This experiment was aimed to study the degradation kinetics of limestone-urea mixtures in the goats rumen using the nylon bag technique. Samples of limestone were obtained from two limestone mountains, Pamotan Subdistrict of Central Java Province and Wonosari Subdistrict of Yogyakarta Province. The mixtures were created by combining urea at levels 25, 50, 75and 100%; respectively with two limestones on the basis of their Ca contents: L0U100, LP25U75, LP50U50; LP75U25, LW25U75; LW50U50; and LW75U25. The soluble fraction, potentially degradable fraction, the degradation rate of potentially degradable fraction, and effective degradation of respective dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) ruminal degradation kinetics were measured in each mixture. The mixture of LP75U25 had lowest effective and degradation rate of potentially degradable fraction (P<0.05) respectively for DM and N compared with those of other mixtures. In conclusion, the limestone-urea mixture of LP75U25 could be suggested as a dietary supplement of ruminal N slow release.
Sixteen Ettawah cross bred goats were used to study the effect of waru leaf (Hibiscus tiliaceus)sapponin combined with soybean meal protein supplementation on some parameters of proteinmetabolism. Goats had body weight average of 16 kg and aged at 7 months. The experimental dietswere: T0 = total mixed ration (0.9% saponin of hibiscus leaf, 8% CP, 62% TDN), T1 = T0 + 3% soybeanmeal protein, T2 = T0 + 6% soybean meal protein, and T3 = T0 + 9% soybean meal protein. Thetreatments were allocated in a completely randomized design. The parameters observed in this studywere dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) intakes, DM and CP digestibilities, ruminal amonia andVFAs concentrations, blood urea level, nitrogen retention, digestible organic matter in rumen (DOMR),urinary allantoin, and estimated microbial nitrogen (N) synthesis. DM intake, DOMR, urinary allantoinand estimated microbial N synthesis were not affected significantly (P>0.05) by treatments. CP intake,DM and CP digestibilities, ruminal amonia and VFAs concentrations, blood urea level and nitrogenretention increased (P<0.05) with increasing levels of soybean meal protein. Balancing energy levelshould be considered for the dietary protein supplementation in Hibiscus tiliaceus leaf contained diet of goat.
This study aims to identify the interaction between submersion medium and fertilizer dosage level on the production of VFA, NH3 and total protein in hydroponic fodder maize. Research design used 2 x 3 factorial with 3 replication. The first factor includes M0 (without soaked H2SO4) and M1 (soaking H2SO4). The second factor includes N0 (0 gram), N1 (0,5 gram) and N2 (1 gram) of fertilizer/liter water. The method used is soaking of corn seeds, planting hydroponic fodder maize, fertilization done on day 3 and 13, harvesting done on day 15, drying and flouring, and analyzed in vitro to determine the production of VFA, NH3 and total protein. Research shows there are interaction between submersion medium and fertilizer dosage level on VFA production of hydroponic fodder maize, while there is no interaction on the production of NH3 and total protein. There is a significant effect on different fertilizer dosage levels on the production of VFA and NH3, but no significant effect on total protein production. There is no significant effect on the submersion media on the production of VFA, NH3 and total protein.
The study was aimed to clarify interactive effect between the soaking medium and fertilizer doses on in vitro nutrient digestibility of hydroponic fodder maize. The first factor included M0 (without soaking H2SO4) and M1 (soaking H2SO4). The second factor included N0 (0 gram), N1 (0.5 gram) and N2 (1 gram) of fertilizer/liter water. The research design was 2 x 3 factorial with 3 replicates. Results of this study showed that the interactive treatments significantly increased (P<0.05) the digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein of maize fodder. The treatment of M1N1 produced the highest dry matter and organic matter digestibilities. The treatment of M1N2 gave the highest crude protein digestibility.
The purpose of this study was to clarify effect of the combination of waru leaf (Hibiscus tiliaceus) sapponin with soybean meal protein in the goat diet on some parameters of carbohydrate metabolism. The study used 16 Ettawah cross bred male goats with body weight average of 16 kg and aged at 7 months. The dietary treatments were: T0 = total mixed ration (0.09% of Hibiscus tiliaceus leaf sapponin, 8.69 % of CP, 62.11% of TDN), T1 = T0 + 3% soybean meal protein, T2 = T0 + 6% soybean meal protein, and T3 = T0 + 9% soybean meal protein. The treatments were allotted in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments and 4 replicates of each. The results showed that dietary treatments did not effect significantly (P>0.05) on intakes of dry matter, carbohydrate, energy, ruminal butirat and valerat concentrations. Crude protein intake, feed digestibility, ruminal acetate and propionate concentrations, ratio of non-glucogenic to glucogenic VFAs, and estimated methane production were increased (P<0.05) by dietary experiments. The protein supplementation in a Hibiscus tiliaceus leaf contained diet should be balanced with the energy level.
The objective of this research was to study the effects of synchronization of carbohydrate and protein supply in sugarcane bagasse based ration on the body composition of sheep. The studywasconsistedoftwo steps of experiment. The first step of experiment used two rumen cannulated adult rams to create formulation of three diets with different synchronization index, namely 0.37; 0.50 and 0.63 respectively. The experimental diets were designed to be iso-energy, iso-nitrogenous and iso-neutral detergent fibre (iso-NDF). The second step of experiment was to determine the body composition of sheep fed the experimental diets, which were created in the first experiment. The body composition of fifteen rams were determined on week 0; 4; and 8 of experimental period, these were accomplished using the technique of urea dilution. The alteration of synchronization index did not affect on feed intake, ratio of ruminal acetate to propionate and serum glucose concentration, but dry matter (DM) digestibility was affected (P<0.05) by the treatment of synchronization index in the diet. The alteration of synchronization index in the diet did not affect on the percentage of body protein, fat and water significantly, though body weight of sheep gained slightly during the experimental period.
Two adult male sheeps fitted with rumen cannula were used in two experiments to study the effects of synchronization of carbohydrate and nitrogen supply in sugarcane bagasse based total mixed ration (TMR) on in situ nutrient degradation. The first experiment was aimed to create three TMR with different synchronization index. Ingredient feedstuffs of TMR were evaluated for its in situ organic matter (OM) and nitrogen (N) degradation kinetics. On the basis of the OM and N degradation kinetics of feedstuffs, three sugarcane bagasse based TMR were formulated with synchronization indexes of 0.37; 0.50; and 0.63; respectively. The TMR had similar levels of crude protein (CP), total digestible nutrients, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). In the second experiment, the three TMR with different synchronization index were evaluated for in situ degradability characteristics of OM, CP, NDF, and sulfur. The in situ degradation of OM in TMR were decreased (P<0.05) with the increasing of synchronization index. The higher synchronization index in TMR increased (P<0.05) CP degradation of CP. The NDF degradation decreased slightly by the alteration of synchronization index in TMR. The higher synchronization index in TMR reduced (P<0.05) in situ sulfur degradation, and this may not support to effects of synchronization of carbohydrate and nitrogen supply.
The experimental research was conducted to clarify the effect of synchronization of ruminal carbohydrate and protein releases from sugarcane bagasse based diet (SBBD) on microbial protein synthesis in sheep. The first experiment was the formulation of three SBBD with similar nutrient content but differed in synchronization indexes (namely 0.36; 0.50 and 0.63). The in sacco nutrient degradability coefficient was used to calculate the synchronization index of each feedstuff. The second experiment was determination of post feeding ruminal pH, ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level in sheep fed on experimental SBBD. The third experiment was determination of feed digestibility and estimation of microbial nitrogen synthesis (MNP) on the basis of excreted urinary allantoin. The alteration of dietary synchronization index did not change nutrient intake, but the digestibilities of DM, OM and CP were increased (P<0.05). The post feeding ruminal pH was decreased (P<0.05) but concentrations of post feeding ruminal TVFA and NH3-N, and level of BUN were increased (P<0.05) by the treatment of dietary synchronization index. The treatment of dietary synchronization index improved MNP (P<0.05), although dietary synchronization index at 0.63 lowered the MNP (P<0.05).
Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengkaji degradabilitas polifenol dan aktivitas antioksidan daun kelor (Moringa oleifera) di dalam rumen secara in vitro. Daun kelor dan lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala, sebagai pembanding) diinkubasikan dalam cairan rumen kambing selama 48 jam secara in vitro. Degradabilitas bahan kering, senyawa fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan pada daun kelor dan lamtoro dibandingkan dengan uji T. Degradabilitas bahan kering daun kelor lebih tinggi (p<0,05) daripada daun lamtoro. Degradabilitas senyawa fenolik daun kelor lebih rendah (P<0,05) daripada daun lamtoro. Penurunan aktivitas antioksidan daun kelor lebih kecil dibandingkan daun lamtoro selama inkubasi dalam rumen. Inkubasi daun kelor dalam rumen dapat menurunkan ketersediaan senyawa fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan pada daun kelor dan lamtoro.
Bahan pakan dari hasil samping industri pertanian sangat potensial untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai pakan ruminansia, namun nilai nutriennya belum banyak dikaji. Penelitian bertujuan mengevaluasi bahan pakan hasil samping industri pertanian terhadap fermentabilitas ruminal secara in vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan 7 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri atas janggel jagung, kulit kopi, onggok, bungkil kedelai, bungkil kelapa sawit, bungkil kelapa dan ampas tahu. Cairan rumen berasal dari kambing PE berfistula dengan pakan standar protein kasar 12% dan TDN 62%. Parameter yang diukur adalah konsentrasi asetat, propionat, butirat, konsentrasi metan, amonia dan adenosin triphosphate. Data dianalisis ANOVA dan dilanjutkan uji jarak berganda Duncan. Hasil analisis menunjukan perlakuan bahan pakan hasil samping industri pertanian berbeda nyata (P<0,05) terhadap konsentrasi asetat, propionat, butirat, konsentrasi metan, konsentrasi amonia dan adenosine triphosphate. Kesimpulannya, janggel jagung menghasilkan konsentrasi asetat, propionat, butirat dan adenosin triphosphate tertinggi. Namun, janggel jagung juga menghasilkan konsentrasi metan tertinggi. Konsentrasi amonia tertinggi diperoleh pada bungkil kelapa sawit dan diikuti bungkil kedelai.Kata kunci: fermentabilitas, hasil samping industri pertanian, in vitro