Elisa Nurnawati
Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas MIPA, Universitas Sriwijaya, Indralaya, Sumatera Selatan 30662

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ISOLASI DAN KARAKTERISASI JAMUR PENDEGRADASI ZAT PEWARNA TEKSTIL Martani, Erni; Margino, Sebastian; Nurnawati, Elisa
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 18, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Industri tekstil tidak saja menghasilkan sandang yang merupakan kebutuhan primer manusia, tetapi juga mengeluarkan limbah yang berpotensi sebagai penyebab pencemaran lingkungan. Komponen utama limbah industri ini adalah berbagai jenis zat pewarna tekstil. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh isolat-isolat jamur yang mampu mendegradasi beberapa jenis zat pewarna tekstil. Isolasi dilakukan menggunakan metode surface plating di atas medium Potato Dextrose Agar, dan seleksi kemampuan degradasi pewarna berdasarkan atas toleransi terhadap konsentrasi zat pewarna, serta besar dan kecepatan dekolorisasi beberapa jenis zat pewarna. Sebagai parameter awal digunakan enam zat pewarna tekstil. Isolat-isolat unggul kemudian diidentifikasi awal berdasar atas morfologi mikroskopis terhadap miseliumnya. Dalam penelitian ini juga digunakan beberapa kultur murni jamur pembusuk putih sebagai pembanding. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan limbah cair dan padat beberapa industri tekstil dan industri pulp & paper, tanah gambut dari Kalimantan Tengah dan Riau, tanah sekitar Tempat Pembuangan Sampah Akhir, serta tanah seresah hutan. Dari berbagai sumber tersebut diperoleh 101 isolat jamur. Uji dekolorisasi kualitatif terhadap 6 zat pewarna menghasilkan 6 isolat unggul yang mampu mendekolorisasi lebih dari tiga jenis pewarna dengan kecepatan relatif tinggi. Masing-masing isolat unggul memiliki spesifikasi dalam daya dekolorisasi terhadap ke 6 jenis pewarna. Identifikasi awal terhadap isolat unggul menunjukkan bahwa mereka berasal dari genus Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium dan Stachybotrys. Sedangkan uji terhadap kultur jamur pembusuk putih sebagai pembanding menghasilkan 2 kultur unggul, yaitu: Phanerochaete chrysosporium dan Pleurotus ostreatus. Secara umum kemampuan dekolorisasi isolat-isolat jamur kebanyakan masih di bawah kemampuan kedua kultur murni tersebut, namun beberapa isolat justru memiliki kemampuan lebih tinggi dibandingkan kultur pembanding.
ISOLASI, SKRINING DAN IDENTIFIKASI JAMUR XILANOLITIK LOKAL YANG BERPOTENSI SEBAGAI AGENSIA PEMUTIH PULP YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Nurnawati, Elisa; Margino, Sebastian; Martani, Erni; Sarto, Sarto
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 21, No 3 (2014)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Xilanase merupakan enzim yang berfungsi luas dalam bidang industri. Xilanase digunakan sebagai perlakuan awal proses pemutihan kertas di industri pulp dan kertas sehingga dapat mengurangi penggunaan senyawa klorin yang berbahaya bagi lingkungan. Xilanase yang cocok digunakan dalam industri pulp dan kertas seharusnya bebas dari aktivitas selulase. Jamur merupakan salah satu kelompok mikrobia yang mampu menghasilkan xilanase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh isolat jamur unggul lokal penghasil xilanase dari tanah yang diasumsikan memiliki kandungan xilan tinggi. Tanah di sekitar industri pulp dan kertas; hutan akasia di Kab. Muara Enim dan Ogan Ilir, Sumatera Selatan; hutan Wanagama, Yogyakarta; penggergajian kayu di kota Palembang dan Yogyakarta serta TPA Palembang digunakan sebagai sumber isolat jamur. Berdasarkan skrining awal dalam media basal xilan agar diketahui bahwa dari 111 isolat jamur yang diperoleh, sebagian besar mempunyai potensi menghasilkan xilanase, akan tetapi hanya 12 isolat yang mempunyai kemampuan xilanolitik tinggi. Skrining selanjutnya dilakukan pada media basal xilan cair menunjukkan bahwa jamur yang diidentifikasi sebagai Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium simplicissimum, Aspergillus tamarii dan Monocillium sp. berpotensi unggul dalam menghasilkan xilanase dibandingkan isolat lainnya berdasarkan aktivitas enzim spesifiknya. Keempat jamur tersebut diketahui juga memiliki aktivitas lignolitik dan selulolitik. Oleh karena itu, xilanase yang diproduksi ke empat jamur tersebut berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai agen pemutih pulp.
Verulensi Jamur Beauveria Bassiana Indigenus Terhadap Spodoptera exigua Hub. Kamal, Mustafa; Kalsum, Umi; Nurnawati, Elisa
Jurnal Penelitian Sains No 17 (2005)
Publisher : Faculty of Mathtmatics and Natural Sciences

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Abstract

Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang virulensi Beauveria bassiana Indigenus terhadap ulat Bawang Merah Spodoptera exigua Hub. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui virulensi Beauveria bassiana isolat Lahat terhadap larva. Spodoptera exiguna dengan melihat daya bunuh isolat terhadap larva. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 4 perlakuan dan 5 kali pengulangan, dilanjutkan dengan Uji Lanjut Duncan dengan taraf nyata 5%. Waktu infeksi mulai terjadi pada hari ke 2 setelah aplikasi, waktu kematian larva mulai terjadi pada 4 hari setelah aplikasi, dan terjadi pada konsentrasi tertinggi (106 konidia/ml) diantara 2 konsentrasi lainnya (104 konidia/ml dan 105 konidia/ml). Persentase kematian S. Exiguna tetinggi mencapai 76% pada perlakuan 106 konidia/ml, terendah yaitu 0% pada kontrol. Beauveria bassiana dari tanah perkebunan Lahat sudah dapat membunuh larva Spodoptera exiguna pada konsentrasi 104 konidia/ml.
Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Jamur Pendegradasi Katekin dari Seresah Pinus Nurnawati, Elisa; Sembiring, Langkah
Biota : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Hayati Vol 8, No 3 (2003): October 2003
Publisher : Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (318.808 KB) | DOI: 10.24002/biota.v8i3.2855

Abstract

Isolation of catechin-degrading fungus from pine litter samples was done using minimal medium that containing catechin as sole carbon and energy source.  A total of 53 isolates were chosen to represent different colonial types of catechin degrading-fungus. The isolates were screened for their ability to degrade catechin in three stages. The first stage of screening was based on their ability to grow on solid medium containing 2 mM, and as a result, 28 isolates were selected.  The second stage of screening on the same medium but containing 4 mM of catechin resulting in 14 selected isolates. The third stage screening was based on their mean growth rate constant (k), instantaneous growth rate constant (m) and generation time (g) on minimal medium containing 4 mM catechin. The result showed that four isolates (D9, K2, K11, and S11) were the best catechin degradator. Further growth kinetic study  (k, m ,and g) of selected  isolates   indicated that  D9, K2, and S11 grew well on the medium containing 40 mM, but  K11 was inhibited by concentration of higher than 10 mM. Catechin biodegradation process was determined by following the decrease of catechin concentration on liquid medium. It was found that isolate K2 had higher ability to degrade catechin than the isolate K11. Finally, the four selected isolates from the third stage were characterized in terms of macroscopic, microscopic and phenotypic characters and identified. The result of the study showed that the isolates D9, K2 and S11 were identified as member of Aspergillus niger group. The isolate D9 was very similar to isolate S11, while the isolate K2 was found to be the most similar with Aspergillus niger van Tiegh. IFO 6341. The isolate K11 was assigned to be member of the genus Trichoderma.
POTENCY AND ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITE OF Trichoderma harzianum AC1(b) J2 INHIBITOR GROWTH Colletotrichum capsici IPBCC 13.1098 Nurkayah, Nurkayah; Nurnawati, Elisa; Widjajanti, Hary
BIOVALENTIA: Biological Research Journal Vol 5, No 1 (2019)
Publisher : Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24233/BIOV.5.1.2019.130

Abstract

Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus that can produce secondary metabolites which able to inhibit the growth of Colletotrichum capsici. a pathogenic fungus causing anthracnose in plants. the Aims of this research were to obtain and analyze the ability of secondary metabolites of Trichoderma harzianum AC1 (b) J2 isolated from Scleria poaeformis. to inhibit the growth of Colletotrichum capsici IPBCC13.1098. The secondary metabolite eluat of Trichoderma harzianum were tested for the antifungal activity toward Colletotrichum capsici IPBCC 13.1098. Fractionation was carried out by Column Chromatography and produced 31 eluat. The secondary metabolite eluat of Trichoderma harzianum with the highest inhibition zone diameter was eluat 1 with 8.4 mm in diameter. The secondary metabolite eluat with the highest value of inhibition zone was carried out by MIC test and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Based on the MIC results, the minimum inhibitory concentration of the secondary metabolite of Trichoderma harzianum to fungus Colletotrichum capsici was 250 ppm with inhibition zone diameter was 0.10 mm. The results of TLC showed orange spots on the TLC plate that indicated alkaloite compounds.
EXPLORATION OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI OF DRAGON SCALE’S FERN (Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) M.G. Price) AS AN ANTIBACTERIAL SOURCES Asiandu, Angga Puja; Widjajanti, Hary; Nurnawati, Elisa
BIOVALENTIA: Biological Research Journal Vol 5, No 2 (2019)
Publisher : Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24233/BIOV.5.2.2019.149

Abstract

Endophytic fungi are fungi which live inside the host plant tissue and have been undergone a horizontal gene transfer process. Endophytic fungi are able to synthesize the same bioactive compounds which synthesized by their host plants. The host plant used in this research was dragon?s scales fern (Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) M.G. Price). Dragon?s scales fern produces various of bioactive compounds which used as antibacterial agents such as polyphenols. This research was aimed to obtain endophytic fungi isolates from trophophyll fronds and sporophyll fronds of dragon?s scales fern, to determine the antibacterial activity of the secondary metabolite extracts of endophytic fungi, to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), to determine the characteristics of the endophytic fungi isolates which potentially as antibacterial source. Based on the research, 13 endophytic fungi isolates were obtained from dragon?s scales fern fronds consist of 5 isolates from trophophyll fronds and 8 isolates from sporophyll fronds. The antibacterial activity test showed that the extract of secondary metabolites of the isolate DTP2 had the highest inhibition zone diameter against E.coli 14.82 ± 4.05 mm, DTP4 against S.aureus 8.80 ± 0.03 mm and DSP4 against S.dysentriae 10.15 ± 0.36 mm. MIC of ethyl acetate extracts of secondary metabolites of isolate DTP2 against E.coli was 125 µg/mL, DTP4 against S.aureus was 125 µg/mL and DSP4 against S.dysentriae was 31.25 µg/mL. The endophytic fungi isolate DTP2 identified as Aureobasidium melanogenum, DTP4 identified as Penicillium alliisativi and DSP4 identified as Aspergillus flocculosus.