Nawiyanto .
Department of History, University of Jember

Published : 18 Documents
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PERTUMBUHAN PENDUDUK BESUKI: KAJIAN DEMOGRAFI HISTORIS

Jurnal Humaniora Vol 21, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Sciences

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Abstract

In demographic terms, Besuki residency was a distinctive region comparedwith the rest of Java. It is argued that demographic growth taking place in the region was linked primarily to migration, rather than births and deaths. Drawing upon diverse historical materials, this article discusses the role of migration and natural factors of births and deaths, in populating the region of Besuki by comparing it with Java. In elaborating the arguments, this article specifically looks at factors and conditions that affected each component and its contribution to the demographic process in the region.

Japanese-Chinese Import Trade Competition During The 1930s Crisis

MAKARA of Social Sciences and Humanities Series ##issue.vol## 13, ##issue.no## 2 (2009): Desember
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Public Service, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

In the Indonesian historiography, the contest for market between the Chinese and indigenous traders has long attracted much scholarly attention, however this issue was actually only part of the story. This article seeks to elaborate the Japanese and Chinese import trade competition in Java during the 1930s depression. Drawing upon both primary and secondary historical materials, it is argued that instead of creating a time of hardships, the crisis  paved the way for  Japan’s import trade expansion. Benefiting from the creation of large market for cheap products among the customers in Java suffering from a decline in purchasing power and their owned trade networks, a great number of Japan products will soon controlle the market. The Chinese found that their well-established economic position was seriously threatened. Although Japan’s fast rising market domination was eventually removed, it was due to the changing of the socio-political environment that created major obstacles for the Japanese to maintain its position, rather than that of the  responses of the Chinese traders.Keywords: 1930s crisis, Chinese traders, import trade, Japanese traders, Java

Konsepsi Sosio Kultural Etnis Jawa dan Madura di Eks-Karesidenan Besuki tentang Pangan

Jurnal Humaniora Vol 23, No 2 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Cultural Sciences

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Abstract

This article discusses the sosio-cultural conceptions of foodcrops and foodstuffs among Javanese and Madurese ethnic groups. Drawing upon historical and anthropological materials, it explores views, knowledge, and beliefs concerning especially rice among the Javanese and corn (maize) among the Madurese in the former residency of Besuki. For the two ethnic groups, foodstuffs have not only physiological functions, but also cultural ones. The socio-cultural conceptions of food crops and foodstuffs, however, are far richer among the Javanese ethnic group than among the Madurese. Especially with the launching of the green revolution program, there has been a great shift in food crops production and staple food consumption among the Madurese from maize to rice. Apart from practical reason, a combination of ecological, economical, and sociological factors help to understand this shift.

BENCANA DAN PELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN: PANDANGAN ETNIK JAWA DAN MADURA DI WILAYAH UJUNG TIMUR JAWA

Paramita: Historical Studies Journal Vol 22, No 1 (2012): PARAMITA
Publisher : History Department, Semarang State University and Historian Society of Indonesia

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Abstract

Disasters and environmental conservation are urgent issues in Indonesia. Studies on aspects and issues of the environment especially during the contemporary period have been produced. Besides the lack of historical insights and the ignorance of folks’ conceptions about disaster and environment,  these studies have largely focused on particular element of the environment especially the forests and more importantly on the official or government’s views. This article seeks to explore views, knowledge, and beliefs concerning disasters and environmental conservation among the Javanese and Madurese ethnic groups.  The article employs a combination of historical and oral history methods. The historical method is used to trace the roots of their conceptions on disasters and environmental conservation especially the forests based on documentary sources. Oral history method is used to get information stored in human memories by conducting interviews. Keywords: disaster, environment, conservation, Javanese, Madurese, Besuki   Bencana dan pelestarian lingkungan merupakan isu yang sangat urgen di Indonesia. Berbagai kajian memang telah dihasilkan mengenai berbagai aspek dan isu lingkungan khususnya pada masa kontemporer. Selain lemah akan wawasan historis dan konsepsi kultural masyarakat, kajian-kajian tersebut masih terpusat pada elemen tertentu dari lingkungan khususnya hutan dan lebih penting lagi menekankan pandangan pemerintah. Oleh karena itu, kajian ini bertujuan mengeksplorasi pandangan, pengetahuan, dan kepercayaan terkait dengan bencana dan pelestarian lingkungan di kalangan kelompok etnik Jawa dan Madura. Penelitian ini menggabungkan metode historis dan sejarah lisan. Metode historis digunakan untuk melacak akar-akar pandangan masyarakat bencana alam dan pelestarian lingkungan khususnya hutan berdasar informasi dokumen. Metode sejarah lisan digunakan untuk menggali informasi yang tersimpan dalam memori manusia melalui wawancara. Katakunci: bencana, pelestarian lingkungan, etnis Jawa, etnis Madura, Besuki  

GERAKAN LINGKUNGAN DI JAWA MASA KOLONIAL

Paramita: Historical Studies Journal Vol 24, No 1 (2014): PARAMITA
Publisher : History Department, Semarang State University and Historian Society of Indonesia

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Abstract

This article discusses the genesis of the environmental movement in Java during the Dutch colonial era. A number of studies voicing the importance of environmental protection and environment-related local wisdoms have appeared. But, little has been done to uncover the question of how the environmental movement developed and consolidated itself in Java. The neglect of environmental movement dimension causes a failure to transform cultural wisdoms and academic findings into powerful corrective force, useless like “weapon without soldier”. By emplyoing a historical method, this article aims at elaborating the genesis of environmental movement in Java, issues that were taken into focus in the movement and its real achievments  during the Dutch colonial era. The argument is built on the basis of Dutch historical material sources in various forms especially archival materials, official and organisational publications, and complemetarily supported with relevant secondary sources. It is argued that the environmental movement in Java had European/Dutch elite as its major agent, evolved in line with the development of Western interests and understanding of colony functions in economic and non-economic terms, and made concret achievements in legal, orgsnizational-administrative, and practical terms. Key words: environmental movement, colonial era, JavaSejumlah kajian yang menyuarakan pentingnya pelestarian lingkungan dan nilai-nilai kearifan  lokal terkait lingkungan memang banyak dihasilkan. Akan tetapi kajian-kajian yang ada belum secara sistematis mengkaji bagaimana gerakan lingkungan muncul dan mengonsolidasi diri termasuk di Jawa. Diabaikannya dimensi gerakan lingkungan membuat nilai-nilai kearifan budaya dan temuan-temuan akademis terkait lingkungan bagai “senjata tanpa tentara”. Melalui penggunaan metode sejarah, tulisan ini bertujuan mengkaji munculnya gerakan lingkungan di Jawa,  isu-isu yang menjadi fokus perhatian  dan capaian-capaian yang diraih gerakan lingkungan di Jawa pada masa kolonial. Argumentasi tulisan dibangun dengan memanfaatkan terutama sumber-sumber Belanda dalam beragam rupa termasuk arsip, publikasi resmi dan organisasi. Diargumentasikan bahwa gerakan lingkungan di Jawa pada masa kolonial memperlihatkan elite Eropa/Belanda sebagai agensinya, berevolusi seiring dengan perkembangan kepentingan dan pemahaman Barat atas fungsi koloni secara ekonomi dan non-ekonomi, serta mempunyai capaian-capaian konkret dalam aspek legal, organisatoris-administratif, dan praktis. Kata kunci:  gerakan lingkungan, masa kolonial, Jawa, 

KONFLIK PERTAMBANGAN PASIR BESI DI DESA WOGALIH, KECAMATAN YOSOWILANGUN, KABUPATEN LUMAJANG TAHUN 2010-2011

Publika Budaya Vol 2, No 1 (2014): Maret
Publisher : Publika Budaya

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Abstract

Artikel ini membahas konflik pertambangan pasir besi yang terjadi di Kabupaten Lumajang denganmenggunakan perspektif politik lingkungan. Permasalahan yang dikaji dalam tulisan ini adalah sebab-sebab danproses terjadinya konflik, pihak-pihak yang terlibat dalam konflik dan argumentasi masing-masing, serta dampakyang ditimbulkan dari kegiatan pertambangan pasir besi. Bahan-bahan yang menjadi dasar untuk melakukanpembahasan dalam artikel ini berupa berita-berita surat kabar, hasil wawancara dengan pelaku dan saksi sejarah,dan observasi lapangan. Konflik yang muncul dalam kaitan dengan kegiatan pertambangan di Desa Wotgalihmelibatkan dua kelompok utama, yakni pihak pro dan pihak kontra tambang. Konflik mempunyai asal-muasaldari rencana kembalinya kegiatan penambangan pasir besi oleh PT ANTAM yang mendapatkan ijin daripemerintah. Pihak kontra tambang mendasarkan penolakannya pada keyakinan akan terbatasnya manfaatekonomis dan besarnya resiko kerusakan lingkungan dan bencana. Kelompok ini memandang kebijakanpemerintah mengeluarkan izin penambangan pasir besi sebagai tidak bijak dan mengabaikan kepentingan rakyat.Pihak pro tambang meyakini kegiatan tambang akan besar manfaat ekonominya bagi masyarakat dan pemerintahdaerah. Artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa pertambangan mengandung kekuatan disintegratif bagi masyarakat dandestruktif bagi lingkungan.Kata Kunci: Pertambangan, Lingkungan, Konflik, Lumajang

BERJUANG MENYELAMATKAN LINGKUNGAN: GERAKAN LINGKUNGAN DI JAWA MASA KEMERDEKAAN 1950-2000

Paramita: Historical Studies Journal Vol 25, No 1 (2015): PARAMITA
Publisher : History Department, Semarang State University and Historian Society of Indonesia

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Abstract

This article discusses the environmental movement in Java during the independence era, with a special focus on the Old Order and New Order periods. Historical method was employed here in conducting the collection of source materials and synthesizing the facts into a historiographical construction. The sense of environmental crisis became the reason for continuing struggle for saving the environment. The result of discussion reveals that not only did it perform colonial legacy, the movement also resulted in modifications, in terms of conservation management and movement forms. There was also a process of strengthening and broadening of the supporting groups of the movement. Especially since the 1970s, the role of non-governmental organizations and media groups intensified. This feature marked a new era that ended the dominant role of the government. In line with this process, new environmental issues were also raised and pollution was a case in point here. Keywords: Environmental movement, environmental issues, government, non-governmental organizations, independence era, JavaArtikel ini membahas gerakan lingkungan di Jawa pada masa kemerdekaan dengan fokus khusus periode Orde Lama dan Orde Baru. Metode sejarah digunakan dalam penggarapan dari pengumpulan sumber hingga penuangan dalam sintesis konstruksi historiografis. Keyakinan akan krisis lingkungan menjadi alasan berlanjutnya perjuangan menyelamatkan lingkungan. Hasil pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa tidak hanya warisan kolonial tetap hidup, gerakan lingkungan memperlihatkan pula adanya modifikasi dalam hal pengelolaan kawasan konservasi dan bentuk gerakan. Terdapat pula proses penguatan dan perluasan kelompok-kelompok pendukung gerakan. Khususnya sejak tahun 1970-an, peranan organisasi non-pemerintah, media massa, dan kelompok-kelompok akar rumput semakin     menguat. Hal ini menandai sebuah era baru yang mengakhiri peranan dominan pemerintah. Seiring dengan proses ini, isu-isu baru juga dibangun dan pencemaran merupakan ilustrasi pokok di sini.  Kata kunci: gerakan lingkungan, isu lingkungan, pemerintah, organisasi non-pemerintah, masa kemerdekaan, Jawa 

BANJIR BANDANG DI KODYA SEMARANG TAHUN 1990 (THE MUNICIPALITY OF SEMARANG IN 1990)

Publika Budaya Vol 2, No 3 (2014): Nopember
Publisher : Publika Budaya

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Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendiskripsikan, menganalisis dan mengungkap bencana banjir bandang di Kodya Semarang pada tahun 1990. Dalam penggarapannya metode ini menggunakan sejarah lingkungan dengan memanfaatkan sumber-sumber yang di dapat baik tertulis maupun lisan, yang berkaitan dengan topik bahasan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa bencana banjir bandang mencerminkan rusaknya keseimbangan lingkungan khususnya di Kodya Semarang yang dimana kejadian akibat rusaknya lingkungan dari arah gunung pati, dan juga rusaknya hutan lindung yang berubah menjadi hutan produksi sehingga sistem vegetasi tidak mampu menyerap air ketika hujan. Perubahan lingkungan tersebut bisa dilihat dari kondisi ekologis, demografis, ekonomi, dan sosial budaya yang ada di Kodya Semarang. Proses terjadinya banjir bandang tidak serta merta datang begitu saja curah hujan tinggi yang berkepanjangan, sistem topografi, kapasitas volume air yang tidak cukup menampung air bah. Sehingga banjir meluluh-lantakkan pemukiman warga pada Jum’at dinihari 26 Januari 1990. Dampak banjir bandang tidak hanya terletak pada dampak ekonomi saja, melainkan berdampak pada kondisi sosial masyarakat Semarang. Beberapa daerah yang terkena dampak banjir bandang di Semarang meliputi, komplek Sampangan dan Bongsari yang paling parah. Bencana banjir bandang mengundang respons dan tanggapan dari pemerintah dan masyarakat untuk segera mengatasi bencana tersebut dan dapat meringankan beberapa para korban banjir. Kata Kunci : Lingkungan, Banjir Bandang, Semarang ABSTRACT This study is aimed to describe, analyze and uncover the flood disaster in the Municipality of Semarang in 1990. In executing the research, the study uses the historical method by utilizing resources that can be either written or oral, relating to the topic. The results of this study indicate that the flood disaster reflected the damage of environmental balance, especially in the Municipality of Semarang where the incident took place due to the damage of environment from Pati Mountain. It was also clue to the destruction of protection forest which turned into production forest, thus the vegetation system cannot absorb water when it rains. The changes in environment, be seen from ecologic condition, demographic, economic, and social culture in the Municipality of Semarang. The process of flood did not suddenly come. Because of high rainfall, topography system, and the capacity of water volume which is not enough to accommodate the flood, the flood destroyed the residential area on Friday morning January 26th, 1990. The impacts of the flood were not only in the economic but also on the social conditions of Semarang people. Some of the areas affected by floods in Semarang include, Sampangan residence and Bongsari was the most severe. Flood disaster provoked responses from the government and society to immediately overcome the disaster and can ease the burden of the flood victims. Keywords: environment, floods, Semarang

KERUSAKAN HUTAN DAN MUNCULNYA GERAKAN KONSERVASI DI LERENG GUNUNG LAMONGAN, KLAKAH 1999-2013 (DEFORESTATION AND RISE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT AT SLOPE OF MOUNT LAMONGAN, KLAKAH 1999-2013)

Publika Budaya Vol 3, No 1 (2015): Maret
Publisher : Publika Budaya

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Abstract

Awal era reformasi, kerusakan hutan akibat penebangan liar banyak terjadi di berbagai tempat. Di Pulau Jawa kerusakan hutan terjadi di kawasan hutan milik Perhutani yang sebagian besar ditanami Pohon Jati. Hal tersebut juga terjadi di kawasan hutan Gunung Lamongan, Klakah. Pelaku penebangan tidak lain adalah masyarakat setempat yang tinggal di sekitar hutan. Pada awal tahun 2000 kondisi Gunung Lamongan gundul tanpa tegakan pohon. Bencana alam seperti banjir dan longsor mulai melanda kawasan sekitar hutan. Bencana kekeringan juga terjadi meski di musim penghujan. Debit air di sumber mata air dan ranu menurun. Kondisi ini mendorong munculnya kesadaran masyarakat yang tinggal di bawah Lamongan untuk melakukan gerakan konservasi guna mengembalikan fungsi hutan Gunung Lamongan yang selama ini menjadi penyangga ekosistem bagi kawasan di bawahnya. Kelompok konservasi bernama Laskar Hijau yang merupakan sebuah gerakan sosial kemudian muncul dan menanami kawasan Gunung Lamongan dengan tanaman buah-buahan. Selain menanam, kelompok ini juga melakukan aksi protes pada pihak pemangku hutan, Perhutani yang merupakan Badan Usaha Milik Negara. Penelitian ini menggabungkan metode sejarah dan sejarah lisan. Metode sejarah digunakan untuk mengkaji bagaimana kerusakan hutan terjadi serta bagaimana muncul dan berkembangnya gerakan konservasi di Gunung Lamongan. Metode sejarah lisan digunakan untuk mendapatkan informasi dari masyarakat yang menjadi saksi atau terlibat langsung dalam peristiwa tersebut. Kata kunci: kerusakan hutan, konservasi, gerakan sosial, Klakah. ABSTRACT In the early reform era, the damage of forest due to illegal logging occurred in many places. Java deforestation occurred in the area of Perhutani forest, that the trees are mostly planted with Teak. This also occurred in the forest of Mount Lamongan, Klakah. Logging perpetrator is the local communities that living around the forest. In early 2000, Mount Lamongan condition is without tree stands bare. Natural disaster such as flood and erosion began to hit the area around the forest. Droughts also occur even in the rainy season. Water discharge in springs and Ranu decreased. These condition encourages the awareness of people living below the Mount Lamongan to the conservation movement to restore forest function of Mount Lamongan which has been the buffer ecosystem for the region underneath. Conservation group called the Laskar Hijau is a social movement then emerging area of Mount lamongan and planted with fruit trees. In addition to planting, this group also protested at the forest stakeholders, Perhutani wich are Badan Usaha Milik Negara. This article use combination of historical method and oral history method. The historical method used to explain how deforestation occurs and how it appears in the conservation movement of Mount Lamongan. Oral history method used to obtain information from the community who witness or are involved directly in the incident. Keywords: deforestation, conservation, social movement, Klakah.

MODERNIZING TRADITIONAL MEDICINES IN JAVA: REGULATIONS, PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

Paramita: Historical Studies Journal Vol 26, No 2 (2016): PARAMITA
Publisher : History Department, Semarang State University and Historian Society of Indonesia

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Abstract

Traditional medicine (jamu) in Indonesia is continuously transforming due to a number of factors including the growing presence of the biomedical system promoted by the government and drug manufacturers, the requirement of more standardized and scientifically-proven medicinal products, and the declining popularity of herbal medicine among the young generation. Traditional medicines producers need to adjust continuously to the changing environment. This article seeks to examine these transformations by taking Java as its focus of attention. There are two major reasons for this choice. First, the island of Java is home for many traditional medicines producers, both small-scale, home-based industries and large-scale, company-based industries. Second, the largest proportion of the users of traditional medicines and distribution networks are also found in the island. The major questions the article seeks to address are: (1) what regulations have been set in place by the state authorities with regard to the production and distribution of traditional medicines in Java? How do the producers and the related partied respond the regulations?; (2) what efforts have been made by the producers of traditional medicines to accept modernization challenges and to improve the performance of their products; (3) how traditional medicines circulate and what are their distribution networks? Obat tradisional (jamu) di Indonesia terus berubah karena sejumlah faktor termasuk semakin tumbuhnya kehadirani sistem biomedis dipromosikan oleh pemerintah dan produsen obat, kebutuhan akan produk obat yang lebih standar dan terbukti secara ilmiah, dan menurunnya popularitas jamu di kalangan generasi muda. Produsen obat tradisional produsen perlu menyesuaikan terus menerus terhadap lingkungan yang berubah. Artikel ini ditujukan untuk mengkaji transformasi ini dengan mengambil Jawa sebagai fokus perhatian. Ada dua alasan utama untuk pilihan ini. Pertama, pulau Jawa adalah tempat bagi banyak produsen obat-obatan tradisional, baik skala kecil, industri rumahan dan skala besar, industri berbasis perusahaan. Kedua, proporsi terbesar dari para pengguna obat-obatan tradisional dan jaringan distribusi juga ditemukan di pulau ini. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan utama yang hendak dijawab dalam artikel ini adalah: (1) peraturan apakah yang telah ditetapkan oleh otoritas negara yang berkaitan dengan produksi dan distribusi obat-obatan tradisional di Jawa? Bagaimana respons produsen dan pihak terkait terhadap peraturan-peraturan yang berlaku?; (2) upaya apakah yang telah dilakukan oleh produsen obat tradisional untuk menjawab tantangan modernisasi dan untuk meningkatkan kinerja produk mereka; (3) bagaimana obat tradisional beredar dan apa jaringan distribusinya?