Arief Nurrochmad
Departement of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta Indonesia

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Scientific Aspects of Water Extract Katola (Arcangelisia flava L. Merr) as Antidiarrhea Agent in Mina South Sulawesi Larisu, Muhammad Akhram; ., Sudarsono; Iravati, Susi; Nurrochmad, Arief
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 21 No 4, 2010
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (399.881 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp283-289

Abstract

Water  extract  of  katola  (Arcangelisia  flava  L.  Merr)  stem  is  traditionally used in communities Muna Distric for the treatment of many diseases, including anti  diarrhea.  According  to  the  information  of  Muna  Distric  Health  Office, diarrhea  is  one  of  the  10  groups  diseases  in  this  district.  The  objective  of  this study was conducted to determine the potential antimicrobial, acute toxicity and identified  of  the  water  extract  of  bioactive  compounds  and  alkaloid  relative concentration content.  Infection of microbial was induced by oral administration of  Shigella  flexneri  ATCC  12022  1  x  108 CFU/mL.  Boiling  water  of  katola  dose 12  mg/kg,  24  mg/kg  and  48  mg/kg  body  weight  and  the  antibiotic  ampicillin 24  mg/kg  administered  2  times  daily  for  5  days.  The  number  of  S.  flexneri  in feces were determined every day. The toxicity of water extract of  katola stem  is determined  based  on  the  value  of  LD50  acute  oral  toxicity  testing  followed  by guidelines  OECD  423. The  bioactive compounds was determined by bioautografi method  and  the  concentration  alkaloid  relative  content  was  calculated  as berberine  hydrochloride.  The  results  showed  that boling  water extract of  katola stem  did  not  cause  toxic  symtoms,  with  LD50  >  31.5  g/kg  body  weight (unclassified)  or  104  times  the  dose  therapy  of  human.  In  vitro,  the  Minimum Inhibition  Concentration  (MIC)  and  Minimum  Bactericidal  Concentration (MBC)value  of  the  boiling  water  were  1.2  and  2.4%,  respectively.  In  vivo,  the boiling  water  dose  48  mg/kg  body  weight  given  twice  a  day  have  an  effect  on eradication the S. flexneri 100% by day 5. Bioactive compounds of antimicrobial in  the  water  extract  is  alkaloid  berberine  HCl.    A  cocentration  of  berberine hydrochloride  in  water  exract  stem  and  leaves  dosage  use  of  the  public  were 16.7% and 0.75% respectively.Key words: Katola, toxicity, anti diarrhea, antimicroba, Arcangelisia flava L. Merr 
The advantages of fentanyl for the treatment of pain: Studies of pharmacological profiles and fentanyl relatedside effects Nurrochmad, Arief; Masahiko, Ozaki; Narita, Minoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 15 No 4, 2004
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (627.326 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp185-193

Abstract

The understanding of the pharmacological profiles of fentanyl and fentanyl-related side effects seems to be critical for the management for control of pain. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the advantages for treatment with fentanyl and the side effects such as emesis and gastrointestinal transit inhibition. The results demonstrated that fentanyl produced a profound antinociception in ferrets and mice than that induced by morphine. These findings are consistent with the experiences in the clinic. Morphine with lower doses than antinociceptive doses, produced a significant increase in gastrointestinal transit inhibition. However, fentanyl produced no gastrointestinal transit inhibition unlike morphine. These findings are consistent with the clinical experiences in the use of fentanyl. The clinical studies in patients chronic cancer pain showed that transdermal therapeutic delivery system for fentanyl (TTS-fentanyl) produces less side effects such as constipation, nausea and vomiting than that induced by oral morphine. Morphine with lower doses than that used for antinociceptive assay also produced either in the number of retching or vomiting. However, fentanyl failed to produce emetic response in ferrets. These findings indicate that fentanyl produces much less emesis than that induced by morphine. Finally, we conclude that fentanyl produced potent antinociception in ferrets and mice. In addition, fentanyl produced much less side effects including emesis and constipation. These findings may provide evidence for benefit and usefulness of fentanyl for clinical frame on the management of pain treatment.Key word: fentanyl; antinociception; emesis; ferret.
Effect of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. ethanolic extract on the lung tumor growth on post initiation phase in female mice induced by Benzo(a)pyrene Murwanti, Retno; Meiyanto, Edy; Nurrochmad, Arief; Kristina, Susi Ari
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 15 No 1, 2004
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (433.981 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp7-12

Abstract

Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. rhizomes has been used as a traditional cancer medicine since a long time ago, but the so far researches performed on the pharmacological mechanism were lacking. This present research has been done to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. rhizomes on lung cancer of female mice previously induced by Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P).Newborn mice were induced by B[a]P and then were separated between male and female mice. On 30th day after birth, female mice were given the ethanolic extract of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. rhizomes and divided into five groups. Three groups were given 200, 500 and 750 mg/kgBB extract, a group was given solvent (DMSO) as negative control, and another group was given nothing as positive control.The results of this present research shown that the ethanolic extract of Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. rhizomes has proved to posses inhibition effect on lung cancer growth in female mice, at dose of 250 mg/kgBB (49,63%), 500 mg/kgBB (73,33%) and 750 mg/kgBB (77,78%).Keywords : Newborn Mice, Benzo[a]piren, Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.
Effect of a selective GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, on the opioid-induced antinociception and rewarding effect Nurrochmad, Arief; Masahiko, Ozaki; Yajima, Yoshinori; Narita, Minoru; Suzuki, Tsutomu
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 16 No 2, 2005
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (176.606 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp94-99

Abstract

The management of excessive adverse effects is a major clinical problem. Multiple approaches have been described to address this problem. Successful pain management with opioids required the adequate analgesia without excessive side effects. The present study was designed to investigatethe effect of a selective GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on the opioid induced antinociception and rewarding effect. In the present study, we confirmed that either morphine or fentanyl produced a dose dependent antinociceptive effect in mice using tail-flick test. The results demonstratedthat co-administration of baclofen with morphine, fentanyl or oxycodone produced the synergistic effect on antinociception in mice. In the place preference study, we found that baclofen inhibited on morphine or fentanylinduced place preference in rats. These results suggest that coadministrationof baclofen with opioids produce synergistic antinociception with less effects of place preference We propose here that co-administration of baclofen with opioids may pave the way for the new strategy for the control of pain and recommended for the adjuvant drug.Key words : opioid, place preference, rewarding effects, baclofen
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GAMAVUTON-0 AGAINST D˗GALACTOSAMINE/LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED FULMINANT HEPATIC FAILURE Nurrochmad, Arief; Sari, Ika Puspita; Murwanti, Retno; ., Sardjiman; Candraningrum, Triana; Afritasari, Dyah; Martina, Devina; Siahaan, Iren Wati
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 23 No 1, 2012
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (334.554 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm0iss0pp18-26

Abstract

The  objective  of  this  study  is  to  determine  the  hepatoprotective  effect  of  GVT-0  (one  of  curcumin  analogues)  against liver  damage  in  rat-induced  D-galactosamine  (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide  (LPS)  as  a model  of fulminant  hepatitis.  In  the study D˗GalN/LPS  elevated  serum  GPT  activity  that  indicate  a particular occurrence of liver damage due to depletion of UTP and UDP-glucuronic acid. Administration of GVT-0 (10 mg/kg) showed decreased  enzyme  activity  of  SGPT/SGOT  but  had  no  effect  on serum  ALP  and  total  bilirubin  levels,  whereas  at  doses  of  20 and 40  mg/kg,  the  protective  effect  of  GVT-0  was  decrease.  The glutathione  content  in  the D-GalN/LPS  (0.76  ±  0.07)  mol/g  liver content was found lower than  controls  (0.90  ±  0.03)  mol/g  liver. Administration  of  GVT-0  dose  of  10,  20  and  40  mg/kg  restored glutathione content returned  to normal  levels. The results showed that treatment of GVT-0 showed no effect on TBARS and catalase activity.  Treatment  of  D-GalN/LPS,  indicating  the  trend  of increased  TNF-α,  although  statistically  not  significant,  while  the administration  of  GVT-0  showed  a  tendency  to  decrease  the concentration  of  TNF-α.  All  findings  of  the  results  indicated  that the GVT-0 mainly lower dose (10 mg/kg) showed hepatoprotective action  in rat  model  of fulminant  hepatitis induced  by D-GalN/LPS. The  results  indicated  that  the  mechanism  of  hepatoprotective effect  of  GVT-0  is  not  via  antioxidant  properties  of  GVT-0. However,  further  studies  are  necessary  to  explain  the  molecular mechanism of hepatoprotective effect of GVT-0.Key  words:  Gamavuton-0,  hepatoprotective,  fulminan  hepatitis, D˗galactosamine/LPS 
POLYMORPHISM OF CYTOCHROME P450 2A6 (CYP2A6*1 AND CYP2A6*4) AMONG JAVANESE INDONESIAN SMOKER AND NON SMOKER Patramurti, Christine; ., Sugiyanto; Nurrochmad, Arief; Martono, Sudibyo
INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 26 No 1, 2015
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (672.749 KB) | DOI: 10.14499/indonesianjpharm26iss1pp11

Abstract

Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is the principal enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines to their ultimate carcinogenic forms and metabolism of nicotine. The present study was developed to investigate the genetic polymorphism of CYP2A6 in Javanese Indonesian subjects carrying the CYP2A6*1 allele and the CYP2A6*4. The whole gene deletion of CYP2A6 (CYP2A6*4) may inhibit smokers from giving up smoking, but appears to function as a protective factor against to some cancer. However, the investigation of these allele, a major functional polymorphisms common in Asian populations, have not been reported among Javanese Indonesian population. A single polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to resolve the genotypes into CYP2A6*1 (wild type) and CYP2A6*4 (CYP2A6del). The sample studied consisted of 100 healthy subject that consist of 50 non smokers and 50 smoker from Javanese Indonesian population. The allele frequencies of *1 (wild type) and *4, were 47.5 and 52.5%, respectively. When the two allel were considered simultaneously, among the non-smokers, 45% were genotyped for CYP2A6*1/*4 and 5% were genotyped for CYP2A6*4/*4; on the other hand all of the smoker were genotyped for CYP2A6*1/*4 and there was no homozygote of wild type. Based on the data collected, it could be concluded that the polymorphism of CYP2A6 were detected in among Javanese population sample study and the allele frequencies of CYP2A6*4 were high.Key word: Polymorphism, CYP2A6*1, CYP2A6*4, Javanese Indonesian
Aktivitas Antitusif Dan Ekspektoran Ekstrak Etanol, Fraksi Polar-Semi Polar Herba Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.) Pada Marmut (Cavia porcellus) Fakhruddin, Fakhruddin; Nurrochmad, Arief; Widodo, Gunawan Pamudji
Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia Vol 14 No 2 (2017): Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia
Publisher : Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Setia Budi

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (426.559 KB)

Abstract

Phyllantus niruri L., yang merupakan tanaman liar, memiliki aplikasi yang luas dalam pengobatan tradisional. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu mengevaluasi aktivitas antitusif, ekspektoran, serta gambaran mekanisme antitusif herba meniran. Hewan uji marmut jantan sebanyak 36 ekor dibagi menjadi 9 kelompok masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari 4 ekor marmut. Aktivitas antitusif ekstrak etanol dan fraksi polar-semi polar dinilai dengan prosentase supresi batuk menggunakan asam sitrat 7,5% sebagai penginduksi selama 5 hari. Aktivitas ekspektoran dievaluasi dengan melihat konsentrasi phenol red pada trakea marmut pada hari ke 7. Gambaran mekanisme dievaluasi dengan melihat perbandingan pemberian ekstrak herba meniran tunggal dengan kombinasi ekstrak herba meniran dan kodein gambaran secara sentral pada reseptor opiod dan glibenklamide secara periferal pada ATP sensitive K+ channel. Hasil penelitian menunjukan ekstrak etanol dan fraksi polar-semi polar dapat meningkatkan supresi batuk dan memberikan supresi sekresi mukus dalam evaluasi ekspektoran. Fraksi polar-semi polar 160 mg/kgBB menunjukkan nilai antitusif paling efektif 63,57%. Frasi polar-semi polar 80 mg/kgBB menunjukkan penurunan sekresi phenol red sebesar 56,91%. Penelitian ini memberikan bukti bahwa meniran dapat digunakan sebagai antitusif dan supresi sekresi mukus. Herba meniran tidak memberikan gambaran mekanisme antitusif pada reseptor opiod atau ATP sensitive K+ channel. Aktivitas antitusif herba meniran mungkin dimodulasi saraf sistemik atau perifer lainnya.
Efek Penghambatan Terhadap Pertumbuhan Tumor Paru dan Uji Ketoksikan Akut Ekstrak Kapsul Chang Sheuw Tian Ran Ling Yao Pada Mencit (Mus musculus) dan Tikus (Ratus tanezumi) Fudholi, Ahmad; Meiyanto, Edy; Donatus, Imono Argo; Nurrochmad, Arief; Hakim, Arief Rahman; Murwanti, Retno
JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA Vol 5, No 1 (2008): JURNAL BIOLOGI INDONESIA
Publisher : Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (382.692 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jbi.v5i1.3202

Abstract

Inhibitory Phases Effect of The Lung Cancer And Acute Toxicity of Chang Sheuw Tian RanLing Yao Capsule Extracts in House mice (Mus musculus) and Rat (Ratus tanezumi). Effortsto find anticancer agents have been developed nowadays, some of them are focused in traditionalherbs. One of the available products in the market that claims effective to cure cancer isthe Chang Sheuw Tian Ran Ling Yao, PT. Daun Teratai extract containing CAPSULE (CSTRLYextract). The aim of this study is to examine of confession of some people which are usingthe useful of medicine CSTRLY extract capsule through inhibitor laboratory effect of theCSTRLY extract in the initiation and post initiation phases of the lung cancer in mice and ratsthat had been induced by eather Benzo[?]pyrene (BP) or Dimetilbenz[?]antrazene (DMBA)and to clarify the potency of acute toxicity and specific toxic manifestations of thephytopharmaca.The results showed that the CSTRLY extract can reduce the cancer incidence caused bycarcinogen, BP and DMBA. Moreover, the extract can also inhibit the cancer growth in themice and rats, especially in the early post-initiation phase. Further, the histopathologicalevaluation showed that up to the highest dose level that technically could be administrated tothe animals (12500 mg/kg bw), no animal death was occurred. Furthermore, the ADG values formale and female rats indicated no significant different (P > 0.05) that relative to the controlgroup. No animals were shows physical symptom as a toxic manifestation. It’s indicated thatthe phytopharmaca no influenced to somatomotor and nervous system. Within the dose rangeadministrations, no detectable morphological toxic effects or histophatological changes of theliver, spleen, heart, and lungs were observed. the acute toxicity value of Chang Sheuw TianRan Ling Yao Capsule was very low (or minimal almost non-toxic with LD50 > 12500 mg/kg bw)and the spectrum of toxic effects of the phytopharmaca were considered negligible.Key words: Ekstract, CSTRLY, mice and rat, BP, DMBA, carsinogenesis, lung cancer
PERBANDINGAN EFEK TERAPI PIRASETAM DAN SITIKOLIN TERHADAP PERBAIKAN FUNGSI KOGNITIF PASIEN STROKE ISKEMIK Wahyuddin, Munifah; Nurrochmad, Arief; Harjaningsih, Woro
JURNAL MANAJEMEN DAN PELAYANAN FARMASI (Journal of Management and Pharmacy Practice) Vol 3, No 4
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22146/jmpf.200

Abstract

Salah satu dampak yang ditimbulkan stroke berupa gangguan  kognitif. Neuroprotektor seperti pirasetam dan stikolin merupakan obat yang dapat mengatur fungsi serebral dengan  meningkatkan kemampuan kognitif pada otak yang menurun,  namun penggunaannya masih kontroversial dan menjadi  perdebatan berdasarkan penelitian ilmiah. Di beberapa Rumah  sakit yang ada di Makassar, penggunaan kedua neuroprotektor ini yaitu piresetam dan sitikolin banyak digunakan pada pasien stroke iskemik. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efek terapi pirasetam dan sitikolin terhadap perbaikan fungsi kognitif pasien stroke iskemik dilihat dari parameter (MoCA-Ina) The  Montreal Cognitive Assessment versi Indonesia.Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional dengan rancangan studi kohort. Metode pengambilan data dilakukan secara prospektif dimana pasien dikelompokkan dua kelompok,  yaitu 35 pasien kelompok pirasetam dan 27 pasien kelompok sitikolin. Pengukuran efektivitas pirasetam dan sitikolin  dilakukan sebelum dan sesudah (hari ke-7) pemberian terapi dengan menggunakan skala MoCA. Efek terapi dari pirasetam dan sitikolin ditandai dengan adanya peningkatan nilai MoCA.Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan bahwa pasien stroke iskemik  yang mendapat terapi pirasetam selama 7 hari berdasarkan total domain menunjukkan adanya perbaikan fungsi kognitif yang bermakna 0,000 (p<0,05), tetapi tidak ada perbedaan yang  bermakna pada masing-masing domain kognitif. Pasien stroke iskemik yang mendapat terapi sitikolin berdasarkan total domain,  menunjukkan adanya perbaikan fungsi kognitif yang bermakna yaitu 0,000 (p<0,05) dan pada domain orientasi 0,003 (p<0,05). Terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna pada domain pemikiran konseptual pada hari ke-7 pemberian terapi antara pirasetam 0,31±0,631 dengan sitikolin 0,04±0,192 dengan nilai signifikansi 0,033 (p<0,05), sedangkan untuk (Δ MoCA) tidak ada perbedaan efek antara pirasetam dengan sitikolin dalam perbaikan fungsi  kognitif pasien stroke iskemik dengan nilai signifikansi 0,217 (p>0,05).Kata Kunci: stroke iskemik, pirasetam, sitikolin, MoCA, fungsi kognitif
Molecular Docking Analysis of Ginger Active Compound on Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (TRPV1) Fajrin, Fifteen Aprila; Nugroho, Agung Endro; Susilowati, Rina; Nurrochmad, Arief
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 18, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (358.623 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.28172

Abstract

Ginger had been reported to ameliorate painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) in an animal model. Gingerol and shogaol were active compounds of ginger that potentially act on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a key receptor in PDN. This study aims to predict the binding of gingerol and shogaol to TRPV1 using an in silico model. The ligands of the docking study were 3 chemical compounds of each gingerol and shogaol, i.e. 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerol, 8 gingerol and 10-gingerol. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, was used as a native ligand. The TRPV1 structure was taken from Protein Data Bank (ID 3J9J). The docking analysis was performed using Autodock Vina. The result showed that among the ginger active compounds, 6-shogaol had the strongest binding energy (-7.10 kcal/mol) to TRPV1. The 6-shogaol lacked the potential hydrogen bond to Ile265 of TRPV1 protein, which capsacin had. However, its binding energy towards TRPV1 was not significantly different compared to capsaicin. Therefore, 6-shogaol had potential to be developed as a treatment for PDN.