M. ANWAR NUR
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The Process of Xylanase Production from Bacillus pumilus RXAIII-5 RICHANA, NUR; IRAWADI, TUN TEDJA; NUR, M. ANWAR; SAILAH, ILLAH; SYAMSU, KHASWAR
Microbiology Indonesia Vol 1, No 2 (2007): August 2007
Publisher : Indonesian Society for microbiology

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Abstract

The optimum conditions for the growth of Bacillus pumilus RXAIII-5 (a potential xylanase producer) were sought, these included temperature, pH, aeration, and agitation of the culture batch. Afterwards a mathematical model based on the parameter of cultivation kinetics was formulated. At the same time, the rheology of the fluid used for bacterial cultivation in a bioreactor was studied. The data obtained was used for estimating the ‘scaling up’ of enzyme production. The results of the study indicate that the optimum condition for processing in 50 ml Erlenmeyer flask are used temperature of 35 oC (308oK), pH 7, and an agitation rate of 140 rpm. The highest xylanase activity and its specific activity are 297.132 U.ml-1 and 655.32 U.g-1protein, respectively. Subsequent experiments in a bioreactor using all of the experiment parameters mentioned above, except for the agitation rate, shows that the results are as follows. The highest specific growth was at 0.082 hour-1 at an aeration and agitation rate of 0.5 vvm and 150 rpm, respectively. Based on the data of the cultivation kinetics, the optimum conditions for the fermentation in Biostat 2L-bioreactor is 1 vvm and 200 rpm of aeration and agitation, respectively . The efficiency of substrate (Yp/s) and of cell biomass (Yp/x) to produce xylanase is 50.744 U.g-1 and 43.906 U.g-1, respectively. The efficiency of substrate to cell production (Yx/s) is 1.178g.g-1. The liquid cultivation-medium has non-Newtonian properties. Based on a mathematical model it is found that the consistency index (k constant) and index of liquid behavior (n value) are 0.179 g.cm-1.second-1 and 0.3212, respectively. Becouse the value of 0
Ekstraksi Xilan dari Tongkol Jagung Richana, Nur; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Nur, M. Anwar; Sailah, Illah; Syamsu, Khaswar; Arkenan, Yandra
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 4, No 1 (2007): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v4n1.2007.38-43

Abstract

Tongkol jagung merupakan limbah jagung terbesar (45%) yang mengandung xilan sekitar 12% dan belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Tongkol jagung mempunyai prospek untuk bahan baku industri xilan, yang merupakan bahan baku industri furfural, gula xilitol, dan bahan baku untuk media pertumbuhan bakteri xilanase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan metode ekatraksi xilan dari tongkol jagung dan karakterisasi xilan yang dihasilkan. Ekstraksi xilan dari tongkol jagung dilakukan dengan dua tahap yaitu proses delignifikasi menggunakan NaOCl (0,5; 1,0; 2,5; 5 dan 7,5%) kemudian pengendapan xilan dengan perlakuan rasio supernatan dan etanol 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; dan 1:4. Ekstrak xilan selanjutnya diuji kelarutan pada pelarut organik, asam, alkali, air panas dan dingin. Analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif xilan dilakukan dengan Khromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi . Hasi l penelit ian menunjukkan kombinasi perlakuan konsentrasi NaOCl 0,5% dan perbandingan supernatan:etanol 1:3 (v/v), menghasilkan rendemen xilan tertinggi (12,95%). Analisis dengan Khromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi menghasilkan khromatogram xilan dengan kemurnian 97,47%. Xilan yang dihasilkan sangat larut dalam alkali (NaOH 1%), larut dalam air panas dan dingin.Extraction Of Xylan From Corn CobCorn cob is the biggest part of corn waste (45%) which contain about 12% xylan which has not been utilized. Corn cob can be used as raw material of production of xylan. Xylan is the raw material for furfural, xylitol industry, and growth medium for microorganism producing xylanase.The objectives of this research was to find out the method of extracting the xylan, and characterization of xylan produced. The extraction procedure were done in two steps, firstly delignification using NaOCI (0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5 and 7.5%) and then precipitation using ethanol with the ratio of ethanol and supernatant (I: I; 1:2; 1:3; and 1:4). The solubility of xylan produced in organicsolvent, acid, alkaline solvent and in cold and hot water was observed. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of xylan were done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The research result showed that the highest yield (12.95%) whith purity (97.47%) was produced by 0.5% NaOCI and 1 : 3 ratio of ethanol and supernathant combination treatment. The highest solubility of xylan was in alkaline solvent (NaOH 1%), and soluble in hot and cool water.
Pemisahan Kardanol Dari Minyak Kulit Biji Mete Dengan Metode Destilasi Vakum Risfaheri, nFN; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Nur, M. Anwar; Sailah, Illah; Mas'ud, Zainal Alim; Rusli, Meika S.
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 1, No 1 (2004): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v1n1.2004.1-11

Abstract

Minyak kulit biji mete (Cashew nut shellliquidlCNSL) merupakan hasil samping dari pengo laban kacang mete, mengandung senyawa fenolik terutama kardanol. Kardanol merupakan senyawa monohidroksi fenolik yang mempunyai rantai panjang hidrokarbon pada posisi metanya. Kardanol memiliki potensi sebagai pengganti fenol pada berbagai produk industri kimia berbasis resin fenolik. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi optimum pemisahan kardanol dari CNSL dan mengidentifikasi karakteristik kardanol serta estimasi kelayakan produksi kardanol. Tahapan penelitian meliputi: (I) analisis sifat fisika dan kimia CNSL; (2) optimasi dekarboksilasi CNSL untuk mengkonversi asam anakardat menjadi kardanol; (3) optimasi suhu destilasi CNSL untuk pemisahan kardanol; (4) identifikasi destilat dengan GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry), HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) dan FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy); serta (5) estimasi kelayakan produksi kardanol. Kondisi optimum dekarboksilasi dicapai dengan pemanasan 140"(: selama I jam. Kardanol dapat dipisahkan dari CNSL dengan dettilasi vakum (4-8 mmHg), dan suhu optimum dicapai pada 280"(: dengan rendemen 74,22%. Karakteristik destilat CNSL sesuai dengan spesifikasi kardanol teknis. Komponen destilat terdiri atas: 3-[8(Z),II(Z),14-pentadecatrienyl] phenol 74,25%, 3-[8(Z), II (Z),14-pentadecadienyl] phenol 10,94%, dan 3-[8(Z),11 (Z),14-pentadecieny/] phenol 14,81%. Industri produksi kardanol layak didirikan, dengan nilai NPV = Rp 5.311.121.638, IRR = 45,79%, Net B/C = 2,46 dan PBP = 2,22 tahun. Isolation of cardanol from the cashew nut shell liquid using vacuum distillation methodThe cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a by product obtained during the cashew nut processing contained the phenolic constituents mainly cardanol. Cardanol is a mono hydroxyl phenol having a long hydrocarbon chain in the meta position. It has a potential as a subtitute for phenol in resin phenolic-base chemical products. The objective of the research was to find out the optimum condition in isolating the cardanol from CNSL and to identify the characteristic of cardanol and to estimate the feasibility of cardanol production. The research was carried out in several stages as followed: (I) analyses of physico-chemistry of CNSL, (2) dicarboxylic optimation of CNSL to convert anacardic acid into cardanol, (3) temperature optimation of CNSL distillation process, (4) identification of CNSL distillate using GC-MS, HPLC, and FTIR; and (5) estimation of feasibility of cardanol production. The optimal condition of the decarboxylation was heating at 14O"C for I hour. The cardanol was obtained from CNSL by vacuum distillation process at 4-8 mmHg, and the optimal temperature was achieved at 280"(: with the 74.22 % yield. The characteristics of CNSL distillate met the specification of technical cardanol. The constituent of distillate were as follow: 3-[8(Z),11 (Z),14-pentadecatrienyl]phenol 74.25 %, 3-[8(Z),11 (Z),14-pentadecadienyl]phenol 10.94 %, and 3-[8(Z),ll(Z),14-pentadecienyl]phenol 14.81%. The cardanol production industries was feasible to be implemented with NPV = Rp. 5.311.121.638, IRR = 45.79%, Net B/C = 2.46 and PBP = 2.22 years.
Optimasi Komposisi Kardanol Dari Minyak Kulit Mete Sebagai Subtitusi Fenol Dalam Formulasi Perekat Fenol Formaldehida Risfaheri, nFN; Irawadi, Tun Tedja; Nur, M. Anwar; Sailah, IIlah; Mas'ud, Zainal Alim; Rusli, Meika S.
Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian Vol 2, No 1 (2005): Jurnal Penelitian Pascapanen Pertanian
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pascapanen Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.21082/jpasca.v2n1.2005.24-33

Abstract

Minyak kulit biji mete merupakan hasil samping dari pengolahan kacang mete, mengandung senyawa fenolik terutama kardanol. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan komposisi kardanol yang optimum sebagai substitusi fenol dalam formulasi perekat fenol formaldehida. Pelaksanaan penelitian dibagi atas beberapa tahap, yaitu (l) optimasi komposisi mol senyawa fenolik, nisbah mol senyawa fenolik terhadap formaldehida, dan lama reaksi (2) optimasi komposisi mol senyawa fenolik dan pH reaksi, dan (3) analisis struktur resin perekat dengan FTIR (Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopy). Formulasi perekat yang optimum diperoleh dengan komposisi senyawa fenolik (I mol kardanol : I mol fenol), nisbah mol formaldehida terhadap senyawa fenolik (1,5 : 1,0). Kondisi optimum pembuatan perekat dicapai pada reaksi polikondensasi pH 10 dan berlangsung selama I jam. Kardanol dapat menggantikan fenol sebanyak 70 % dalam fonnulasi perekat fenol formaldehida. Perekat tersebut menghasilkan keteguhan rekat kayu lapis dalam keadaan kering dan basah (setelah direbus selama 72 jam) rata-rata 15,36 kg/em? dan 13,61 kg/em'. Persyaratan keteguhan rekat untuk perekat fenol formaldehida menurut Standar Nasional Indonesia 06-4567-1998, yaitu minimum 10 kg/em! (hasil uji dalam keadaan kering) dan 8 kg/em' (hasil uji dalam keadaan basah). Terjadi sinergis antara kardanol dan fenol pada reaksinya dengan formaldehida, sehingga reaksi formaldehida dengan kardanol tidak hanya pada cincin aromatiknya tetapi juga terjadi pad a rantai samping tidak jenuh (CIS) dari kardanol, sehingga meningkatkan keteguhan rekat kayu lapis. Optimation of cardanol composition from. cashew-nut shell liquid as phenol subtitute in phenol formaldehyde adhesives formulationThe cashew nut shell liquid is a by product obtained from the cashew nut processing, contains phenolics compound mainly cardanol. The objective of the research was to find out the optimum cardanol composition as phenol subtitute in phenol formaldehyde adhesives formulation. The experiment was carried out in several stages as followed: (I) optimation of mole composition of the phenolics and mole ratio of the phenolics to formaldehyde, and reaction time; (2) optimation of mole composition of the phenolics and pH reaction; and (3) the resin structure analysis using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy). The optimum formulation of adhesive synthesis as followed: the composition of phenol portion (I mole cardanol : I mole phenol), the mole ratio of formaldehyde to total phenol (1.5 : 1,0). The optimum condition of polycondensation reaction was achieved at pH 10 for I hour. Cardanol could substitute phenol as much as 70 % in the fenol formaldehyde adhesives formulation. The average of the bond strength of plywood produced using the adhesives in dry and wet condition (after boiled 72 hours) was 15.36 kg/em? and 13.61 kg/em! respectively. Requirement of the bond strength in Indonesian National Standard 06-4567-1998 is minimum 10 kg/em? (the result test on dry condition) and 8 kg/em- (the result test on wet condition). There are synergism of cardanol and phenol in reaction with formaldehyde, so therefore reaction of formaldehyde and cardanol did not only happen at the aromatics ring but also at unsaturated chain CIS of cardanol which caused an increase in the bond strength of plywood.