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Prediksi Sebaran Suhu dari Air Buangan Sistem Air Pendingin PT. Badak NGL di Perairan Bontang Menggunakan Model Numerik

ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences Vol 15, No 4 (2010): Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan
Publisher : Marine Science Department Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Tingginya suhu buangan air pendingin PT. Badak NGL yang dilepas ke Perairan Bontang menyebabkan terganggunya berbagai sumberdaya pesisir yang ada disekitarnya. Karena itu perlu diketahui pola sebaran suhu agar dampak yang mungkin timbul dapat diminimalkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memprediksi pola sebaran suhu dari buangan air pendingin PT. Badak NGL di Perairan Bontang, Kalimantan Timur. Prediksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan model hidrodinamika dan transpor suhu 3-D yang dimodifikasi dari model POM (Princeton Ocean Model). Gaya pembangkit yang digunakan dalam model adalah pasang surut, debit buangan air pendingin dan debit sungai. Pemilihan langkah waktu (t)=0,5 detik, dengan 118 grid (barat-timur) dan 187 grid (utara-selatan), ukuran grid Δx=Δy=30 m. Nilai awal : u=v=ζ=0, T0 = 28 °C dan S0 = 32 ‰. Verifikasi elevasi dan suhu antara hasil model dengan hasil pengukuran menunjukkan kesesuaian yang baik dengan nilai korelasi 0,97 dan Kesalahan Relatif Rata-rata (Mean Relative Error/MRE) 1,31% untuk verifikasi elevasi, korelasi 0,90 dan MRE 5,17% untuk verifikasi suhu permukaan pada saat bulan purnama serta korelasi 0,87 dan MRE 7,12% saat bulan perbani. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan perbedaan pola sebaran suhu permukaan paling ekstrim ditemukan pada saat purnama untuk kondisi cuplik pasang maksimum dan surut maksimum. Perbedaan terutama terlihat pada Stasiun 8 (Muara Kanal Pendingin) yakni 41 °C saat surut maksimum dan saat pasang maksimum (ΔT=6 °C). Adapun perbedaan suhu antara lapisan atas dan lapisan bawah yang cukup besar ditemukan di Stasiun C yakni sekitar 2,54 C saat  untuk skenario musim kemarau dan 2,32 C untuk skenario musim hujan Kata kunci : POM, buangan air pendingin, sebaran suhu, debit sungai, model numerik, Perairan Bontang High temperature of cooling water discharge of PT. Badak NGL that released to Bontang waters caused disturbances to the coastal resources in its surrounding. Therefore, it is urgent to understand the pattern of thermal dispersion in order to minimize the possible impacts occurred.  This research was aimed to predict the pattern of thermal dispersion from cooling water discharge of PT. Badak NGL in Bontang waters, East Kalimantan. Prediction was done using hydrodynamic model and 3-D thermal transport modified from POM (Princeton Ocean Model). Driving forces used in this model were tides, flows of cooling water discharge and rivers discharge.  Choice of time step (t)=0.5 second, with 118 grids (west-east) and 187 grids (north-south), grid size Δx=Δy=30 m. Initial value : u=v=ζ=0, T0 = 28 °C and S0 = 32 ‰. Verification of elevation and temperature between results of models and direct measurement showed a good suitability with correlation value was 0.97 and Mean Relative Error (MRE) 1.31% for elevation verification, correlation 0.90 MRE 5.17% and correlation 0.87 MRE 7.12% for thermal verification during spring and neap tides, repectively. Results simulation revealed the most extreem difference in pattern surface thermal dispersion that found during spring tide for sampling condition of maximum tide and ebb. Distinct difference was especially found at station 8 (mixing point) i.e. 41 °C during maximum ebb and 35 °C during maximum high tide. Whereas, significantly high thermal difference between upper layer and bottom layer was found at station C i.e. around 2,54 °C for dry season scenario and 2,32 °C for wet season scenario Key words: POM, cooling-water discharge, thermal dispersion, rivers discharge, numerical model, Bontang waters

The Design of Waterfront City Management Policy: A Case Study of Semarang Waterfront City

Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 34, No 4 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Abstract

Semarang waterfront city is a unique ecosystem with a great variety of potentialities as well as problems in the utilization of natural resources, particularly in the trade-off between economic growth and ecological preservation. Based on those conditions, the research is mainly focused upon designing some scenarios on environmental management, which ensure a profitable synergy of all stakeholders without sacrificing the principles of environmental conservation. Secondly, it is to design an interaction model among variables in the bio-physic, economy and social subsystems, in order to increase sources of learning and sustainable use of natural resources. Using a dynamic system, the main inputs of the designed model are the feasibility of natural resources management as a product of extended cost-benefit analysis (ECBA), the suitable option of natural resources management, as an input of comparative performance index (CPI), the integrated sustainability of using multidimensional scaling, the suitable land-use planning through geographic information system (GIS). From those main inputs the waterfront city environmental management policy can be observed as an output of analytical hierarchy processes (AHP).  The feasibility study shows that all of natural resources management options are feasible to be developed, where sustainable management, sustainable harvest and beach protected areas depict the most feasible management options.  Based on the results of the integrated sustainability research using multidimension scaling, the management of waterfront cities has to prioritize attention to the five important factors, i.e., (1) the issues of community empowerment; (2) the rate of land utilization; (3) the contribution of the industrial sector; (4) the availability of electricity and; (5) the availability of community organizations. Key words: sustainable environmental management, coastal and marine zone, dynamic and spatial dynamic system, waterfront policy strategy

Plancton Population Dynamics in Area Fishing Ground of Tiger Prawn Post Larvae and Milk Fish Fry on Coastal Water of Suppa Distric Pinrang Regency, South Sulawesi

Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 32, No 2 (2009): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Abstract

This research to study relation between environment parameter, plankton abundance and primary productivity with abundance of tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry, calculates plankton predating rate speed by tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry and other larva and studies plankton population dynamics, tiger prawn post larvae and milk fish fry before, at the time and after peak season.  Result of research indicates that some environment parameters significant differs according to observation period and season.  Highest abundance of tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva reaches to 29067, 7733 and 54400 ind/1000 m3. Highest grazing rate to population of phytoplankton and plankton (phytoplankton + zooplankton) found when predator consisted of tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva with grazing rate up to 125 cells/liter/hour and 129 plankter /liter/hour respectively.  Highest predating rate to zooplankton population when predator consist of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry and there is phytoplankton as their prey up to 12 individual/liter/hour.  The certain plankton species significant correlation and estimated as natural food of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry that is some types of diatom and crustaceae from zooplankton.  Plankton population dynamics especially controlled by predator by tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry and other larva, while influence of environment parameter is small relative. Abundance of each phytoplankton and zooplankton ranged from 583-28563 cells/liter and 22-3413 ind/liter.  Average abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton significant differs higher at peak season compare  before and after tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry season. Predator-prey relation between phytoplankton and zooplankton shows phase change which succession between phytoplankton controls to zooplankton phases with zooplankton control to phytoplankton.  Abundance of plankton influences abundance of population of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry especially after peak season.  There is concordance of time between peak abundance of tiger prawn post larva and milk fish fry and other larva with peak abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton.   Key words : population dynamics, predating, predating rate, predator, prey, phytoplankton, zooplankton, tiger prawn post larva, milk fish fry, other larva, Pinrang

Handling Operation Sustainability (Case Study: Semarang Waterfront)

Forum Pasca Sarjana Vol 34, No 2 (2011): Forum Pascasarjana
Publisher : Forum Pasca Sarjana

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Abstract

Semarang waterfront is a unique ecosystem which has a variety potentialities and problem of using some natural resources, especially in the trade-off between economic growth and ecological preservation.  Generally the handling operation of waterfront city in Indonesia is not effective, caused by (1) low budged and increase the poverty; (2) over loaded investment; (3) destroyed of ecology and ecosystem; (4) the lost of local wisdom; and (5) other problem in commonly urban city.  Based on these conditions, this research aimed to design an environmental management policy ensuring a profitable synergy of all stakeholders without sacrificing the principles of environmental conservation.  The objective of this study was to analyze the index and sustainability status of the Semarang waterfront area, based on five sustainable dimensions.  Secondary data resources have been used from literature study and references, primary data have been received from questionairy feedback and expert judgement survey.  The analysis  used multi dimensional scalling (MDS) method, called Rap-WITEPA, and the results were stated in the index and sustainability status.The second objective was to analyze the attributes that affect sensitivity on index and sustainability status and the effect of error using Laverage and Monte Carlo Analysis.  The result of this study show that ecological dimension was in the status of less sustainable (49,34), economical dimension was sufficient sustainable (53,96), socio-culture dimension was sufficient sustainable (52,21), dimension of infrastructure and technology was sufficient sustainable (56,72) and dimension of law & institutional was the highest sufficient sustainability value index (57,19).  Out of 94 attributes analyzed, there were 50 attributes need to be handled immediately as they affect sensitivity on the increase of index and sustainability status with negligible error in the level of 95% confidence limit.  It was concluded that an important factor of waterfront city handling operation design in Semarang is social community development, land use efficiency, industry contribution, electricity, and local society organization.   Key words: sustainability index, sustainability status, waterfront city

Dinamika Perubahan Mangrove Menjadi Tambak dan Total Suspended Solid (TSS) di Sepanjang Muara Berau

Jurnal Biologi Edukasi Vol 3, No 1 (2011): Jurnal Biologi Edukasi
Publisher : Jurnal Biologi Edukasi

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Abstract

The mangrove conversion become fish pond, bareland or others has an impact in water quality. One of water quality parameter is Total Suspended Solid (TSS), increasing TSS means the rising in pollution.  Landsat remote sensing data with multi channels used in studying the dynamic of mangrove – fishpond change and TSS along the Berau waters. Several regions with its variation are used in that dynamic studying.  The TSS algorithm for Berau waters is TSS (mg/l) = 3.3238 * exp (34.099*Red Band) , Red band=the atmospheric reflectance band 2 validated with field data. The result study is the conversion of mangrove become fish pond has the strong indication in the rising TSS .

DAMPAK PERUBAHAN KAWASAN HUTAN MENJADI AREAL INDUSTRI BATUBARA TERHADAP KUALITAS AIR DI SEPANJANG DAS BERAU–KALIMANTAN TIMUR

Jurnal Penginderaan Jauh dan Pengolahan Data Citra Digital Vol 8 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN)

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Abstract

The study of landused change: forest area become coal industrial area and its impact in Total Suspended Solid is done by remote sensing data. The different combination channel of remote sensing data are taken to extract landuse and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) spatial information. The supervised classification is used for land used spatial extraction and otherwise for TSS, there is a specifict algorithm; TSS = 3.8926 * exp (31.417*Red Band). The result showed that there was the relationship between landuse change from forest into coal industrial, shrub, paddy field, bareland and settlement area and the dynamic change of TSS along Berau watershed Key word: Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Remote sensing

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS) AND CORAL REEF GROWTH (CASE STUDY OF DERAWAN ISLAND, DELTA BERAU WATERS)

International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences (IJReSES) Vol 10, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : National Institute of Aeronautics and Space of Indonesia (LAPAN)

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Abstract

Total suspended solid (TSS) is one of the water quality parameters and limiting factor affecting coral reef growth. In this study, we used the algorithm of TSS= 3.3238*e(34.099* Green band) (where green band is reflectance band 2) to extract TSS from Landsat satellite data. The algorithm was validated with field data. Water column correction method developed by Lyzenga was used to map coral reef. The result showed that the coral reef area in Berau waters decreased significantly (about 12,805 ha or around 36 % ) from the year of 1979 to 2002. The most coral reef reduced area was detected around Derawan Island (about 5,685 ha). Further, some areas changed into sand dune. TSS concentration around Delta Berau and Derawan Island increased aproximately twice from 15- 35 mg/l in 1979 to 20-65 mg/l in 2002. The increase of TSS concentration was followed by the decrease of coral reef area.

The Existing Condition of Mangrove Region of Avicenia marina, Its: Distribution and Functional Transformation

JURNAL MANAJEMEN HUTAN TROPIKA Vol 20, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Mangrove ecosystem existence is important for environment and other organisms because of its ecological and economical values, so that management and preservation of mangrove ecosystem are needed. The purpose of this research was to determine the existing condition of mangrove, both its distribution and its functional transformation in Indah Kapuk Coastal Area. Avicennia marina  becomes important as wave attenuation,  a form of abrasion antidote. Transect-Square and Spot-Check methods were used to determine the existing condition of A.marina mangrove forests. Autocad program, coordinate converter, Google Earth, Google Map, and Arc View were applied in process of making mangrove distribution map. In western of research location exactly at Station 1 and Station 2, the density value of mangrove was 450 and 825 tree ha-1, respectively with  sparse category because they were contaminated by waste and litter. In eastern of research location namely Station 3, Station 4, and Station 5 the mangroves grow well with density value of 650 (sparse), 1,500 (very dense), and 1,200 tree ha-1 (fair), respectively, eventhough the contamination still happened. The mangrove forests around the stations do not function as wave attenuation because there were many waterfront constructions which have replaced the function of mangrove forests to damp the wave. In short, it can be stated that the mangroves function has changed in a case of wave attenuation. The function of mangrove forests is not determined by mangrove forest density but it is determined by mangroves free position.Keywords: Avicennia marina, mangrove, wave attenuation, waterfront constructions

STUDY OF SHORELINE CHANGES AT JENEBERANG RIVER DELTA, MAKASSAR

Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 3, No 2 (2011): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis

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Abstract

The study of shoreline changes during 1990 - 2008 in the delta of the River Jeneberang, Makassar was conducted by evaluating sediment transport into and out of a cell. Longshore sediment transport was computed by considering the influence of heights and angles of the breaking waves. Results of calculation of sediment transport showed that the dominant of sediment transport was to the north during the arrival of the southwest and west waves, and to the south when the wave coming from the northwest. Comparison between shore profiles resulting from model and coastline satellite imagery showed similarity. The difference between the two tend to be occurred at the head land part of the shoreline. This was due to complexity of coastal dynamic at the area. The results of the 19 years shoreline simulation showed that there was a tendency of abrasion at the upsteam head land part as the wave energy tend to converge and accretion at the bay part as the wave energy tend to diverge. Abrasion mainly occurred at Tanjung Bunga (head land) where the coast retreat 181.1 m. Accretion occur in the bay area (Tanjung Merdeka) where the coast advance to the sea for about 59.8 m. The shoreline tend to be stable when the profile was straight such as Barombong Coast.Keywords: abrasion, accretion, sediment transport, shoreline changes.

THERMAL DISPERSION MODEL OF WATER COOLING PLTGU CILEGON CCPP DISCHARGE INTO MARGASARI COASTAL WATERS AT THE WESTERN COAST OF BANTEN BAY

Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 2, No 1 (2010): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis

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Abstract

Thermal dispersion model based on the hydrodynamics model was applied on PLTGU Cilegon (electric power industry based on gas and steam) at the coast of Margasari, Pulo Ampel District, Serang-Banten. This PLTGU used around 60.000 mP3P/hour of seawater as cooling water system. Therefore, it produced water with high temperature of about 5 PoPC higher than the sourounding of seawater temperature. This high water temperature was flowed out into the coastal waters. This study tried to predict their distribution according to southeast and northeast monsoon. Model verification was conducted both to hydrodynamics component (tide and current) and water temperature. The verification results show good enough patterns between the model results and field measurement.Key words: Bay of Banten, cooling water system, thermal dispersion, hydrodynamics model