Arif Nirsatmanto
Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement, Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar Km. 15, Purwobinangun, Yogyakarta 55582 - Indonesia

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GENETIC VARIATION OBSERVED IN COMPOSITE SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD OF Acacia mangium Willd. AT CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA : IMPLICATIONS FOR INCREASING GENETIC GAIN AND SEED PRODUCTION Nirsatmanto, Arif
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 9, No 2 (2012): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.746 KB)

Abstract

As part of multiple-population breeding scheme using sub-lining system, a composite seedling seed orchard of was established at Central Java, Indonesia. The orchard comprises a combination of the best 40 plus tree families selected from four sub-lines in the first-generation of Acacia mangium progeny trial. The design of orchard is randomized complete block laid-out as four line tree-plot of six replications with a spacing of 2 x 4 meter. Variation among sub-lines and families within sub-line, andgenetic parameters for height, dbh and volume were investigated at age of 24 months. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic variation for growth traits in a composite seedling seed orchard and todiscuss the implication for increasing genetic gain and seed production. In general, trees derived from two sub-lines of Papua New Guinea (PNG) provenance showed better growth than those from Far North Queensland, Australia (FNQ). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among sublines and families within sub-line for height, dbh and volume. Variation of the traits among families within sub-line accounted for 1.1% to 5.0%, and trees within family 43.8% to 65.8%. Heritability varied from 0.044 to 0.201 for individual, 0.060 to 0.229 for within-family and 0.098 to 0.383 for family. Withinfamily selection promoted high genetic gain for all traits, ranging from 1.3% to 4.4%. In order to increase genetic gain and seed productivity, it is recommended that:(1) the best plus trees included in the orchard should be selected based on their progeny test, (2) the design of plot size should be single treeplot, (3) the final density of seed trees should be twice greater than the number of trees intended forseed collection, which is about 300 trees per hectare.
TREND OF REALIZED GENETIC GAIN OBSERVED IN SECOND-GENERATION SEEDLING SEED ORCHARDS OF ACACIA MANGIUM IN SOUTH KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA Nirsatmanto, Arif; Setyaji, Teguh; Surip, Surip
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 1 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1346.557 KB)

Abstract

Comprehensive  tree improvement  program for Acacia mangium has been started since 1992 by establishing  a  series  of  first generation  Seedling  Seed  Orchards  (SSO)  in  Indonesia.  Selection procedures in the first-generation of SSO have completely finished, and subsequently it was continued for second-generation improvement. This paper examines a trend of realized genetic gain as a response of selection practiced in the first-generation SSO. The observation was carried out in three sub-lines of the second-generation SSO (namely Sub-line B, C and D). Parameters recorded included tree height, diameter at breast height (dbh) and stem straightness that were recorded periodically up to 4 years growth. The realized genetic gain was calculated as a percentage of improved plus trees population in the first-generation of  SSO compared to those of  unimproved trees. The results showed that the improved population was consistently better that those of unimproved one until 4 years of age. There were variation in terms of realized genetic gain parameters recorded depending on the sub-lines and ages. The tree height varied from 1.1% to 5%, while dbh and stem straightness were in the ranges of 2.8% to 6.7% and from 1.8% to 8.4%, respectively. Across the three sub-lines, the tree height varied from 2.2% to 3.1%, while dbh and stem straightness were in the ranges of 4.3% to 5.2% and 4.3% to 6%, respectively.  In general, the trend of the realized genetic gains slightly decreased for dbh and tree height with the increasing of ages, while it slightly increased for stem straightness.
REALIZED GENETIC GAIN AND SEED SOURCE X SITE INTERACTION ON STAND VOLUME PRODUCTIVITY OF ACACIA MANGIUM Nirsatmanto, Arif; Setyaji, Teguh; Wahyuningtyas, Reny Setyo
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 1, No 1 (2014): Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

Following the results of the comprehensive tree improvement programs for Acacia mangium, it is necessary to estimate the real amount of genetic improvement and to develop an improved seed deployment strategy.  This study was aimed to verify realized genetic gain on stand volume productivity attained by the first-generation Seedling Seed Orchards (SSO) of A. mangium and to identify the magnitude of seed sources x site interaction as a basis for improved seed deployment. Seeds from five SSOs were tested together with seeds from seed stand in genetic gain trials which were established in South Kalimantan and Central Java. Realized gains were calculated from the percentage improvement of respective SSOs compared with seed stand at two and four years of age. Seed source x site interaction was investigated through analysis across the two sites.  Results of the study showed that trees derived from the five SSOs produced better stand volume than those from seed stand. At four years of age, stand volume of the best SSO reached around 127 m3/ha in South Kalimantan and 84 m3/ha in Central Java.  Realized genetic gain were around 66% at two years and 59% at four years in South Kalimantan, and around 136% at two years and 81% at four years in Central Java.  Seed source x site interaction was not significantly different indicating superiority of improved seed were consistent across the two sites with the average realized gain ranging from 18% to 79% and 24% to 62%  at two and four years, respectively. The best three SSOs were SSO-1 located in Pleihari-South Kalimantan, SSO-2 in Pendopo-South Sumatra and SSO-5 in Wonogiri-Central Java, all of which  originated from Papua New Guinea provenances. Improved seed from the orchards could be used at plantation sites without any significant change of the order in their superiority for stand volume productivity.
EVALUATION FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF EARLY SELECTION IN Acacia mangium SEEDLING SEED ORCHARDS BASED ON AGE TRENDS IN GENETIC PARAMETER Nirsatmanto, Arif; Kurinobu, Susumu; Shiraishi, Susumu
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 9, No 1 (2012): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (188.535 KB)

Abstract

The efficiency of early selection was evaluated based on age trend in genetic parameters using tree height data that was measured periodically repeatedly up to age 3 years of age in four seedling seed orchards of Acacia mangium at South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The four orchards were grouped into two populations based upon their provenances, namely: Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Far North Queensland-Australia (FNQ). A model for time trend of genetic parameters was developed by fitting regression equation to the estimates of variances and correlations using tree height data as an independent variable. In both populations, genetic variances and total phenotypic variances increased along with the mean height. Trend of individual heritability along the rotation ages were almost stable at around 0.19 for PNG, and gradually increased from 0.36 to 0.40 for FNQ. Trend of genetic correlations between selection age and rotation age increased rapidly starting at around 0.5 for PNG and 0.6 for FNQ, then exceeding 0.9 at age four years in both populations. Genetic gains due to indirect selection increased with age, in which the gains in FNQ were generally larger than those in PNG. Selection efficiency based on gain per year as a ratio of the gains from indirect selection to direct selection may conclude resulted the optimum age for selection at age two years old in both of PNG and FNQ population.
GENETIC GAIN AND PROJECTED INCREASE IN STAND VOLUME FROM TWO CYCLES BREEDING PROGRAM OF Acacia mangium: IMPLICATIONS TO PLANTATION PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY IN INDONESIA Nirsatmanto, Arif; Setyaji, Teguh; Sunarti, Sri; Kartikaningtyas, Dwi
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 2, No 2 (2015): Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

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Abstract

EVALUATION FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF EARLY SELECTION IN Acacia mangium SEEDLING SEED ORCHARDS BASED ON AGE TRENDS IN GENETIC PARAMETER Nirsatmanto, Arif; Kurinobu, Susumu; Shiraishi, Susumu
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 9, No 1 (2012): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (188.535 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2012.9.1.16-24

Abstract

The efficiency of early selection was evaluated based on age trend in genetic parameters using tree height data that was measured periodically repeatedly up to age 3 years of age in four seedling seed orchards of Acacia mangium at South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The four orchards were grouped into two populations based upon their provenances, namely: Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Far North Queensland-Australia (FNQ). A model for time trend of genetic parameters was developed by fitting regression equation to the estimates of variances and correlations using tree height data as an independent variable. In both populations, genetic variances and total phenotypic variances increased along with the mean height. Trend of individual heritability along the rotation ages were almost stable at around 0.19 for PNG, and gradually increased from 0.36 to 0.40 for FNQ. Trend of genetic correlations between selection age and rotation age increased rapidly starting at around 0.5 for PNG and 0.6 for FNQ, then exceeding 0.9 at age four years in both populations. Genetic gains due to indirect selection increased with age, in which the gains in FNQ were generally larger than those in PNG. Selection efficiency based on gain per year as a ratio of the gains from indirect selection to direct selection may conclude resulted the optimum age for selection at age two years old in both of PNG and FNQ population.
EVALUATION FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF EARLY SELECTION IN Acacia mangium SEEDLING SEED ORCHARDS BASED ON AGE TRENDS IN GENETIC PARAMETER Nirsatmanto, Arif; Kurinobu, Susumu; Shiraishi, Susumu
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 9, No 1 (2012): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (188.535 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2012.9.1.16-24

Abstract

The efficiency of early selection was evaluated based on age trend in genetic parameters using tree height data that was measured periodically repeatedly up to age 3 years of age in four seedling seed orchards of Acacia mangium at South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The four orchards were grouped into two populations based upon their provenances, namely: Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Far North Queensland-Australia (FNQ). A model for time trend of genetic parameters was developed by fitting regression equation to the estimates of variances and correlations using tree height data as an independent variable. In both populations, genetic variances and total phenotypic variances increased along with the mean height. Trend of individual heritability along the rotation ages were almost stable at around 0.19 for PNG, and gradually increased from 0.36 to 0.40 for FNQ. Trend of genetic correlations between selection age and rotation age increased rapidly starting at around 0.5 for PNG and 0.6 for FNQ, then exceeding 0.9 at age four years in both populations. Genetic gains due to indirect selection increased with age, in which the gains in FNQ were generally larger than those in PNG. Selection efficiency based on gain per year as a ratio of the gains from indirect selection to direct selection may conclude resulted the optimum age for selection at age two years old in both of PNG and FNQ population.
GENETIC VARIATION OBSERVED IN COMPOSITE SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD OF Acacia mangium Willd. AT CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA : IMPLICATIONS FOR INCREASING GENETIC GAIN AND SEED PRODUCTION Nirsatmanto, Arif
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 9, No 2 (2012): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (134.746 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2012.9.2.91-99

Abstract

As part of multiple-population breeding scheme using sub-lining system, a composite seedling seed orchard of was established at Central Java, Indonesia. The orchard comprises a combination of the best 40 plus tree families selected from four sub-lines in the first-generation of Acacia mangium progeny trial. The design of orchard is randomized complete block laid-out as four line tree-plot of six replications with a spacing of 2 x 4 meter. Variation among sub-lines and families within sub-line, andgenetic parameters for height, dbh and volume were investigated at age of 24 months. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic variation for growth traits in a composite seedling seed orchard and todiscuss the implication for increasing genetic gain and seed production. In general, trees derived from two sub-lines of Papua New Guinea (PNG) provenance showed better growth than those from Far North Queensland, Australia (FNQ). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among sublines and families within sub-line for height, dbh and volume. Variation of the traits among families within sub-line accounted for 1.1% to 5.0%, and trees within family 43.8% to 65.8%. Heritability varied from 0.044 to 0.201 for individual, 0.060 to 0.229 for within-family and 0.098 to 0.383 for family. Withinfamily selection promoted high genetic gain for all traits, ranging from 1.3% to 4.4%. In order to increase genetic gain and seed productivity, it is recommended that:(1) the best plus trees included in the orchard should be selected based on their progeny test, (2) the design of plot size should be single treeplot, (3) the final density of seed trees should be twice greater than the number of trees intended forseed collection, which is about 300 trees per hectare.
IN-VITRO CULTURE FOR REGENERATION OF Melia azedarach L. USING AGITATED LIQUID MEDIUM Nirsatmanto, Arif
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 3, No 2 (2006): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (2096.007 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2006.3.2.115-122

Abstract

This study investigated the applicability of liquid medium in direct organogenesis of in-vitro culture of Melia azedarach L. Explants were collected from in-vitro multiplication originating from aseptically germinated seedling and from a 48 - years old mature tree. For adventitious shoot differentiation, 2 mm length of excised explants were cultured on liquid medium of MS (Murashige and Skoogs) basal medium supplemented with 28 combinations of hormone BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and NAA (á- naphthaleneacetic acid). Differentiated shoots were subsequently cultured for shoot elongation in solid medium using MS basal medium supplemented with hormone BAP individually as well as in combinations with NAA. Finally, rooting culture were done using MS medium supplemented with IBA (3  indolebutyric acid). The results showed that the rate of shoot organogenesis of M. azedarach could be obtained through agitated liquid medium culture technique. The combination of hormone BAP 0.1-1 µM and NAA 0.01-0.1 µM are induced more adventitious shoot at a rate of 5 shoots / 2 mm length size of explants are transferring into rooting medium containing IBA 4.92 µM. 
TREND OF REALIZED GENETIC GAIN OBSERVED IN SECOND-GENERATION SEEDLING SEED ORCHARDS OF ACACIA MANGIUM IN SOUTH KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA Nirsatmanto, Arif; Setyaji, Teguh; Surip, Surip
Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research Vol 10, No 1 (2013): Journal of Forestry Research
Publisher : Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1346.557 KB) | DOI: 10.20886/ijfr.2013.10.1.57-64

Abstract

Comprehensive  tree improvement  program for Acacia mangium has been started since 1992 by establishing  a  series  of  first generation  Seedling  Seed  Orchards  (SSO)  in  Indonesia.  Selection procedures in the first-generation of SSO have completely finished, and subsequently it was continued for second-generation improvement. This paper examines a trend of realized genetic gain as a response of selection practiced in the first-generation SSO. The observation was carried out in three sub-lines of the second-generation SSO (namely Sub-line B, C and D). Parameters recorded included tree height, diameter at breast height (dbh) and stem straightness that were recorded periodically up to 4 years growth. The realized genetic gain was calculated as a percentage of improved plus trees population in the first-generation of  SSO compared to those of  unimproved trees. The results showed that the improved population was consistently better that those of unimproved one until 4 years of age. There were variation in terms of realized genetic gain parameters recorded depending on the sub-lines and ages. The tree height varied from 1.1% to 5%, while dbh and stem straightness were in the ranges of 2.8% to 6.7% and from 1.8% to 8.4%, respectively. Across the three sub-lines, the tree height varied from 2.2% to 3.1%, while dbh and stem straightness were in the ranges of 4.3% to 5.2% and 4.3% to 6%, respectively.  In general, the trend of the realized genetic gains slightly decreased for dbh and tree height with the increasing of ages, while it slightly increased for stem straightness.