 129%. Pada tanaman jabon, penambahan arang dan cuka kayu dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tinggi sebesar 117% dan 142%, untuk diameter 166% dan 128%. Sedangkan pada pohon penghasil gaharu belum kelihatan pengaruhnya, karena masih memerlukan waktu yang lebih lama untuk tanaman tersebut beradaptasi. Arang dan cuka kayu dapat meningkatkan serapan hara karbon dalam tanah dan biomas. Selain karbon (C), unsur hara N, P dan K juga meningkat.
Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste Haji, Abdul Gani; Pari, Gustan; Nazar, Muhammad; Habibati, H
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1413.595 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94

Abstract

The difficulties to decompose organic waste can be handled naturally by pyrolisis so it can  decomposes quickly that produces charcoal as the product. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of activated carbon from urban organic waste. Charcoal results of pyrolysis of organic waste activated with KOH 1.0 M at a temperature of 700 and 800oC for 60 to 120 minutes. Characteristics of activated carbon were identified by Furrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). However, their quality is determined yield, moisture content, ash, fly substances, fixed carbon, and the power of adsorption of iodine and benzene. The identified functional groups on activated carbon, such as OH (3448,5-3436,9 cm-1), and C=O (1639,4 cm-1). In general, the degree and distance between the layers of active carbon crystallites produced activation in all treatments showed no significant difference. The pattern of activated carbon surface topography structure shows that the greater the pore formation in accordance with the temperature increase the more activation time needed. The yield of activated carbon obtained ranged from 72.04 to 82.75%. The results of characterization properties of activated carbon was obtained from 1.11 to 5.41% water, 13.68 to 17.27% substance fly, 20.36 to 26.59% ash, and 56.14 to 62.31% of fixed carbon . Absorption of activated carbon was good enough at 800oC and 120 minutes of activation time, that was equal to 409.52 mg/g of iodine and 14.03% of benzene. Activated carbon produced has less good quality, because only the water content and flying substances that meet the standards.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94 [How to cite this article: Haji, A.G., Pari, G., Nazar, M., and Habibati.  (2013). Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2),89-94. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94]
THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW Wistara, Nyoman Jaya; Silaban, Gokma; Pari, Gustan
REAKTOR Volume 14, No. 3, APRIL 2013
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (285.471 KB) | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.14.3.247-254

Abstract

The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%), kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan berat pulp lebih tinggi dari kehilangan berat arang lindi hitam. Kehilangan berat yang tajam terjadi pada selang suhu 200-400oC. Perubahan gugus fungsi yang nyata terjadi dengan meningkatnya suhu pirolisis. Gugus hidroksil menghilang pada suhu 300oC atau lebih. Gugus terkarbonilasi menghilang pada suhu 300-500oC, tetapi terbentuk kembali pada suhu 650oC dan 750oC. Hal ini kemungkinan disebabkan oleh deformasi ikatan kimia oksigen di dalam cincin dari struktur lignin.
EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ADDITION ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSION OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD Darmawan, Saptadi; Sofyan, Kurnia; Pari, Gustan; Sugiyanto, Krisdianto
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 7, No 2 (2010): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

The manufacturing of medium density fiberboard (MDF) using dry forming process for interior purpose requires extensive amount of thermo-setting urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive. Unfortunately, this adhesive brings about formaldehyde emission from the resulting MDF, which was potentially harmful to human beings. The use of activated charcoal can be effective to reduce such emission. As the relevance, this research aimed to investigate the effect of activated charcoal addition to the MDF pulp on formaldehyde emission from the MDF. The fibers for the MDF-mat forming were the pulp procured from the MDF factory, resulting from the thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) conducted on the mixed mangium wood (Acacia mangium) and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) in 3:1 (w/w) proportion, respectively.  Such mixed TMP pulping was also done in the factor y.  The bonding between TMP pulp fiber during mat forming was assisted by the use of UF adhesive.  Prior to the MDF mat forming , was added to the resulting TMP pulp-fibers activated charcoal in  various amount, 2%, 4% and 6% based on fiber mass as well as based on UF adhesive mass. The activated charcoal was prepared by carbonizing candle nut shell into charcoal followed by activation process using phosphate solution.  Meanwhile the forming of MDF mat employed air-dr y process. As the control, MDF forming with UF adhesive was performed without addition of activated charcoal. It turned out that the activated charcoal-added MDF exhibited effective reduction in formaldehyde emission and significant improvement in physical and mechanical properties, i.e. lower thickness swelling , and greater MOR , MOE and internal bond, compared to the control MDF. The use of activated charcoal at 4% based on the adhesive mass seemed to be the optimum amount.  Physical and mechanical properties of the activated charcoal added MDF could mostly meet the JIS specification.
ARANG DAN CUKA KAYU : PRODUK HASIL HUTAN BUKAN KAYU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN DAN SERAPAN HARA KARBON Komarayati, Sri; Gusmailina, Gusmailina; Pari, Gustan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 31, No 1 (2013):
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Arang dan cuka kayu merupakan sumber karbon yang dihasilkan dari proses karbonisasi, dan multi manfaat untuk digunakan sebagai pemacu pertumbuhan maupun meningkatkan serapan hara karbon. Tulisan ini menyajikan hasil penelitian uji coba arang dan cuka kayu terhadap media tumbuh anakan sengon, jabon dan pohon penghasil gaharu selama enam bulan di kebun penelitian. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui respon pertumbuhan anakan sengon, jabon dan pohon penghasil gaharu, mengetahui kandungan karbon, nitrogen, fosfor dan kalium dalam tanah dan dalam biomasa tanaman setelah diberi arang dan cuka kayu. Penambahan arang dilakukan dengan cara mencampurkan arang dan tanah secara merata, sedangkan cuka kayu disiramkan pada tanah. Untuk pemeliharaan tanaman, dilakukan penyemprotan cuka kayu pada batang, tangkai dan daun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan arang dan cuka kayu pada media tumbuh anakan sengon dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman sebesar 127% dan 208%, untuk diameter 109% dan 129%. Pada tanaman jabon, penambahan arang dan cuka kayu dapat meningkatkan pertumbuhan tinggi sebesar 117% dan 142%, untuk diameter 166% dan 128%. Sedangkan pada pohon penghasil gaharu belum kelihatan pengaruhnya, karena masih memerlukan waktu yang lebih lama untuk tanaman tersebut beradaptasi. Arang dan cuka kayu dapat meningkatkan serapan hara karbon dalam tanah dan biomas. Selain karbon (C), unsur hara N, P dan K juga meningkat.
KARAKTERISASI STRUKTUR NANO KARBON DARI LIGNOSELLULOSA Pari, Gustan; Santoso, Adi; Hendra, Djeni; Buchari, Buchari; Maddu, Akhirudin; Rachmat, Mamat; Harsini, Muji; Heryanto, Teddi; Darmawan, Saptadi
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 31, No 1 (2013):
Publisher : Pusat Litbang Keteknikan Kehutanan dan Pengolahan Hasil Hutan

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Abstract

Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan abad ini dan yang akan datang sudah memasuki teknologi nano. Di bidang hasil hutan, teknologi nano yang dapat dikembangkan di antaranya adalah nano karbon dari bahan berlignoselulosa. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menyediakan informasi dan teknologi pengolahan arang sebagai bahan baku nano karbon dari bahan lignoselulosa. Bahan baku lignoselulosa yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kayu jati, dan bambu yang dikarbonisasi pada suhu 400-500°C menggunakan kiln drum, arang yang dihasilkan dimurnikan dengan jalan dipanaskan pada suhu 800°C selama 60 menit yang sebelumnya didoping dengan logam Zn, Ni dan Cu. selanjutnya dihaluskan menggunakan high energy mechanic (HEM) selama 48 jam. Arang dengan kristalinitas tinggi disintering menggunakan spark plasma pada suhu 1.300°C. Karbon yang dihasilkan diuji sktuktur dan sifatnya menggunakan Py-GCMS, SEM-EDX, XRD,dan sifat elektrik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan struktur karbon yang terbaik dihasilkan dari arang jati yang dikarbonisasi pada suhu 800°C yang didoping dengan atom Ni pada perbandingan 1:5 yang menghasilkan derajat kristalinitas sebesar 78,98% resistensi (R) 0,17Ω, konduktivitas 175,52 Ω-1m-1. Kualitas nano karbon setelah disintering derajat kristalinitasnya menjadi 81,87%, resistensi (R) 0,01Ω, dan konduktivitasnya sebesar 1067,26 Ω-1m-1. Nano karbon yang dihasilkan dapat dibuat sebagai biosensor, biobatere dan bioelektroda. Sehingga diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut.
PENINGKATAN RENDEMEN DAN DAYA SERAP ARANG AKTIF DENGAN CARA KIMIA DOSIS RENDAH DAN GASIFIKASI (Improvement on recovery and quality of activated charcoal through low dossage chemical and gasification treatment) Hartoyo, Hartoyo; Pari, Gustan
Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan Vol 11, No 5 (1993): Jurnal Penelitian Hasil Hutan
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hasil Hutan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.20886/jphh.1993.11.5.205-208

Abstract

Study for improving the recovery and quality of activated charcoal through the combination of chemical and gasification treatments is presented in this paper. The material used in this experiments was charcoal derived from coconut shell. The material was immersed respectively in NaOH, Na2CO3, H3PO4 and ZnCl2 for 24 hours. Charcoal activation was conduted by using steam or combination of steam and mixed C02 and N2. The activated charcoal was produced in a stainless steel retort with electric heater at temperature of 900 - 1000°C.The result shows that the low dossage chemical treatment using NaOH at a concentration of 0,75%, or Na2C03 at a concentration of 0,75%, or ZnCl2 at a concentration of 5%, followed by activation by steam or the combination of steam and mixed C02 and N2.could produce good.quality activated charcoal which fullfils the commercial standard according to JIS. The produced charcoal attained the iodine adsorptive capacity of more than 1050 mg/g. By increasing the concentration of ZnCI2 to 10% or H3P04 to 20 %. followed by steam activation at 900°C - 1000°C, the iodine adsorptive capacity increased to more than 1200 mg/g.
Co-Authors ABDJAD ASIH NAWANGSIH Abdul Gani Haji Abdurrohim, Sasa Adi Santoso Akhiruddin Maddu Akhirudin Maddu Aminudin Sulaeman Anisah, Laela Nur Armansyah H Tambunan Arya Sokanandi Buchari Buchari Budiman, Ismail Dadang Setiawan Dede Hermawan Diah tri widayati Dian Anggraini Indrawan Djeni Hendra Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat Efrida Basri Emma Sahara Endang Sri Lestari Erliza Noor Fahriya Puspita Sari Fauzi Febrianto Ferry, Januar Giyanto Giyanto Gokma Silaban Gunawan Pasaribu Gunawan Santosa Gunawan Trisandi Pasaribu, Gunawan Trisandi Gusmailina Gusmailina H Habibati Hakimah, Nailah Han Roliadi Hardjanto Hardjanto Hariadi Kartodihardjo Hartoyo Hartoyo Heriyanto, Teddi Heriyanto, Teddi Hudaya, Nurmala Ibrahim, Agus Malik Ignasia Maria SULASTININGSIH Ilah Sailah Imam Wahyudi Imas Aisyah Imas, Aisyah IRMA HERAWATI SUPARTO Iskandar Z Siregar Jasni Jasni Krisdianto Sugiyanto Kurnia Sofyan Laia, Daniel P.O Lestari, Fityani B Lestari, Setyani B Lisna Efiyanti Mahpudin Mahpudin Mamat Rachmat Masato Yoshida, Masato Meity Suradji Sinaga Mody Lempang Mohamad Iqbal Mohammad Khotib Mohammad WIJAYA Muhammad Nazar Muji Harsini Mustamu, Sofia Novitri Hastuti, Novitri Nuryati Juli Nyoman J Wistara, Nyoman J Nyoman Jaya Wistara Pangala, Johanis R Pasaribu, Ridwan A Raden Esa Pangersa Gusti, Raden Esa Ridwan A. Pasaribu, Ridwan A. Rita Kartika Sari Rossi Margareth Tampubolon Saepuloh Saepuloh Safitri, Bunga Ayu Santiyo Wibowo Saptadi DARMAWAN Satiti, Esti Rini Siruru, Herman Sri Komarayati Starini, Wulan Subyakto Subyakto Sukadaryati Sukadaryati Sutanto Sutanto Syachri, M T A Prayitno, T A Tati Rostiwati Teddi Heryanto Tetty Kemala Titi Kalima Tjutju Nurhayati, Tjutju Tohir, Dudi Totok K Waluyo Totok K. Waluyo, Totok K. Totok Kartono Waluyo, Totok Kartono Tumimomor, Farly Tun Tedja Irawadi Wasrin Syafii Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Yanto, Dede Heri Yuli Yunianti, Andi D Yusuf Sudo Hadi Zainal Alim Mas’ud