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KAJIAN HUBUNGAN ANTARA DAERAH PERINDUKAN KEONG PERANTARA SCHISTOSOMIASIS TERHADAP KEJADIAN SCIDSTOSOMIASIS DI NAPU, KABUPATEN POSO, SULAWESI TENGAH

Jurnal Vektor Penyakit Vol 2, No 1 Okt (2008)
Publisher : Jurnal Vektor Penyakit

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Schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma japonicum still become an endemic disease in Indonesia, especially in Napu, Poso Regency and Lindu, Donggala Regency, Central Sulawesi. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis as an intermediate host grows widely in rice field, cacao field and also neglected rice field.Schistosomiasis in those endemic areas was fluctuated every years. Prevalence of schistosomiasis in Napu were 0.64% in 2005, 1.21 %in 2006, and 1.14% in 2007. Prevalence in Lindu were 0.66% in 2005, 0.52 % in 2006, and 1.4% in 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate schistosomiasis case from 1984-2007. It is expected that it can determine the correlation between number of focus area and schistosomiasis. From this study, it showed that the fluctuation of prevalence was related to the numbers of focus area, with p-value was 0.025. In Central Sulawesi Schistosomiasis is difficult to be eliminated because there were many problems.   Keywords: correlation, focus area, schistosomiasis, Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis.

KOLEKSI REFERENSI SCHISTOSOMIASIS DI DATARAN TINGGI LINDU KABUPATEN DONGGALA SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2007

Jurnal Vektor Penyakit Vol 1, No 1 Des (2007)
Publisher : Jurnal Vektor Penyakit

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Collection of schistosomiasis speciments in Lindu Plateu had been conducted on April 2007 in Tomado and Anca village, Kulawi subdistrict, Donggala regency, Central Sulawesi province. The objective of the collection was to collect the schistosomiasis speciments include the snail hos intermediate (Oncomelania  hupensis lindoensis), host reservoir such as rodents, and S. japonicum worm from rat. Results of the collection were 235 numbers of O.h lindoensis were found at Paku 7 fokus area, 3 Rattus hofmani and 2 R.exculans as host reservoir of schistosomiasis were found at focus area Tornado I, Anca village which infected by S. japonicum.   Keywords : schistosomiasis, S Japonicum, host intermediate snail Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, Host reservoir Rattus spp.

TINGKAT KECACINGAN PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DASAR KECAMATAN LABUAN, KABUPATEN DONGGALA, SULAWESI TENGAH

Jurnal Vektor Penyakit Vol 3, No 1 Jun (2009)
Publisher : Jurnal Vektor Penyakit

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Stool survey in three elementary schools had been conducted on Mei,2007, in Labuan,Dalika, and Toposo village, Labuan sub district, Donggala regency, Central Sulawesi province. The aim of this survey was to investigate the infection rate of helminthes with direct methoda. Results of this survey were 15,2 % of 33 children SDN Labuan was positive Ascaris lumricoides and 33,3 % of 21_children SDN Dalika so 14,3% of 12 children SDN Inpres 2 Toposo.One of them was positive Trichuris trichiura.   Keywords : Ascaris lumricoides, Stool survey, Labuan.

The phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography results of Jatropha gossypiifolia seeds

Health Science Journal of Indonesia Vol 3, No 2 Des (2012)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

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ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Schistosomiasis saat ini masih menjadi masalah kesehatan di daerah endemis di Sulawesi Tengah. Keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, perantara schistosomiasis tersebar luas di wilayah tersebut. Pemberantasan yang dilakukan selama ini dilakukan dengan penyemprotan moluskisida kimia. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi golongan senyawa kimia di dalam ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah.Metode: Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei 2009. Biji jarak merah dikumpulkan dari wilayah Tondo, Kota Palu. Ekstraksi biji jarak merah dilakukan dengan metode perkolasi menggunakan pelarut metanol. Dilakukan skrining fitokimia dengan uji tabung untuk mendeteksi golongan senyawa di dalam ekstrak biji jarak merah. Skrining dilanjutkan dengan uji kromatografilapis tipis untuk memastikan hasil skrining dari uji tabung.Hasil: Ekstrak yang dihasilkan dari 500 gram serbuk biji jarak merah kering dengan 2500 ml pelarut metanol adalah sebanyak 250 ml ekstrak kental berwarna coklat kemerahan. Skrining fitokimia dengan uji tabung menunjukkan hasil positif alkaloid dengan terbentuknya endapan pada reaksi tes Meyer, tes Wagner, tes Dragendorff. Skrining ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah juga menunjukkan hasil positif saponin pada tes busa dan tes Lieberman-Burchard. Hasil positif pada tes Keller Killiani dan tes Kedde menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak biji jarak merah mengandung cardenoline dan bufadienol. Analisis kromatografilapis tipis menunjukkan ekstrak biji jarak merah positif terpen dengan terbentuknya spot pada plat silika gel dengan penyemprotan pereaksi terpen yaitu serium sulfat. Kesimpulan: Komponen kimia yang terkandung dalam ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah terdiri dari alkaloid, saponin, cardenolin, bufadienol, dan terpen.(Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xx)Kata kunci:schistosomiasis, Jatropha gossypifolia, komponen kimiaABSTRACTBackground:Schistosomiasis is still a health problem in Central Sulawesi. Snail Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediary for schistosomiasis is widespread in this region. Eradication has been done by spraying chemical molluscicides. This study aimed to identify the class of chemical compounds in the methanol extract of red castor seed.Methods: The study was conducted in May 2009. Red castor seeds were collected from Palu, Central Sulawesi. Red castor seeds extraction was done by percolation method using methanol solvent. Phytochemical screening test was performed with a tube to detect the compound in red castor bean extract. Screening was followed by thin layer chromatography testing to ensure the screening results of the test tube.Results:Extracts that was produced from 500 grams of red castor dry seed powder with 2500 ml of methanol solvent was 250 ml thick reddish brown fluid. Phytochemical screening with a test tube showed positive results of alkaloid by the formation of deposits in Meyer test, Wagner test, and Dragendorff test. Screening the methanol extracts of red castor seed also showed positive results on saponins by foam test and LiebermanBurchard test. Positive results on Killiani Keller tests and Kedde test suggests that red castor bean extract contains cardenoline and bufadienol. Thin-layer chromatography analysis showed that the red castor bean extract is positive for terpenes with the formation of spots on the silica gel plate when terpenes was sprayed (cerium sulfate reagent). Conclusion: Chemical components contained in the methanol extract of red castor beans consisted of alkaloids, saponins, cardenolin, bufadienol, and terpenes. (Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xx)Keywords: schistosomiasis, Jatropha gossypifolia, chemical compound

Studi Keanekaragaman Spesies Nyamuk Anopheles sp. Di Kabupaten Donggala, Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah

Online Journal of Natural Science FMIPA Vol 3, No 2 (2014): Volume 3 Number 2 (August 2014)
Publisher : Online Journal of Natural Science FMIPA

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the diversity of morphological and genetic variation of the Anopheles sp. This study was conducted in the periode of November 2013 - February 2014 in two (2) malaria endemic areas; Labuan Village, in North Donggala and Lalombi Village, in South Banawa of South Donggala Regency. Sample collection was done around cattle cage throughout the night between 18:00 to 6:00. The capture period was 15 minutes oh each, and it was done in every hour. The collection was done by using an aspirator and the sampel was stored in paper cup prior covered by gauze pads. Morphological identification of samples was performed at Entomology Laboratory, Vector Borne Disease Research and Development Unit Donggala. Identification was done based on Oconnor and Soepanto (1981). Analysis of genetic was done by RAPD-PCR method. Morphological identification found that there were three (3) species of mosquitoes from the two (2) sites, namely An. tesselatus, An. subpictus, and An. vagus. The highest spesies diversity index obtained in the Lalombi village with H = 1,07 and the lowest value in the Labuan village with a value of  H = 0,33. RAPD analysis showed that there were similarity on DNA amplification band patterns on An. tesselatus from the village of Labuan  and it from  Lalombi. But interestingly, there were different on DNA amplification pattern of An. vagus from these two sites.  This  results indicating that the there was genetic variation on An. vagus from these two different villages, even though its have similarity in morphological characters.

THE EFFECTIVITY OF Jatropha gossypifolia L, J.curcas AND Riccinus communis SEEDS EXTRACT AGAINST THE SCHISTOSOMIASIS INTERMEDIATE SNAIL, Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis

Balaba Vol 10, No 1 Jun (2014)
Publisher : Prima Offset

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ABSTRAKSchistosomiasis merupakan penyakit endemis di Indonesia, khususnya di Dataran tinggi Napu, Lindu dan Bada, SulawesiTengah. Keong perantara schistosomiasis, Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis tersebar luas di Dataran Tinggi Napu. Salahsatu upaya pengendalian keong yang telah dilakukan oleh progam pengendalian schistosomiasis adalah penyemprotanmoluskisida Bayluscide setiap 6 bulan sekali. Penggunaan moluskisida kimia memiliki kekurangan karena dapatmenyebabkan polusi lingkungan. Perlu diteliti penggunaan tanaman sebagai moluskisida untuk alternatif pengendaliankeong. Famili Euphorbiaceae diketahui memiliki aktivitas sebagai moluskisida. Tujuan penelitian menentukan efektivitasdari ekstrak dan fraksi biji jarak merah (Jatropha. gossypifolia), ekstrak biji jarak pagar (Jatropha curcas) dan ekstrak bijijarak kastor (Riccinus communis) terhadap keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. Penelitian dilakukan di LaboratoriumSchistosomiasis Napu, Kabupaten Poso, Sulawesi Tengah pada bulan Maret – Oktober 2009. Keong diuji dengan larutanekstrak biji jarak merah, jarak pagar dan jarak kastor di laboratorium selama 24 jam. Ekstraksi biji jarak dengan metodeperkolasi Jumlah keong yang mati dihitung dan dianalisis probit untuk penentuan nilai LC 50 dan LC 95. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan ekstrak methanol dari biji jarak merah, jarak pagar dan jarak kastor memiliki daya bunuh terhadap keongOncomelania hupensis lindoensis. Ekstrak biji jarak merah memiliki daya bunuh yang paling tinggi dibanding ekstrak bijijarak pagar dan kastor, dengan nilai LC 50 10,41 ppm dan LC 95 sebesar 18,6 ppm. Fraksi metanol dari biji jarak merahpaling efektif di antara fraksi etil asetat dan n-heksan dari biji jarak merah. Tanaman jarak merah dapat menjadi bahanalternatif dalam pengendalian keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis.Kata kunci : schistosomiasis, J. gossypifolia, J. curcas, R. communis, O.h. lindoensisABSTRACTAt present, Scistosomiasis are still endemic in Indonesia, especially in Napu Highland, Poso Regency, Central SulawesiProvince. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis,the intermediate host of Scistosomiasis are wide spread in Napu Highland. Oneeffort of snail control on Scistosomiasis control program was used Bayluscide molluscicide every six mounths. Used ofchemical molluscicide have inadequacy because poluted the environtment. Used of herbal molluscicide to be alternativesnails control have done. Euphorbiaceae family know have molluscicide activity. The study aimed to determined theeffectiveness of Jatropha gossypiifolia, J. Curcas and Riccinus communis extract and fraction againts O.h Indoensis. The testwas conducted from March-September 2009 in Laboratory of Scistosomiasis Napu. The snails exposed with the solution ofJatropha gossypiifolia, J. Curcas and Riccinus communis extract for 24 hours, the mortality of snails were counted andanalyzed using probit to determine the LC 50 and LC 95 value. The result showed the methanol extract from Jatrophagossypiifolia, J. Curcas and Riccinus communis have lethal capacity againts O.h Indoensis. The concentration of J.Gossypiifolia seeds extract showed a highest lethal capacity to the snail, with LC 50 value in 10,41 ppm and LC 95 in 18,6ppm. The methanol fraction of J. Gossypiifolia seeds extract was the most effective among the ethyl-acetate fraction and nhexanefraction of J. Gossypiifolia seeds extract. Jatropha gossypiifolia may become an alternative to control O.h .lindoensis.Key words: schistosomiasis, J. gossypifolia, J. curcas, R. communis, O.h. lindoensis

VARIASI GENETIK Oncomelania hupensis lindoensisDENGAN METODE RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (RAPD-PCR) DI SULAWESI TENGAH TAHUN 2011

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 42, No 2 Jun (2014)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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AbstractSchistosomiasis is a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum.In Indonesia, S. japonicumis only found in three endemic areas in the highlands of Central Sulawesi in Lindu valley, Napu and Bada with the snailOncomelania hupensis lindoensisas intermediate host. The aim of the study was to examine variation genetic of Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis using RAPD PCR. The research divided into two phases which were field research for collecting Oncomelania hupensis lindoensisas samples and laboratory research, consisted of DNA isolation, quantification  DNA,  dilution  DNA,  RAPD  PCR,  electrophoresis  and  visualisation electrophoresis. Variation genetic of O.h.lindoensis from the schistosomiasis endemic areas was in the form of polymorphism levels, which were respectively 54.55%, 50%, 45.45%, 22.22%, 16.67%, and 14.29%. The results of this research showed a difference in genetic variation in the form of polymorphism of Oncomelania hupensis lindoensisfrom Lindu, Napu, Bada, highlands.Keywords : O.h.lindoensis, RAPD PCR, polymorfismeAbstrakSchistosomiasis adalah penyakit parasitik yang bersifat zoonosis. Di Indonesia schistosomiasis disebabkan oleh Schistosoma japonicumdan hanya ditemukan di tiga daerah endemik di Sulawesi Tengah (dataran tinggi Lindu, Napu dan Bada) dengan hospes perantara keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya variasi genetik O.h.lindoensisdengan menggunakan Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR). Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua fase, meliputi penelitian dilapangan yaitu pengambilan sampel keong O.h.lindoensisdan penelitian dilaboratorium yaitu isolasi DNA, kuantifikasi DNA, dilusi DNA, RAPD-PCR, Elektroforesis dan visualisasi hasil elektroforesis. Variasi genetik O.h.lindoensisdari ketiga daerah adalah dalam bentuk tingkat polimorfisme, yaitu berturut-turut adalah 54,55 %, 50 %, 45,45 %, 22,22 %, 16,67 %, dan 14,29 %. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya perbedaan variasi genetik O.h.lindoensisdalam bentuk polimorfisme yang berasal dari dataran tinggi Lindu, Napu dan Bada.Kata kunci: O.h.lindoensis, RAPD PCR, polimorfisme

ANALISIS GEN PENYANDI Schistosoma japonicum Gluthation s Transferase (SJ26GST) DI DATARAN TINGGI LINDU, SULAWESI TENGAH INDONESIA

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 42, No 4 Des (2014)
Publisher : Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan

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AbstractSchistosomiasis is only found at Napu and Lindu highland, Central Sulawesi in Indonesia. Schistosomiasis still as a public health problem, with its prevalence increase every year. The large scale by mass drug treatment using praziquantel has done to reduce the prevalence since 1980. To look for the possibility evidence of the development of resistance in S. japonicumto praziquantel in endemic areas by analysis of Schistosoma japonicumGluthation S Transferase (Sj26gst) Coding Gene. Moleculer laboratory study was conducted to analyse the sequences of S. japonicumgluthation s transferase gene (Sj26GST). DNA was extracted from adult S. japonicumusing isopropanol. Sj26GST gene was amplified used gradient PCR. The PCR result then run with electrophoresis and viewed using gel-doc. The Sj26GST band was cut and purified using Gene Aid Purification kitand amplified by PCR cycle sequencing, and the product was sequenced using Abi PRISM 310 Genetic analyser. The gene sequences of Sj26GST analysis showed that the homology was very high between isolate from Indonesia and several isolates from China that known still susceptible to praziquantel.. The results indicate that there was no evidence for reduced susceptibility of S. japonicum to praziquantel despite its extensive use in the endemic areas of Napu and Lindu for more than 20 years.Keywords : Drug Resistance, Praziquantel, Schistosoma Japonicum, SchistosomiasisAbstrak Schistosomiasis di Indonesia ditemukan di Dataran Tinggi Lindu, Napu, dan Bada Sulawesi Tengah. Schistosomiasis masih menjadi masalah kesehatan dengan angka kasus yang berfluktuasi setiap tahun. Obat praziquantel telah digunakan secara massal sejak tahun 1980an, sehingga perlu dilakukan analisis kerentanan cacing Schistosoma japonicumterhadap praziquantel. Penelitian ini  bertujuan  untuk  mengidentifikasi  kerentanan  cacing S. japonicum terhadap praziquantel di Dataran Tinggi Lindu, dengan analisis secara molekuler gen penyandi S. japonicum yaitu Gluthation S Transferase(Sj26gst) yang merupakan target obat praziquantel. Analisis molekuler dilakukan untuk menganalisis sekuen gen Sj26GST (cacing S. japonicum gluthation s transferase). DNA cacing dewasa yang diperoleh dari pembedahan tikus di Dataran Tinggi Lindu diekstraksi dengan menggunakan isopropanol, kemudian diamplifikasi dengan PCR gradien. Produk PCR dielektroforesis dan pita DNA yang terbentuk dilihat dengan gel doc dan UV viewer. Pita DNA yang menunjukkan Sj26GST pada gel kemudian dipotong dan dipurifikasi menggunakan Gene Aid  Purification  kit,  selanjutnya  diamplifikasi  dengan PCR  cycle  sequencing.  Produk  PCR kemudian disekuensing menggunakan Abi PRISM 310 Genetic analyser. Analisis sekuensing gen Sj26GST menunjukkan tidak ditemukan perubahan susunan basa penyusun titik katalis yang mempengaruhi perlekatan dengan substrat, yaitu tyrosin 7 menjadi phenilalanin sebagai indikator adanya mutasi. Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan bahwa tidak ditemukan perubahan susunan gen penyandi Sj26GST pada cacing S. japonicumdari Dataran Tinggi Lindu.Kata kunci : Resistensi Obat, Praziquantel,Schistosoma Japonicum,  Schistosomiasis

Penentuan Senyawa Phorbol Ester pada Biji Jarak Merah (Jatropha gossypifolia L) dan Bioaktifitas terhadap Keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis di Napu, Kabupaten Poso, Sulawesi Tengah

Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan Vol 43, No 3 Sep (2015)
Publisher : Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan

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AbstractSchistosomiasis is still a health problem in endemic area of Napu, Poso, Central Sulawesi. Snail Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediate host of schistosomiasis, is commonly found in the Napu region. Snail control was done by spraying molluscicides, but it affected the environment. The use of red seed extracts of Jatropha gossypifolia were expected to more safe to the environment. This study aimed to determine the phorbol esters contained in red Jatropha seeds and its bioactivites against Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis. The research was conducted on March-December 2013. The extraction and characterization of phorbol esters in J.gossypifolia L seeds were conducted in Centre of Biomedical and Health Basic Technology. The trial examination on snail was tested in the laboratory of Schistosomiasis Napu. The HPLC analysis showed phorbol esters contained in J.gossypifolia L seed extract was 0,601 mg PE/g extract. Phorbol esters found in J.gossypifolia L seed extract was Phorbol-12-myristat-13-asetat, with the retention time 25,152 minutes. The bioactivity test on snails showed LC 50 value was 50,98 ppmPE and 80,19 ppm PE for LC 95. The result showed that phorbol esters concentration in J.gossypifolia L seed extract was too low and it is not effective to be produced in large scale.Keywords : Schistosomiasis, Jatropha gossypifolia, phorbol esters, Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis snailsAbstrakSchistosomiasis masih menjadi masalah kesehatan di daerah endemis Napu, Kabupaten Poso, Sulawesi Tengah. Keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, perantara schistosomiasis ditemukan di Napu. Upayapemberantasan yang dilakukan selama ini adalah penyemprotan dengan moluskisida kimia, akan tetapi memiliki efek terhadap lingkungan. Penggunaan tanaman bermoluskisida diharapkan lebih murah dan lebihramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kandungan senyawa phorbol esters dalam biji jarak merah dan bioaktivitasnya terhadap keong perantara schistosomiasis, O.h lindoensis. Penelitiandilakukan pada bulan Maret-Desember 2013. Proses ekstraksi dan karakterisasi phorbol esters dalam biji jarak merah dilakukan di Laboratorium Farmasi, Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan Badan Litbang kesehatan. Pengujian terhadap keong dilakukan di Laboratorium Schistosomiasis Napu. Analisis HPLC menunjukkan kadar phorbol esters dalam ekstrak biji jarak merah adalah sebesar 0,601 mg PE/g minyak. Jenis phorbol esters (PE) dalam ekstrak biji jarak merah adalah dari jenis PMA (Phorbol-12- myristat-13-asetat). PE muncul pada Retention Time menit ke 25,152. Hasil pengujian phorbol estersdalam ekstrak biji jarak merah terhadap keong O.h lindoensis diperoleh nilai LC50 sebesar 50,98 ppm PE dan LC 95 sebesar 80,19 ppm PE. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar phorbol esters dalam ekstrak bijijarak merah terlalu kecil sehingga tidak efektif apabila diproduksi dalam skala besarKata kunci : Schistosomiasis, Jatropha gossypifolia, phorbol esters, keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis.

Survei cepat terhadap tikus dan keong perantara Schistosomiasis di daerah endemis, Dataran Tinggi Bada Kabupaten Poso, Sulawesi Tengah

Buski Vol 5, No 3 (2015): Jurnal Buski Volume 5 No. 3 Juni 2015
Publisher : Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pengendalian Penyakit Bersumber Binatang Tanah Bumbu

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Schistosomiasis merupakan penyakit terabaikan (neglected disease) yang ditemukan endemis di Sulawesi Tengah, yaitu di Dataran Tinggi Lindu, Napu dan Bada. Dataran tinggi Bada merupakan daerah endemis schistosomiasis yang baru ditemukan pada tahun 2008. Survei cepat ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai infection rate schistosomiasis pada keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis dan tikus, serta identifikasi tikus sebagai mamalia hospes definitif selain manusia di Bada. Survei dilakukan pada bulan Januari 2015. Pemeriksaan serkaria keong dilakukan dengan metode crushing. Tikus yangdiperoleh diidentifikasi kemudian dibedah untuk memperoleh cacing chistosoma japonicum dan penentuan infection rate pada tikus. Ditemukan tiga keong positif serkaria S.japonicum (infection rate 15%) dari 20 keong yang diperiksa. Diperoleh tiga ekor tikus positif cacing S.japonicum dari 20 perangkap yang dipasang (infection rate 100%). Jenis tikus yang diperoleh adalah Rattus norvegicus, R.argentiventer dan Paruromys dominator. Hasil survei menunjukkan bahwa tingkat infeksi schistosomiasis pada binatang cukup tinggi, sehingga menyebabkan siklus silvatik terus berlangsung.