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Selective Media for In Vitro Activity Evaluation of Bacterial Biocontrol Against Pathogenic Vibrio ISNANSETYO, ALIM; MUHTADI, .; ISTIQOMAH, INDAH; NITIMULYO, KAMISO HANDOYO; TRIYANTO, .
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences Vol 18, No 3 (2011): September 2011
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

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Abstract

In vitro activity test is a critical evaluation to screen the potential biocontrol agent. We developed a selective medium for quantitative in vitro activity evaluation of bacterial biocontrol agents against pathogenic Vibrio in aquaculture. Sensitivity test of bacterial biocontrol and Vibrio spp. to nine antibiotics showed that oxytetracycline inhibited the growth of Vibrio spp., but did not inhibit the growth of the bacterial biocontrol. This selective inhibition activity of oxytetracycline suggested this antibiotic might be supplemented to establish a selective medium. The MIC of oxytetracycline against V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. algosus were 120, 250, and 120 mg/ml, respectively. These concentration did not inhibit the growth of bacterial biocontrols. Therefore, oxytetracycline was supplemented at 250 µg/ml in Zobell agar medium. This medium was used as a selective medium to enumerate the density of bacterial biocontrol. In vitro activity test of bacterial biocontrol (RLP1) against V. parahaemolyticus showed that strain RLP1 at density of 104 and 106 cells/ml was able to kill V. parahaemolyticus during 6 h incubation. At lower density, 102 cells/ml, this bacterial biocontrol agent was able to kill the pathogenic Vibrio during 12 h incubation. This study discovered a selective medium for the bacterial biocontrol and Vibrio spp. and provided the results of its application in the evaluation of in vitro activity of a bacterial biocontrol agent against V. parahaemolyticus. The results also revealed that strain RLP1 is a potential bacterial biocontrol against vibriosis in marine aquaculture.
ANALISIS KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN BERDASARKAN KOMUNITAS MEIOBENTOS DAN KUALITAS SEDIMEN DI PANTAI DAN AREA PERTAMBAKAN, PESISIR SRIWULAN KABUPATEN DEMAK Sidqi, Muhandis; Tandjung, Shalihuddin Djalal; Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 10, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Tujuan studi ini meliputi (1) menentukan kualitas lingkungan daerah pesisir dan tambak ikan, kualitas sedimen, dan komunitas meiobentos, (2) menemukan hubungan antara kualitas sedimen dan meiobentos, dan (3) menentukan tingkat produktivitas peikampungan tambak ikan berdasarkan jarak, tingkat polusi dan destruksi. Parameter kualitas air dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif-komparatif, sedangkan parameter sedimen dianalisis menggunakan PCA (Principal Component Analisys) untuk menentukan distribusi spasial pada setiap stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Komunitas meiobentos diperiksa dengan menggunakan CA (Factorial Correspondence Analysis) untuk mendeteksi tingkat distribusi spasial yang juga berdasarkan stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Data tersebut dianalisis menggunakan korelasi dan regresi untuk memahami pengaruh parameter bebas terhadap produktivitas tambak ikan. Kemudian tes statistik non parametric dari Kruskall Wallis digunakan untuk membedakan produktivitas pada 3 desa berdasarkan jarak terhadap sumber pencemaran dan tingkat destruksi tambak ikan. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa nilai parameter kualitas air (muddy, TSS NH3, NO2, beyond threshold level), negative redox potential (Eh) sediment value/reduction zone, and IMLP adalah moderat. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kondisi air di daerah penelitian tidak stabil. Penelitian juga menunjukkan nilai indeks diversitas yang rendah, dominasi organisme meiobentos tertentu, dan konformitas antar komunitas bentos. Hasil tes statistik Kruskall Wallis menunjukkan adanya signifikansi antara produktivitas tambak ikan dengan factor jarak dan tingkat destruksi diantara 3 desa dalam daerah penelitian yaitu Bedono, Sriwulan. Purwosari yaitu dengan nilai produktivitas 0.65,0.56, 0.41 ton/hektar/tahun.
AKUMULASI MERKURI PADA IKAN BAUNG (Mytus nemurus) DI SUNGAI KAHAYAN KALIMANTAN TENGAH Panda, Adventus; Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo; Djohan, Tjut Sugandawaty
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 10, No 3 (2003)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Sungai Kahayan di Kalimantan Tengah mengalami tekanan lingkungan karena adanya limbah merkuri yang berasal dari aktivitas penambangan emas tradisional. Di tempat tersebut terdapat 10a4 tempat penambangan emas sepanjang sungai dari hulu sampai hilir. Merkuri dalam sedimen sungai secara berturut-turut mengalami metilasi (methylation) oleh reduksi sulfat bakteri. Riset ini merupakan studi akumulasi merkuri (FIg) dalam Mytus nemurus, sedimen dan air, dari hulu ke hilir di sungai Kahayan. Total jarak dari hulu sekitar 296 km. Data dikumpulkan dari 3 lokasi sepanjang sungai. Dalam tiap lokasi tapak sampling berada di dataran baniir (floodplain). Penelitian dilaksanakan selama musim hujan. lkan ditangkap menggunakan rengge (gillnet). Penentuan metil merkuri digunakan metode modified CV-AAS (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa diantara sample yang diukur, akumulasi tertinggi masing-masing berada dalam sedimen sungai (0,336 mg.) dikutip dengan daging M. numerus (0,303 mg.g-1 + 0.342). dan air (0.058 mg-1). Merkuri memiliki tendensi meninggi menuju hilir. Hal ini disebabkan oleh tekstur sedimen yang didominasi oleh silt. Kondisi ini berpotensi untuk metilasi. Turbiditas, arus, dan pH menyumbangkan kenaikan tingkat merkuri di hilir. Asupan merkuri mingguan yang dapat ditoleransi menurut WHO adalah 171,42 mg adalah sama dengan 24,4 mg sehari jika seseorang mengkonsumsi 100 g daging M. numerus sehari. dimungkinkan bahwa akan ada 30,3 mg.g-1 yang masuk ke tubuh. Hal ini berarti bahwa merkuri disepanjang sungai Kahayan mengancam penduduk yang mengkonsumsi ikan dari sungai tersebut.
ANALISIS KANDUNGAN NITROGEN, FOSFOR DAN KARBON ORGANIK DI DANAU SENTANI - PAPUA Indrayani, Ervina; Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo; Hadisusanto, Suwarno; Rustadi, Rustadi
Jurnal Manusia dan Lingkungan (Journal of People and Environment) Vol 22, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Pusat Studi Lingkungan Hidup Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Kajian mengenai analisis kandungan nitrogen (N), fosfor (P) dan karbon organik (KO) telah dilakukan di Danau Sentani, Papua. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari kandungan ketiga unsur tersebut di perairan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode survei berstrata (stratified sampling method) sesuai dengan tujuan (purposive). Metode pengukuran dan pengambilan sampel menggunakan teknik Composit Sampling. Area penelitian dibagi atas 4 zona yaitu inlet, KJA, tengah danau dan outlet. Analisis data menggunakan Program Microsoft Excel 2007 dan Analisis Varians (ANOVA) pada taraf kepercayaan 90%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio N:P perairan danau adalah 10,248 mg/L/bln di inlet; 2,417 mg/L/bln di KJA; 0,683 mg/L/bln di tengah danau dan 8,351 mg/L/bln di outlet. Sementara itu, rasio C:N adalah 15,008 mg/L/bln di inlet; 47,647 mg/L/bln di KJA; 90,884 mg/L/bln di tengah danau dan 6,777 mg/L/bln di outlet. 
Korelasi antara Beberapa Karakter Reproduksi dengan Panjang Total Ikan Brek [Puntius orphoides (Valenciennes 1842)] di Sungai Klawing Purbalingga Suryaningsih, Suhestri; Sagi, Mammed; Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo; Hadisusanto, Suwarno
Majalah Ilmiah Biologi BIOSFERA: A Scientific Journal Vol 28, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Fakultas Biologi | Universitas Jenderal Soedirman

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The red chick barb [Puntius orphoides (Valenciennes 1842)] is a member of Cyprinidae with high economic value. However, this species is still uncultured. The high market demand is fulfilled by direct collection  from their natural habitat.  In order to avoid overexploitation, domestication effort is needed.  The success of this effort needs some biological information e.g. reproductive characters.  This research aims to know some reproductive characters of red cheek barb collected at Klawing River Purbalingga Central Java.  A survey method was used with performing simple random sampling technique. The measured parameters were gonad maturity, fecundity, and gonad somatic indices (GSI) related to total length. The fish were collected monthly from June until November 2009. Data analysis includes length distribution, and correlation among gonad maturity, fecundity, and gonad somatic indices with body length. The result showed that red cheek barb from Klawing River has variable body length, most of the female individuals (34.37%) had body length ranges from 14.3-16.2 cm, whereas the majority of the male individuals (44.95%) had length distribution from 12.1-14.6 cm. The variation on  gonad maturity was observed during the research both on female and male individuals. However, most of the populations were on the highest level of gonad maturity (level IV) only in September and October. A positive correlation between gonad maturity and body length was observed on the male individuals (r=0.0424) as well as on the female individuals (r=0.4339). The fecundity was ranges from 4.097 up to 32.794 eggs. A positive correlation was also observed between fecundity and body length (r=0.6403). A monthly GSI variation was found both on the female and the male individuals with the highest peak of GSI was observed in September and October. A positive correlation between GSI and body length was found on female individuals (r=7.07 x 10-3) as well as on male individuals (r=0.376).
EFEKTIVITAS VAKSIN POLIVALEN UNTUK PENGENDALIAN VIBRIOSIS PADA KERAPU TIKUS (Cromileptes altivelis) Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo; Isnansetyo, Alim; Triyanto, Triyanto; Murdjani, Muhammad; Sholichah, Lili
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 7, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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The objective of this research was to know the effectiveness of polyvalen  Vibrio vaccine to control vibriosis in humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis). The effectiveness of vaccine was evaluated by the survival rate (SR), relative percent survival (RPS), mean time to death (MTD) as well as growth rate of vaccinated fish. This research consisted of 4 treatments (control, injection, immersion, and oral vaccinations) in quadruplicates. Injection  vaccination was conducted by intraperitoneal injection of polyvalen vaccine at 107 cells/fish. Immersion vaccination was done by immersing the fishes at 107 cells/ml for 30 minutes. Oral administration of vaccine was also carried out  at 107 cells/fish. One week after the first vaccination, second vaccination (booster) was carried out at the same dosage and by the same administration. One week after the second vaccination, fishes were challenged with 3.16x104 cells/fish of Vibrio ordalii 3J by intraperitoneal injection, and reared for 20 days post infection. Results indicated that polyvalen Vibrio vaccine increased SR (P<0.01) up to 100%. Vaccination was also able to delay MTD of fishes. However, the vaccination was not influence the growth rate of fish.
Patogenisitas Vibrio Fluvialis 24SK terhadap Kerapu Tikus (Cromileptes altivelis) Istiqomah, Indah; Isnansetyo, Alim; Triyanto, Triyanto; Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo; Murdjani, Muhammad
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 8, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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This research was aimed to investigate the pathogenicity of Vibrio fluvialis 24SK in humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) based on its Lethal Dosage 50 (LD50). V. fluvialis 24SK was isolated from ren of humpback grouper cultured in floating net cage at Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Center (BADC) Situbondo, with vibriosis signs. The bacterium was cultured in Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB) medium dissolved in trisalt solution (KCl, 0.75 g/l; MgSO4.7H2O; 14.2 g/l; NaCl, 18.4 g/l), incubated at 300C for 24 h. Infection was carried out by interperitoneal injection to humpback grouper (8-9 cm of total length) at 102, 104, 106, and 108 cfu/fish. Control fishes were injected with 0.2 ml trisalt solution. Disease sign and mortality of fishes were observed every eight hour for 40 days. LD50 was calculated based on Dragstedt Behrens method (Hubert, 1980). Result indicated that infection of the bacteria at 106 and 108 cfu/fish caused sub-acute disease signs, such as haemorhagic on operculum, base of fins (pinnae pectorales, pinnae abdominales, pinna analis), and also head and abdomen, while infection at 102 and 104 cfu/fish caused chronic disease signs, such as haemorhagic on fins base which was followed by necrotic on fins and skin tissue in prolonged time. Histopathologically, infection of the bacteria caused atrophy on the gills, infiltrations of lymphocyte, heterofel and plasma cell on the gills and fins base, vacuolar degeneration on the liver, and also present the bacteria colony on the fins base and intestine tissues. V. fluvialis 24SK has LD50 at (1,1±0,5)x107 cfu/fish.
ISOLASI, IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI Vibrio spp. PATOGEN PENYEBAB VIBRIOSIS PADA KERAPU DI BALAI BUDIDAYA AIR PAYAU SITUBONDO Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo; Isnansetyo, Alim; Triyanto, Triyanto; Istiqomah, Indah; Murdjani, Muhammmad
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 7, No 1 (2005)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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This research was conducted to isolate, identify, and characterize pathogenic Vibrio spp., causative agents of vibriosis in grouper at Brackishwater Aquaculture Development Center (BADC), Situbondo. Twenty-nine isolates were isolated from wound, gills, eyes, liver, and ren of grouper with vibriosis on Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose Agar (TCBSA) medium. Koch Postulate Test was conducted to determine pathogenic Vibrio spp., by intraperitoneal injection to humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) (9-10 cm of total length) at 106 cells/fish in triplicates. Results indicated that the pathogenic Vibrio spp., causative agents of vibriosis in grouper at BADC, Situbondo were identified to be V. alginolyticus, V. anguillarum, V. metchnikovii, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis, V. furnisii, and V. parahaemolyticus. Infection of the pathogenic Vibrio spp. caused acute mortality within 17-46 hours with specific disease signs like haemorhagic on fins (pinnae pectorales, pinnae abdominales, pinna analis) and also on the body. These results suggested that vibriosis should be monitored and controlled properly and quickly.
Struktur Populasi Karang Pocillopora damicornis di Pulau Panjang, Jawa Tengah Munasik, Munasik; Suharsono, Suharsono; Situmorang, Jesmandt; Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo
Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Vol 8, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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The scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis was abundant in both southern and northern of Panjang Island, Central Java. The aim of this study was to observe the colony distribution and population structure of coral P. damicornis at Panjang Island, Central Java. Quadrates transect (4 x 4 m) were applied in eight census lines perpendicular to the seaward edge of the coral zone. For the study of coral density and colony size-frequency distribution, the quadrates transects also placed parallel with shoreline in northern and southern sites of Panjang Island. The coral was occurred from 0.4 to 5 m water depth and most abundant in the front reef zone of the southern site. The maximum density was occurred in southern site (1.06 colony/m2), with aggregated at the 117-184 m on the census line. Coral size in terms of maximum diameter ranged from 1 to 35 cm with an average 12.76 ± 7.3 cm in southern site and 17.7 ± 10.76 cm in the northern site. The study showed that coral colony size-frequency distribution of P. damicornis was different between southern and northern site.
MANIPULATION OF INCEPTISOLS POND BOTTOM SOIL THROUGH ADDITION OF ULTISOLS AND VERTISOLS FOR REARING OF RED TILAPIA (Oreochromis sp.) LARVAE Hasibuan, Saberina; Kertonegoro, Bambang Djadmo; Nitimulyo, Kamiso Handoyo; Hanudin, Eko
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 6, No 1 (2011): (June 2011)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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The pond bottom soil of Inceptisols mixed with Ultisols (I-U) and Vertisols (I-G) with the proportion of (70:30); (50:50); (30:70) showed the improvement of clay fractions &gt;30% compared with the control (100% Inceptisols). These mixtures were given basal fertilizer (quail droppings manure with dosage of 2 tons/ha/month), Urea, and SP36. Cultivation system was divided into two stocked: fish ponds with 50 fish/m2 and ponds without fish. The best mix with the basal fertilizer was further treated with fertilization treatment (1 ton/ha/month of quail droppings manure) 3 times within 42 days of larval rearing. Physical and chemical soil analyses showed an increase of total soil porosity (&gt; 50%), decrease of SG, BD, and permeability (medium), pH &gt; 5, the CEC &gt; 20 cmol (+) kg-1, and the C/N ratio &lt; 6.5. The proportion of the best mix of 30% I : 70% U and 50% I : 50% G with 3 times of the fertilization frequency gave significant improvement of water quality, chlorophyll-a, diversity of plankton, benthic algae, fish growth, and total biomass. The presence of mineral montmorillonite on a mixture of 50% I : 50% G was a very good sign of the bottom soil fertility.