Articles

BUTTERFLY GRAFIKA BUSSINES PLAN Mustofa, Ali
KARYA ILMIAH MAHASISWA MAGISTER TEKNIK INFORMATIKA 2011: TECHNOPRENEURSHIP
Publisher : KARYA ILMIAH MAHASISWA MAGISTER TEKNIK INFORMATIKA

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Teknologi saat ini yang paling cepat berkembang adalah teknologi telekomunikasi dan informasi. Perkembangan ini sangat terlihat akselerasinya dalam kehidupan, dan hampir setiap sisi kehidupan kita selalu merasakan manfaat adanya perkembangan teknologi informasi dan telekomunikasi tersebut. Perkembangan tersebut akan menumbuhkan pula bisnis di bidangnya, sebagai contoh adalah internet dan komputer. Setiap perkembangan teknologi akan mendukung munculnya teknologi baru, atau fasilitas baru dalam suatu produk tersebut. Oleh karena itu maka produk-produk teknologi tersebut setiap saat akan naik dan terus meningkat jumlahnya.  Informasi saat ini merupakan menjadi kebutuhan pokok setiap orang, bahkan dalam perkembangnya sebuah informasi sangat berperan bagi sebuah perusahaan atau kelompok untuk membuat pencitraan dan pengenalan produk ke masyarakat.Segala lini kehidupan sudah terpengaruh dengan perkembangan informasi, bahkan sebagai langkah untuk menjelaskan sebuah perusahaan atau produk. Dalam hal ini produksi pembuatan media informasi masih sangat berpotensi. Bahkan dapat dikatakan sebagai prospek yang tidak ada habisnya, selama masih banyak perusahaan yang ingin mempromosikan produk-produk mereka maka usaha ini akan terus dibutuhkan. Jasa pembuatan media informasi dapat berupa media cetak besar, baliho, backdrop, spanduk; media cetak kecil seperti stiker, pamflet. Maka jasa yang bisa diberikan adalah jasa multimedia studio yang lebih spesifik lagi adalah bagian media periklanan cetak.Jenis bisnis lain yang cukup berkembang dewasa ini adalah teknologi digital. Maraknya perkembangan handphone, terutama yang dilengkapi fasilitas kamera dan pemutar lagu, merupakan pasar yang potensial untuk dikembangkan lebih lanjut. Peluang usaha cetak foto digital dari handphone menjadi tren usaha yang cukup menjanjikan income yang tinggi. Agar dapat survive, maka bentuk usaha yang didirikan harus memiliki banyak produk jasa.
PERAN MEDIA MASSA SEBAGAI SARANA IKLAN POLITIK PARPOL (KAJIAN TERHADAP KASUS SURYA PALOH DAN PARTAI NASDEM) Mustofa, Ali
Interaksi: Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi Vol 2, No 1 (2013): January 2013
Publisher : Master of Communication Science Program, Faculty of Social and Political Science, Diponego

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Abstract :The use of media is very important in the modern political campaigns and socialization. The mass media is not only an integral part of politics, but it also has a central position in politics, able to put together the real­ity of the events that happened to be a discourse that has the power of political campaigning. In order to win the competition in the arena of elections, political contestants compete by implementing workable strategies of political communication. In the context of the 2014 elections, the mass media still has an important role in the socialization of the party program and the introduction of political candidates. The role of mass media as recognized by Nasdem, Nasdem therefore continue to use the mass media in political communication strategy of the party to win the election. Keywords: mass media, political advertising, political communication strategies  Abstraksi :Penggunaan media sangatlah penting dalam proses kampanye dan sosialisasi politik modern. Media massa bukan hanya bagian integral dari politik, tetapi juga memiliki posisi yang sentral dalam politik, mam­pu menyusun realitas dari berbagai peristiwa yang terjadi hingga menjadi wacana yang memiliki kekuatan mengkampanyekan politik. Guna memenangkan kompetisi di ajang pemilu, kontestan parpol bersaing dengan menerapkan strategi komunikasi politik yang jitu. Dalam konteks pemilu 2014, media massa tetap mempunyai peran penting dalam sosialisasi program partai dan pengenalan para caleg parpol. Peran media massa sep­erti ini diakui oleh Nasdem, karenanya Nasdem tetap menggunakan media massa dalam strategi komunikasi politik partai guna memenangkan pemilu.Kata Kunci: media massa, iklan politik, strategi komunikasi politik
Tracing the Absences of Human Identity in Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger: Silhouette of Identity SETIAWAN, RAHMAT; MUSTOFA, ALI
Litera~Kultura Vol 1, No 2 (2013): Volume 1 edisi Yudisium Mei
Publisher : Litera~Kultura

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Abstrak Identitas adalah suatu entitas yang dinamis dan melekat pada sesuatu, terutama pada manusia. Dalam novel The White Tiger karya Aravind Adiga, dua tokoh utama diceritakan secara ambigu yang mempengaruhi para pembaca untuk mengidentifikasikan identitas tokoh-tokoh tersebut. Sesuatu yang dihadirkan pada akhirnya menancapkan identitas pada karakter-karakter tersebut. Akan tetapi, ada ketidakhadiran-ketidakhadiran di dalam diri tokoh-tokoh tersebut dimana pemahaman biasa tak mampu menangkapnya. Terlebih, segala sesuatu pasti dikendalikan oleh bahasa, sementara bahasa sendiri adalah sesuatu yang tidak stabil. Jadi, identitas manusia pasti tidak stabil. Ketidakstabilan ini akan memunculkan ketidakhadiran-ketidakhadiran identitas manusia. Dengan latar belakang seperti itu, maka permasalahan-permasalahan muncul seperti (1) bagaimana identitas manusia terbentuk dalam novel The White Tiger karya Aravind Adiga? Dan (2) bagaimana identitas manusia meninggalkan jejak-jejak ketidakhadiran dalam novel The White Tiger Karya Aravind Adiga? Metode yang digunakan adalah hermeneutika yang juga sekaligus sebagai teknik, sedangkan pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan pragmatik. Hasil yang didapatkan akan menjelaskan jika identitas manusia tidak hanya terbentuk dari sisi luar manusia tetapi juga dari esensi manusia itu sendiri. Sementara manusia selalu berubah, maka identititasnya juga akan selalu berubah. Perubahan ini mengasumsikan jika identitas manusia itu tidak stabil. Ketidakstabilan ini melahirkan pluralisme di mana rasionalitas manuia terkadang tidak dapat menerimanya. Memang, hal itu dikarenakan rasionalitas manusia yang masih terpaku pada logosentrisme meskipun banyak kelemahan pada logosentrisme tersebut sebagai struktur dari segala hal, termasuk identitas. Dalam novel ini, identitas manusia mengerucut pada identitas kaum Miskin dan Kaya. Untuk mengakhirinya, bisa dikatakan jika identitas hanya dapat dilihat sebagai sebuah siluet, karena itu hanya dapat dimengerti tetapi tidak dapat ditentukan. Kata Kunci: identitas manusia, logosentrisme, bahasa, dan dekonstruksi. Abstract Identity is dynamical entity and it adheres tightly to the thing, especially human. In Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger, the two main characters are told ambiguously that influence the interpreters to identify the identity of the two characters. Something that is presented, finally brands to the identity of the characters. However, there are absences inside the character, which common sense cannot see. Additionally, everything is controlled by language, while language is unstable. Thus, the human identity must be unstable. This instability finally presents the absences of human identity. Grounded on that presumptively facts, problems arise along with questionings, which are delivered to two main questions of (1) how is human identity shaped in Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger? and (2) how does human identity leave behind traces of the absent identities in Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger? The used method must not get rid of hermeneutics, the approach is classified to pragmatics where extrinsically works on deriving from deconstruction, while the technique scopes on the way of interpretations work on. Last of all, Last of all, the result describes that human identity is not constructed by only the outside of human but also the essence of human. While human is always changing, so does the identity. This changing construct the instability of human identity. The instability bears pluralism sometimes cannot be understood and accepted by human’s rationalities. However, that fact, indeed, is caused by the lack of logocentrism as the structure of everything, including in identity. In this novel, the human identity is scoped by Poor and Rich identity that will be elaborated. Lastly, human identity can be seen only as a silhouette, it can be sensed but cannot be made certain who he/she really is. Keywords: human identity, logocentrism, language, and deconstruction.
TRAGEDY IN ARTHUR MILLER’S THE CRUCIBLE KURNIA WATI, DWI; MUSTOFA, ALI
Litera~Kultura Vol 1, No 2 (2013): Volume 1 edisi Yudisium Mei
Publisher : Litera~Kultura

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Abstrak The Crucible adalah drama karya Arthur Miller yang menampilkan tentang perburuan tukang sihir di Salem yang bertempat di Massachusetts sekitar 1692 dan 1693. The Crucible dilatarbelakangi oleh perlawanan kepada perburuan liar tukang sihir Salem. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan tragedi yang ada di drama The Crucible karya Arthur Miller.Ini juga di selesaikan untuk menganalisis bagaimana John Proctor adalah pahlawan tragis di drama ini. Kajian ini menggunakan percakapan dari drama The Crucible sebagai sumber data utama.Kemudian data itu di klasifikasikan, dianalisasikan, dan diinterpretasikan untuk menggambarkan tragedy dan bagaimana John Proctor adalah pahlawan tragis. Menggunakan teori Archetipal dari Northrop Frye untuk menjawab permasalahan-permasalahan, kajian ini akan lebih menarik untuk dianalisis lebih dalam. John Proctor sebagai tokoh utama, dia adalah seorang petani yang bijaksana yang melakukan dosa perselingkuhan. Dia mempunyai kekurangan tragis yang membuatnya jatuh. Tetapi dia salah karena perselingkuhannya dahulu membuat Abigail menuduh Elizabeth, istrinya sebagai tukang sihir. Proctor tidak ingin menceritakan ini di pengadilan, tetapi ketika dia melakukannya itu sudah terlambat. Proctor memilih kematian untuk melawan keadilan, martabat, menjaga nama baik, memegang kepercayaannya, dan menyelamatkan masyarakat. Bila sebagian orang akan memilih untuk berbohong di situasi yang sama untuk menyelamatkan diri dan keluarga. Proctor adalah pahlawan tragis di drama yang tragis sangat jelas tampak di Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. Kata Kunci: tragedi, pahlawan tragis.   Abstract TheCrucible is a play written by Arthur Miller which set about Salem Witch trial set in Massachusetts during 1692 and 1693.  The Crucible is set against the backdrop of the mad witch hunts of the Salem witch trials. This study aims to depict the tragedy in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. It is also done to analyze how John Proctor is the tragic hero in the play. This study uses dialog from The Crucible play as main data source. Then those data are classified, analyzed, and interpreted to describe the tragedy and how John Proctor is the tragic hero. Using Northrop Frye’s Archetypal theory to answer the problems, this study became more interesting to analyze deeper. John Proctor as the central character, he was sensible farmer that had committed the sin of adultery. He had a tragic flaw that lead to his downfall. However he was wrong because his former love Abigail accuses his wife of witchcraft. Proctor does not want to tell the court about his affair, but when he does it is too late. He chooses death to fight for justice, dignity, keep his good name, hold on to his beliefs, and save society. If most of people were confronted in the same situation, most would choose to lie to save their life and family. Proctor is the tragic hero in a tragic plot clearly implied in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. Keywords: tragedy, tragic hero.
MERRY’S SEXUAL SEDUCTION IN LAURA LONDON’S THE WINDFLOWER PRIAMBODO, TANGKAS; MUSTOFA, ALI
Litera~Kultura Vol 1, No 2 (2013): Volume 1 edisi Yudisium Mei
Publisher : Litera~Kultura

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Abstrak Romansa cinta merupakan suatu hal yang memegang peranan penting dalam novel ini. Disini karakter memegang peranan penting untuk menentukan alur cerita. Karena ini sangat penting, maka studi ini akan mengobservasi lebih banyak lagi tentang romansa cinta yang ada di novel ini. Dalam novel karangan Laura London, The Windflower, Merry menjadi tokoh utama, yang digambarkan memiliki hubungan yang cukup rumit dengan Devon Crandall. Studi ini akan menunjukkannya. Disamping itu, studi ini juga akan menunjukkan efek yang ditimbulkan dari kisah cinta antara Merry dengan Devon. Untuk mendapatkan hasilnya, studi ini menggunakan 3 metode: yaitu data; kumpulan teori, dan prosedur analisis. Data mutlak didapatkan dari novel. Untuk penggunaan teori, tesis ini menggunakan teori tentang godaan seksual serta teori tentang gender dari Sigmund Freud dan Judith Butler. Dua teori ini mempunyai tujuan yang sama, yaitu untuk menunjukkan bagaimana cerita ini membentuk romansa – romansa cinta melalui sudut pandang karakter Merry. Teori tentang sex dan gender berhubungan dengan alat kelamin dan gender melalui pengalaman dari karakter utamanya, dan teori tentang godaan seksual yang dijelaskan melalui esensi romantismenya. Setelah menggunakan teori ini, hasil yang dapat diperoleh adalah proses pembentukan godaan seksual melalui karakter Merry. Melalui hasil tersebut, studi ini mampu menunjukkan efek dari godaan secara seksual yang terjadi pada Merry melalui percakapan dan narasi yang ada di dalam cerita.   Kata Kunci: sex, godaan, gender.   Abstract A romance in this novel is something which is so important. A character which becomes it is able to decide how the story goes. Because this is important, this study wants to observe more about the romance in the story. In Laura London The Windflower, Merry has become the main character which has complicated relationship to Devon Crandall. This study wants to show it. Besides that, this study also wants to show the effects of romance story between Merry and Devon. To obtain the results of those purposes, this study uses three methods: data, theoretical approach, and procedure of analysis. Data absolutely comes from the novel. For theoretical approach, this study uses theory of seduction and theory of sex and gender which are brought by Sigmund Freud and Judith Butler. Those two theories have the same purpose, to show how the story creates a romance stories trough Merry. Theory of sex and gender comes with terms: sexual genitalia and gender which are experienced by the main character and theory of seduction which are experienced by the romantic essence. After using those theories, the results will be the process of creating a sexual seduction trough Merry. From that result, this study is able to show the effect of seduction in Merry using conversations and narrations in the story. Keywords: sex, seduction, gender.    
MINKE’S DECOLONIZATION IN PRAMOEDYA ANANTA TOER’S CHILD OF ALL NATIONS SAPRIYADI, ; MUSTOFA, ALI
Litera~Kultura Vol 1, No 2 (2013): Volume 1 edisi Yudisium Mei
Publisher : Litera~Kultura

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Abstrak Anak semua bangsa adalah salah satu novel dimana kekuatan colonial bekembang di hindi belanda. Disini penindasan belanda kepada petani gula menjadi topik utama. karakter Minke terlihat sangat vital karena Minke menjadi sosok yang menentukan alur cerita. Skripsi ini bertujuan meneliti tentang respon primbumi yang berintelektual seperti Minke untuk menghadapi kenyataan yang dibuat oleh Belanda. Di dalam novel Anak semua bangsa, Minke menjadi karakter utama yang mana mempunyai hubungan yang sangat membingungkan dengan pemerintahan Belanda. Skripsi ini ingin menunjukkan sisi lain dalam novel Anak semua bangsa yang mana membuahkan sebuah aksi dekolonialisasi. Disamping itu, skripsi ini juga ingin menunjukkan sebuah proses dimana seorang Minke mencapai sebuah aksi dekolonialisasi. Untuk memperoleh hasil dari tujuan yang diinginkan, skripsi ini mengumpulkan data utama dari novel itu sendiri dan juga dari internet. Untuk teori yang digunakan skripsi ini menggunakan teori dekolonisasi dari Frantz Fanon, Fanon menjelaskan tentang tiga fase yakni; asimilasi, penemuan jati diri, dan perjuangan, dan hasilnya memberikan  hasil dimana terlahirlah jiwa kemanusiaan  Minke, dan sjkripsi ini juga menunjukkan perjuangan seorang Minke yang mana tergambar dari cerita dan percakapan yang dilakukan Minke. Kata Kunci: kolonisasi, dekolonisasi, jiwa kemanusiaan, asimilasi, penemuan jati diri, perjuangan                                                                                                   Abstract Child of All Nations is the one of novel that gives a picture how the power colonization exist in the Dutch East Indies. Dutch oppression is underlined by a look at the exploitation of East Java’s peasants by sugar plantation owners, local ruler and Dutch officials. Minke character is really important because he decides how the story goes. This study aims to observe more about the respond native intellectual such as Minke to face the reality that created by Dutch. In the Child of All Nations, Minke becomes the main character which has complicated relationship with Dutch. This study wants to show how the story of Child of All Nations creates decolonization. There are actually many factors, in which forces Minke to create decolonization. Besides that, this study also wants to show the process of Minke reached that decolonization. To obtain the results of those purposes, this study uses three methods: data, theoretical approach, and procedure of analysis. This study collects primary data from the Child of All Nations novel and the internet. For theoretical approach, this study uses theory of decolonization, in which brought by Frantz Fanon. Fanon explain decolonization in the three phases, there are; assimilation, self discovery, fighting back. After using those theories, the results will be the process of creating humanity side in the life of Minke. From that result, this study is able to show the process of becoming the real of revolutionary in Minke’s life, using conversations and narrations in the story. There will be some changes in Minke which are represented by story and his conversation as the process of becoming a revolutionary. Keywords: colonization, decolonization, humanity, assimilation, self discovery, revolutionary.      
The Idea of Black and White Races which Reveal Human Identity in Derek Walcott’s Pantomime AFDRIANI DEWI SARI, NINDYA; MUSTOFA, ALI
Litera~Kultura Vol 1, No 3 (2013): Volume 1 Nomer 3 (2013)
Publisher : Litera~Kultura

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Konsep  hitam  dan  putih  adalah  suatu  keterbalikan  dimana  satu  sama  lain  tidak  dapat  dipisahkan.  Keterbalikan tersebut akan membentuk  suatu  keterbalikan biner dan akan memebentuk karakter baru dari seseorang. Hitam dan putih  juga  dapat  dikategorikan  sebagai  identitas  post-kolonialis.  Identitas  adalah  suatu  entitas  yang  dinamis  dan melekat pada sesuat, terutama pada manusia. Dalam drama “Pantomime” karya Derek Walcott, dua tokoh utama diceritakan secara ambigu yang mempengaruhi pembaca untuk mengidentifikasi watak tokoh  tokoh tersebut. Kedua tokoh  tersebut  membentuk  identitas  mereka  masing    masing  sehingga  muncul presence  dan  absence  dari  dalam masing  masing tokoh, yang mana absence tertutupi oleh presence. Terlebih, segala sesuatu pasti dikendalikan oleh bahasa, sementara bahasa itu sendiri adalah suatu hal  yang tidak pasti. Ketidakpastian ini akhirnya memunculkan absence dari identitas manusia dalam tokoh – tokoh pada drama “Pantomime”. Oleh karena itu, identitas seseorang selalu berubah  ubah dan proses perubahan tersebut disebut difference yang berarti untuk membedakan dan menjadi pembeda. Dengan menerapkan konsep tersebut, kedua tokoh tersebut mendekonstruksi identitas baru mereka. Tidak terkecuali, ketika kedua tokoh tersebut mengalami proses perubahan, mereka juga pasti mengalami proses mimikri. Mimikri,  dalam  karya  post-kolonial,  telah  menghapus  dan  menyesuaikan  beberapa  aspek  tradisi  asing  tanpa mengabaikan tradisi local. “Pantomime” karya Derek Walcott’ sebagai drama post-kolonial, menguraikan mimikri sebagai tulisan pembalik untuk membuat situasi keterbalikan antara dua kubu: Orang Inggris, sebagai penjajah, dan orang Trinidad, sebagai terjajah. Kesimpulannya, konsep hitam dan putih, melalui peran Jackson dan Harry dalam “Pantomime” karya Derek Walcott, akan membentuk identitas baru dari seseorang.  Kata Kunci: Hitam dan putih, postkolonialis, identitas manusia, difference, dekonstruksi, dan mimikri Abstract The idea of black and white is the opposition side that cannot be separated each other. That opposition side will be formed as binary opposition, and it will build a new character of human being. Black and white also could  be  categorized  as  postcolonial  identity.  Additionally,  identity  is  dynamical  entity  and  it  adheres strongly to the thing, especially for human. In Derek Walcott’s Pantomime, the two male characters are told ambiguously  that  influence  the  interpreters to  identify  the identity  of  the  two  male  characters.  Both two characters have constructed their identity, until there is presence and absence inside their character, which the absence is hidden by the presence. Moreover, everything is controlled by language, while language is unstable.  This  instability  finally  presents  the  absences  of  human  identity  in  the  characters  of  Walcott’s Pantomime. Thus, it can be called that human identity is always changing, and the process of changing by human identity is called differance that there is differing and deffering. By applying those concepts, the two male characters deconstruct their new identity. Nevertheless, when both two male characters do the process of  changing,  they  must  do  the  process  of  mimicry  too.  Mimicry,  in  postcolonial  writing,  has  been abrogation  and  appropriation  some  foreign  cultural  aspects  without  abandoning  local  cultures.    Derek Walcott’s  Pantomime,  as  a  postcolonial  drama,  elucidates  mimicry  as  writing  back  to  resituate  the opposition  side  between  two  parties:  the English man represents  to  the  colonizer  and a Trinidadian man represents to the colonized. In conclusion, the idea of black and white, through Jackson’s and Harry’s act in Derek Walcott’s Pantomime will be constructed into new identity of human being. Keywords: black and white, post-colonialism, human identity,  differance, language, deconstruction, and mimicry.
SAYURI’S DEFENSE MECHANISM IN ARTHUR GOLDEN’S MEMOIRS OF GEISHA KARTIKA SARI, ERA; MUSTOFA, ALI
Litera~Kultura Vol 1, No 3 (2013): Volume 1 Nomer 3 (2013)
Publisher : Litera~Kultura

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  Abstrak Penelitian ini berfokus pada novel Athur Golden yang berjudul Memoirs of Geisha untuk menjawab : mekanisme pertahanan diri apa saja yang digunakan oleh tokoh utama? Mengapa tokoh utama menggunakan mekanisme pertahanan diri? Dengan konsep mekanisme pertahanan diri masalah akan dianalisis. Penelitian ini menggunakan mekanisme pertahanan diri untuk menghadapi kenyataan dan kecemasan tokoh utama. Kecemasan Sayuri berawal dari latar belakang keluarga dan lingkungan Sayuri. Keluarga tidak memenuhi hasratnya dan menyebabkan kekecewaann. Hasrat Sayuri untuk mendapatkan kasih sayang, rasa aman, dan kebebasan. Data ini menyajikan mekanisme pertahanan diri Sayuri untuk menghadapi kecemasannya dan dapat hidup dengan bahagia. Sayuri juga menggunakan mekanisme pertahanan diri untuk memecahkan masalahnya. Dengan mekanisme pertahanan diri Sayuri dapat beradaptasi dengan lingkungan yang baru serta menjadi seorang geisha yang terkenal.   Kata kunci : Mekanisme pertahanan diri, represi, supresi, rasionalisasi, bertindak   Abstract This research was conducted to explore Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of Geisha in order to answer the following research questions: what kind of  defense mechanisms used by main characters? Why does Sayuri use defense mechanisms? The concept of defense mechanisms was employed as a framework for analysis.   The study disclosed that Golden used repression, suppression, rationalization, and acting out because she had realistic and moral anxiety. Her anxiety was from family background and society. Her families did not fulfill her desires which brought her to have anxiety. Sayuri desired for parental love, safety and freedom. In addition, the society wanted her to follow social life which was against her desires. The society wanted Sayuri to be civilized while Sayuri herself wanted to be independent and freedom. Therefore, she repressed her anxiety in order to live peacefully. Furthermore, Sayuri used suppression because she faced unavoidably threatening situations. Sayuri had to live in the house of Okiya where she was forced to comply with social norm which was against her natural behaviors. Sayuri had conflict when she allowed the conmen to be a geisha during the journey although she did not want to. Sayuri suppressed her anxiety in order to overcome these situations. Besides, her defense mechanism also emerges as a result of her failure of her childhood when she lost her family. Importantly, defense mechanisms led the characters to experience new things and new people and helped Sayuri to reach their maturity.   Keywords : Defense mechanism, repression, suppression, rationalization, and acting out       INTRODUCTION Literature is one of the most creative and universal means to communicate the emotion, spiritual and intellectual concern of mankind. Sometimes most of the students feel that literature is a terrible subject and makes them nervous to study it. However, literature will be an interesting thing or not depends on their feeling of sensitivity and their imagination to enjoy the beauty of literature. In addition, literature is one way to express the creativity that reveals the interest and values of the society and frequently gives intimate and unique glimpses of how people live.   (1)   Statement of the problem   What kind of defense mechanism is used by the main character in Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of Geisha? Why does Sayuri use defense mechanism in Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of Geisha?   (2)   Solving problem plan   In writing the thesis, the thesis collects two types of data. They are main data and supporting data. The main data are taken from novel Memoirs of Geisha written by Arthur Golden that was published in 1999. The supporting data are taken from comments and critics about that novel which the thesis gets from internet. The thesis also taken from a lot of books as references. They are: Approach to Literature by Graham Little, Literature: Introduction to Reading and Writing by Edgar V. Robert and Henry Jacobs; A Handbook to Literature by C. Holman and William Harmon; Literature  Structure, Sound, and Sense by Perrine, Peck and Cayle; An Introduction of Literature Approach by James H. Pickering, and also the psychological books that have correlation with the topic.   (3)   Purpose of the research   To depict Sayuri’s defense mechanism in Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of Geisha, To reveal the reason why Sayuri use defense mechanism in Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of Geisha.   (4)   Summary about the theories   This study focused on analyzing protagonists’defense mechanisms in Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of Geisha. Moreover, the results defense mechanisms the main character was included. Therefore, the theoretical framework of this study was drawn. This part consist comprises the concept of anxiety and theory of defense mechanisms. Normally when a person has some problems, she will automatically find a proper way to deal with them. However, some problems are more troublesome for some people than for other people. Those troubles lead to the anxiety state. According to James R. Gallagher and Herbert I. Harris, anxiety can occur at a deep, unconscious level and be noticed with some symptoms of physical illness. It can also happen very close to conscious level. It can be observed through body responses. For example, when an individual faces anxiety, she may have a dry mouth, rapid breathing, fast heart rate, dilate pupils or even taut muscle. This idea is similar to that of Max L. Hutt and Robert Gwyn Gibby. They state that anxiety tends to be transformed in many forms of symptomatic disturbance. It may not be able to be recognized. According to Sigmund Freud, defense mechanisms are the devices that ego defends itself against conflicts and anxieties by forcing unpleasant thoughts and impulses to the unconscious level. According to the definitions, it is obvious that defense mechanisms are psychological devices adopted by an individual to cope with frustrations, anxieties, stresses and conflicts. They can happen at the level of unconsciousness. They serve to protect the individual’s self-esteem and help extend time for direct problem solving. Appropriate use of defense mechanisms can make the individual live happily in the society. Defense mechanisms are necessary for people living in any society. They are important for personality development. To know their characteristics and functions will enable us to have a better understanding of defense mechanisms. Krench suggests the characteristics of defense mechanisms as follows.   They are devices adopted to protect individual’s self-esteem and to defend against anxiety when the individual encounters continuing frustrations. They have both negative and positive aspects. For the negative aspect, they are the ways to avoid or protect the individual from anxiety. For the positive aspect, they help compensate mind and maintain self-esteem. Each device carries the same common quality which is self-deception. Then the mechanisms reveal in the form of denial of needs, feelings and situations that can cause anxiety or losing face. They can also reveal in the form of disguise of needs and motivations to substitution or reaction formation in order to be socially accepted. Normal people use defense mechanisms in some ways. An appropriate use is satisfied but an overuse is dangerous because they can cause neurotic phenomena. Each device of defense mechanism is co-related. This means the functions of each mechanism are overlapped. It is difficult to completely specify one from the others. To make it understandable, psychologists put them in categories. However, in order to cope with unpleasant feelings, the individual may have to use more than one mechanism. Naming is just to make it easy to describe. To better understand the employment of defense mechanisms, the needs of individual must be symmetrically analyzed. Defense mechanisms are not solutions for problem solving. Their function is to protect the individual from anxiety which comes from conflicts, frustrations and threatening. Apparently, it can be concluded that defense mechanisms are employed by normal people in their everyday lives. They help maintain self-esteem and protect the individual from unpleasant or undesirable feelings. They are not the solutions for a direct problem solving. The moderate use is satisfaction, but if the individual uses particular mechanism more often, it can cause mental disorder. Defense mechanisms are important for everyday life, so they have been applied to study human behaviors in research. Although many psychologists study on defense mechanisms, they give similar concepts of defense mechanisms.   METHOD The thesis applies qualitative research in which the research is nor based on the statistics and mathematics, in this research, the research is focused on the depth or the quality of interaction between the concepts that is used in analyzing the topic. Since the research deals with literary work, in analyzing the topic, the thesis would like to use instric approach and extrinsic approach. According the Rene Wellek and Austen Warren in their book Theory of Literature (1756:73), intrinsic approach is an approach that emphasizes elements of literature itself. It covers plot, character, conflict, and so on. It can be concluded that instrinsic approach is the approach which is focused on the elements of the novel itself, such as plot, character, conflict. Rene Wellek and Austen Warren in their book Theory of Literature (1756:73), extrinsic approach is the approach that concerns other fields of study. It means that extrinsic approach is used to analyze the literary work by connecting the work with other fields of study, such as sociology, anthropology, psychology, religion, or other sciences. In analyzing this topic, the thesis apllies psychological approach, because in answering the statement of the problem, the thesis needs psychological knowledge since the problem concerns with human psychology. In writing the thesis, the thesis collects two types of data. They are main data and supporting data. The main data are taken from novel Memoirs of Geisha written by Arthur Golden that was published in 1999. The supporting data are taken from comments and critics about that novel which the thesis gets from internet. The thesis also taken from a lot of books as references. They are: Approach to Literature by Graham Little, Literature: Introduction to Reading and Writing by Edgar V. Robert and Henry Jacobs; A Handbook to Literature by C. Holman and William Harmon; Literature  Structure, Sound, and Sense by Perrine, Peck and Cayle; An Introduction of Literature Approach by James H. Pickering, and also the psychological books that have correlation with the topic. In collecting data, the thesis condacts library research that is the research that is done in library and in the room. In this research all the main data and the supporting data are taken by close reading. When reading the books, This study make quotations and notes from the books. After the data have been collected,the study are select and classfies the data related to the topic. The data that have been selected and classified are anlyzed by interpreting them. All the data are explained and described clearly. The thesis applies the deductive and inductive method of writing. According to Graham Little (1966:201) in Approach to Literature state: “ Deducative is the process is reasoning from the general principles to particular conclussion. Inductive is the opposite process one in which many examples are considered, leading to the formation of a general principles in summary of all the evidence.”   The quatation means that deductive method is done by presenting general idea which is proved by the quotations. While, inductive method is written by presenting, the quotation which is explained by statements. ANALYSIS AND RESULT Sayuri’s Defense Mechanism in Arthur Golden’s Memoirs of Geisha Psychologically, the characters in novel Memoirs of Geisha always haunted by anxiety, psychological conflict, powerless to face reality in external of her self (environment). Moreover, in data analysis, the writer focuses on certain characters who are dominating the plot of the story on novel Memoirs of Geisha. Besides that, she fulfill rules and regulations to be analyzed from Freudian psychoanalytic theory because having tragic and dramatic psychological process. In this analysis, this research is about the defense mechanism to cover someone’s feeling from tension. It is used by Sayuri who is the main character of this novel. Defense mechanism appears because of some reasons that make people feel in danger. It is a way to protect people from unpleasant emotions and keep unwanted thoughts from the unconscious mind. In this novel, the main character Sayuri uses some defense mechanisms to protect her from any kind of conflicts that occur in her life. Here, Sayuri has identified four types of defense mechanisms in this study. Sayuri’s Id In tracing Sayuri’s life, it found that she has both realistic and moral anxiety. Sayuri’s realistic anxiety comes from her family and society while her moral anxiety is from her moral awareness. In the beginning of the story, Golden describes Sayuri as a child who was sold by Mr.Tanaka. In addition, the human instinct of Sayuri comes up in the form of looking for herself, asking herself and seeking for answer how I was sold and why? "I couldn´t stop thinking about Mr. Tanaka. He had taken me from my mother and father, sold me into slavery, sold my sister into something even worse. I had taken him for a kind man. I had thought he was so refined, so worldly. What a stupid child I had been! I would never go back, it would only be to tell Mr. Tanaka how much I hated him." (Arthur Golden, 1997:94) From the narration above, Sayuri has a beloved sister in childhood whom she loves her so much. Unfortunately, she sold because their family poor. Sayuri cannot accept and makes her can not forget about it. She was frustrated and sad because she always thought of her. This study describes above how the strongest unconscious drive (the id) of Sayuri appears by looking for answer about her own self. Actually, it usually happens to everyone in the world. In this case, Sayuri just keeps asking to herself every time. This condition appears more complex when she has known that she was born for specific purpose, to pay her family debts. The inner conflict of Id and ego, here, arise rapidly in the form of human’s right that should be felt by Sayuri as a human kind.  In this case, Sayuri was confused because she felt the anxiety after sold by House of Okiya. She could not fulfill her desire to her beloved family anymore. So, she tried to look for away to reduce her painful memory. "When you begin working as a geisha, you´ll pay the Okiya back for it, along with everything else you´ll owe. Your meals and lessons; if you get sick, your doctor´s fees you pay all of that yourself. Why do you thing mother spend all her time in her room, writing numbers in those little books. You owe the Okiya even for the money it cost to acquire you." (Arthur Golden, 1997:88) The data above describe that illustration that the combination of precious genetic material explains that Sayuri never has her life utterly, she must be ready when become a geisha. On the other hand, Sayuri is a human kind that has a right of life; it is the real and whatever the reasons she has right to posses herself utterly. This consciousness came up from the unconscious world of human kind.   Sayuri’s Ego   In the case of human’s ego, the tools we use to deny and distort reality and to defend our ego against anxiety that are called by “Ego Defense Mechanism” protect us from excessive neurotic anxiety and insure the health, safety and "sanity" of the personality. The conflict of Sayuri’s ego begins when she has known about her existent in this world that being a geisha. She was so confused about herself; she wants to be free from the habitual action to go to the house of Okiya. In addition, her ego pushes herself to take an action for herself. Sayuri’s ego supresses on to make decision what will act to save her and make everything comfortable. Her decision is clearly comes from the impulse of her ego. “decision about me is being made, and no one´s bothered to ask the one person who most deserves it to speak her opinion. There´s way too much to explain, and so I do the best I can. "It´s not God. Just me," I say. "I want to sue them for the rights to my own body" (Arthur Golden, 1997:21).   The quotation above shows people how the ego of Sayuri supresses her on having herself utterly.  The illustration above indicates, although she is not sure anymore caused any consideration, Sayuri is still in her decision and she does not change her mindt. This inner conflict arise more complex, Sayuri think s that she was mature enough to make decision based on her.   Sayuri’s Superego   Establishment of the superego persisted in the internalization process of the moral where guides exist in the external self the individual to the moral where guides exist in the internal self of individual. Then it is described that this internalization process besides persisted by the way of individual identification. But by using other way too, that is by rationalization, acting out, and defense mechanism of the ego. These ways are done by individual in effort to compromise about impulses from the id with demand of the superego. By playing the role of the ego as executive of personality, the individual creates the balance in personality; so that it enables to deal with external world well and effective. Rationalization is another device of defense mechanism used by Sayuri. Sayuri rationalizes because she encounters conflicts, especially when she decides to be a geisha. Rationalization belongs to the mechanism of deception. It is the way that an individual gives reasons for doing something in order to be socially accepted or to avoid punishment, such as when making certain decisions. Rationalization is then built into an individual’s behavior as a protective mechanism. When doing something, a person will come up with plausible reasons believing that she is not be blamed from such behavior. The user may not realize that she is twisting the facts to protect the self-esteem by the way of rationalization since it is quite unconscious. However, the overuse of rationalization may take a person away from the real problems that she may end up with crisis which cannot be solved. Sayuri makes use of rationalization several times during her journey when she wants to be a geisha. Actually, Sayuri decided to be a geisha for some reasons.   CONCLUSION   Based on the whole analysis of this study in chapter3, there are several conclusions in line with the statement of the problems. Base on type of defense mechanism by Sigmund Freud, there are four types depicted on the main character Sayuri .The dominant are repression, suppression, rationalization, and acting out. Sayuri’s repression reflects maincharacter’s effort to look for the substitute object as the replacement. Sayuri needs substitute object to get satisfaction of her desire. It aims to reduce the impulse of her past experiences with her beloved sister Satsu. It occurs when she losses her beloved sister in childhood, Sayuri represses that she dislikes her family because she has family problems. She is sold by Mr. Tanaka to pay her father’s debts. From the previous chapter, Sayuri’s family does not fulfill her desires. Sayuri quests for parental love while her father wants to control her as a property. Generally, the family is considered a place for safety and understanding; however, for Sayuri, it is the place that she gains painful feelings, especially from her brutal father. Sayuri has to repress her anxiety because she is forced to live with Nitta Sayuri (mother of Okiya). The repressed impulse forces Sayuri to escape. The fact that she faces difficulties when she works at Okiya. She must endure physical burden and physiological burden. Her physical burden, she endures concern with the heavy task she has to do in her daily activities, while the psychological burden, she endures is faced when she get the supression from Hatsumomo. In the facing those burdens, she never stops but she keeps struggling to get the better life, that Sayuri has done can be related with defense to dream to get the better life, and to reach this aim she should struggle hard. In other way, she also uses rationalization to reduce her anxiety by joining the group to learn a positive activity. It can help her to learn her situation emotionally so she can decrease the emotion and the impulse that make her frustrated. Besides, she uses rationalization to cover herself from people arround her who ask about psychological issue. It aims to help her condition and cover up the truth. She does not want people to know the truth because people will understand the reality that is happened by Sayuri. This type of defense mechanism is usually used to protect people from the real situation that is able to make them safe. In this way, people who use defense mechanism need the reasons make sense or the rational statement. Rationalization is commonly use when people get a problem emergently so they need rational thought to answer or avoid the case.               The last ego defense mechanism that is used by Sayuri is acting out. Sayuri uses this defense mechanism in the last of the story. She is really confused and frustrated when Satsu loss. She keeps the anger and after knows the cause of Satsu lost. Sayuri’s defense  to be a geisha is proved by the events faced by Sayuri in dealing with the hard reality of her new life. Sayuri must receives the reality that she does not live with her parents anymore. Sayuri tries to get the better life by learning the stages of geisha including to learn instrument music, dance, tea ceremony and etc.                         Sayuri is not only brings the happiness but also the sadness on herself. Sayuri becomes more mature in life. The happy effect that Sayuri gets are she becomes a successful geisha with the highest price and she is able to repay all of her debts in Okiya and Sayuri’s dream come true with the Chairman. The sad effect happens on Sayuri is Sayuri must be willingly to let her mizuage go to be taken by another man.             Sayuri causes of using defense mechanism is the second statement of problem which has been identified. There two causes has been identified, they are trauma, stress and anxiety. Those factors that make Sayuri used defense mechanism. Based on the first statement of the problem it can be concluded that Sayuri uses defense mechanisms to reduce or cover the painful mind from tension to remind her miserable memory. In this way, it helps the main character from the uncomfortable situation. Traum acan be the reason of using defense mechanism because Sayuri lost her beloved sister and her parents in childhood, but she cannot accept it. She thinks that she can not live without them. Her trauma makes her feel anxious. The anxiety appears because Sayuri always reminds them and she cannot forget her memory with them. It makes her anxiety becomes bigger and it causes stress. Stress deals with anxiety. It is happened with Sayuri. She found the way to reduce her painful memories by using defense mechanism that has mentioned on the first analysis. Therefore, defense mechanism is the way how to protect herself from the miserable memory from her trauma, stress and anxiety.                
The Woman’s Silent Voice toward Patriarchy’s Handcuff Reflected in AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone SURYA ADI P, RIZKI; MUSTOFA, ALI
Litera~Kultura Vol 1, No 3 (2013): Volume 1 Nomer 3 (2013)
Publisher : Litera~Kultura

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Abstract

Abstrak Patriarkiadalah salah satumasalahbesar bagisetiapwanita di dunia, masalah iniakhirnyadiwakilidengankarya sastra, dansalah satunya adalahAtiqRahimiBatuKesabaran.Terdapat Perempuan, sebagai karakter utamadiceritakandengan semuakesedihan, menikahdengan dipaksa, menikahdengan foto, sampai diaharus membuathamil dengantanpajalan dandia memilikibayi daripria laindia tidak pernahtahu. Berdasarkanfakta-fakta, ini memberikan dua pertanyaanutama sebagairespondarimasalah, adalah(1) GambaranbelenggupatriarkimelaluisuaradiamPerempuandiAtiqRahimiBatuKesabaran?(2) DampaksuaradiamPerempuandiAtiqRahimi, BatuKesabaran?Untuk mengatasi hal itudengan analisis, membutuhkanmetode yangmembaca, mengumpulkan data, dan interpretasi, teknik yang digunakanadalahinterpretasi, dan pendekatanmimesis. Sebagaihasil dariini, itu akanmenemukan sesuatu, suaradiamPerempuan, dan initerjadidi Afghanistan, oleh karena itu,dapat dikatakanbahwa sistempatriarkibisa mengambilhak-hak perempuan, dan apahal-hal yangdapat memberikanPerempuanadalahsuaradiam,suarayang dapat menjadigerakan feminisuntuk setiapsimpatiuntuknya. Ini mewakili, untukberkatadalam bisikanyang sangathalus yangmasih adaketimpanganyang disebabkan olehpatriarki, danWanitatidak dapatberbuat apa-apa. Kata Kunci: Patriarki, perempuan, suaradiam, danfeminisme. Abstract Patriarchy is one of the great problem for every women in the world, this problem finally is represented to a literary work, and one of it is AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone. There, the Woman, as the main character is told with all sorrow, marrying by being forced, marrying with a photo, until she has to make pregnant with regardless the way and she has baby from another guy she never knows. Based on the facts, it delivers two main questions as the response of problems, they are (1) Depiction of patriarchy’s handcuffthrough the Woman’s Silent Voicein AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone? (2) The impact ofthe Woman’s Silent Voice in AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone? To solve it by analysis, it requires a method that is reading, collecting data, and interpretation, the used technique is interpretation, and the approach is mimesis. As the result of this, it will find something, the silent voice of the Woman, and this is happen in Afghanistan, therefore, it can be said that patriarchy system can grab the rights of women, and what things that the Woman can deliver is the silent voice, the voice that can be a feminist movement for every sympathy to it. It represents, it says in very smooth whispers that there are still inequality caused by patriarchy, and the Woman cannot do anything. Keywords: Patriarchy, women, silent voice, and feminism.     INTRODUCTION Human lives in the world are like corrosion on the ply of metal in the process of abrasion. What the core of this analogy is the way human wear their brain shell to think and find the solution of every problem they face to. Human are divided in to two genders normally, they are men and women. Men, a creature whose penis sticks strongly with dignity and power to dig every hole in front of it. Women, a creature whose vagina decorates beautifully with softness and warmness for everything that prepares for digging it. Based on the differences of the two, the conflicts arise. It starts when women begin realizing that what they think is their right, is grabbed by the creature, called men. In addition, this thought probably can be supposed as the basic thought of feminism movement. Before going further to the meant feminism, it is important to see what feminism fights to, and it is patriarchy system. Patriarchy system is a system that has been rooted in society generally. Erich From asserts that Patriarchy system is where men is fated to dictate/control women, and it rules to all part in the world. (Fromm, 2002: 177). To add it, to make the establishment of this system of men, chronologically there are some experts that give distance between men and women where men are supposed to be the better one. Classically, women are inequality creature, and it is added by Aristotle who views women as an imperfectness of nature (Beauvoir, 2003:ix). Francis Bacon comments that the more negative assertion  that women are the jail of men because women give bad effect or influence to men (Arivia, 2002:40). Kant even says that women does not have any ability to use their cognitive ability therefore women should not be allowed to deliver what they think (Arivia, 2002:40). While, St. Thomas supposes women as “imperfect men”, women are creature who are created not deliberately, and it is proven by the symbolic story where Eve is portrayed by Bossuet as a creature who is made of the “Adam’s Rib” (Beauvoir, 2003:xi). According to Cixous, the term of men and women pinpoints to the difference of the two where the first term must posit the higher or better meaning, and it is placed by men. Therefore, men are self and women are the Liyan. Women live in men’s world, therefore women are considered as the Liyan for men. (Tong, 2009: 292). Based on those facts, society finally construct a system where men dominate the whole contents of social life. J. Douglas (1976: 34) adds that many feminists use the term patriarchy as a generic term for male privilege, supremacy, and domination, referring to their current as well as past forms. The attraction of this usage is readily apparent: first, its rhetorical punch and strongly pejorative connotations; second, its reminder of the tenacity and continuity of male domination. Despite earth-shaking social changes, not the least of which are the women´s Movements of the nineteenth and twentieth century, male power remains. Therefore, what the things that can be inferred into these facts are the problems between men and women. Feminism moves to throw everything that involves in men’s domination because they dictate women, women seem to live in a coop. It means that what women fight is the system of men. In general, feminism is the theory of women’s liberation since the intrinsic in all its approaches is the belief that women suffer injustice because of women’s sex (Humm, 1989: 74). From the inequality that exists between both gender, women want to search equality in the society, they start to speak up their voices in the publicarena. Women themselves must articulate who they are and what role they play in the society. Most importantly, they must reject the patriarchal assumption that women are inferior to men. This started the feminist movement. It was started by the reality that male-female relations is a form of power structure in which men dominate women (Thebaud, 1994: 290). From this starting point the feminist believe that existing inequalities between dominant and marginalized groups can and should be removed. In the practive the feminist scholars attempt to examine beliefs and practices from the viewpoint of the “other”, in this case women, treating them as subjects, not merely objects. Based on those views, it can be said that feminism simply is a thought that focuses on the equality between men and women, especially to talk about the rights of women. Therefore, what things that can be put into the main topic of this, is the all things relates to the inequality between men and women where men are supposed to be the superiority ones. Feminism itself is part of cultural studies in literature, which arises since women feel discredited and being treated unequal to men as human. Yet, what is not acceptable is the differentiation in position, that men are superior to women. That awareness prompts women to rise up and fight for their rights. Feminism deals with freedom, appreciation, and fair treatment for women. It is not women’s disability to sit equal with men, but the systems in their social life discourage women to gain self-assertion to actualize themselves as well as men. Meanwhile, women want to grow as human beings who have equal role and opportunity in their own life and society. In the West and East alike, feminists were up against home-grown patriarchalist opponents who used sundry means to denigrate feminism and its supporters. In the West, detractors portrayed feminists as man-haters. In the East, enemies branded feminists as agents of cultural subversion and, ironically in so doing ‘colluded’ with westerners in declaring feminism western. (Kynsilehto, 2008: 26). Therefore, what can be integrated from this Islam feminism understanding is the way Islam see the equality between men and women, from the agents of truth about the equality between men and women, not creating women to hate men just to beg an equality as what west feminism says to. It is clear to see that this problem finally inspires some authors to write it down in beautiful work, and one of it is AtiqRahimi with his novel entitled The Patience Stone. The main thing that is hidden in AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone is the way feminism is shown up. This novel, especially the main character, the woman, erodes the feeling of the readers to give sympathy and tears on what has happened to the woman. The woman cannot fight to the system of men he faces on, but she just can deliver it through a telling to her comate husband, which is not changing anything to her fair life. Specifically, in Atiq Rahimi’s The Patience Stone, there is told a woman sits in front of his comate husband. She tells everything she never confesses before because of some reasons. She is the wife of a soldier who is lying unconscious with a bullet in his neck, and she calls her husband with The Patience Stone or “Sang-e Saboor,” it is a mythical stone accords to Persian folklore that absorbs the pain of those who confide in it, until it eventually explodes. When the novel opens, the man has been comatose for over two weeks, and shows no signs of recovery. Frustration and despair on the woman’s part gradually turns to angry rebellion and, uncertain whether or not he can hear her words, she becomes ever more talkative and outgoing as she gathers over their ten-year marriage. The thing that is important to know is that the couple didn’t meet before their wedding, nor even during it, since he was away fighting. Instead a ceremony was performed between the teen bride (the Woman) and a photograph, after which she spent three years as a married virgin. She is not allowed to be out of house of seeing friends and family. When the Husband returns, she discovers that she is married to a violent, because the Husband brutally detaches sex at the first sex time. It can be seen that the woman as main character reflects “handcuff” of women life against patriarchy in the social life of the novel. The Women uses her inability to comprehend and talk back to tell him things that she will not dare to say otherwise. With his disability she has been left to feed herself, her two children and continue buying medicine to keep her husband alive. The only job available for an Afghan woman in her desperate situation it seems is prostitution. It is an interested topic to explore because AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone is part of a Persian myth about a stone that has this phenomenal strength to listen to stories of suffering and sorrow. What sorrow that is delivered is from the heart voice of a woman that lives in the unfair world. The unfair world is caused by the inequality. Thus, to respond it, the readers must have attention to give sympathy to the woman indirectly, and to call this feeling, it is not too naïve when it said as the feminist movement that calls everyone in talking the equality women should have. To classify it, this thought belongs to first wave, where women have voice to utter although it is not a fight directly. Then, the voice that is not changing anything significantly to what the Woman faces, is the silent voice. Silent voice is the voice that is not heard, listened, and sensed. However, this voice exists, and the existence gnaws sympathy to see how unequal the social system the Woman faces, the sympathy that dribbles to feminism thought indirectly to get the equal rights. Based on the reasons above, this thesis then conveys analysis on the life and some aspect of main characters thorough feminism approach accords to patriarchy concepts and understanding in AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone. Finally, the planned title can be written as The Woman’s Silent Voice toward Patriarchy’s Handcuff Reflected in AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience. For more additional support that this thesis uses credible object, it is important to see that AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone is the winner of Prix Goncourt Prize in 2008. Therefore, this thesis hopefully can be a great product and be great donation of literary critics and analysis. Indeed, the decision to select AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone rather than the other works of him is caused by the main topic of the work. AtiqRahimi’s The Patience Stone delivers more complex problem between men and women, that finally grabs the problem of Patriarchy and Feminism, while the feminism that is used is based on the glasses of Islam because the setting is in Afghan. In AtiqRahimi’sEarth and Ashes is told about the patriotic father that struggle with his blind son during the Russia invasion in Afghanistan, while in AtiqRahimi’sA Thousands Room of Dream and Fear delivers a student who exiles form his life because he is chased, he loves someone saves him. Based on the two reference, AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone becomes the best one to analyze accords to men and women problem culturally.   RESEARCH METHOD This study is taking one of the Atiq Rahimi’s stories entitled The Patience Stone as the primary source. In case of analyzing this story, library research is used in order to find some theories, which are relevant to the topic. Finally, Mimesis approach will be used in analyzing this story because the topic that will be discussed about the main character’s silent voice as a woman against patriarchy in her social life as the universal truth. In collecting data, this research focuses on analysis and citations. The first step is reading novel. In this step, novel becomes the object of the research. The novel is entitled The Patience Stone, written by Atiq Rahimi. This is to reach the understanding all contents completely with all possibilities both intrinsically and extrinsically. The second is inventorying data. This step is collecting data through noting the quotations related to the statement of the problems and objectives of the study, it is including in words, sentences, and discourse that can represent patriarchy and feminism in Atiq Rahimi’s The Patience Stone. The third is classification data. This step to classify the data based on the statement of the problems including the portrayal patriarchy and the way the Woman posits herself against it. The fourth is tabling the data. It is to simplify reading the data and classify data that is used in the analysis for the readers. Those collected data are continuosly intrepreted to react the statement of the problems. The handling of a technique is a duty to do, it is to keep the analysis not jumping out of the limitation in order to solve the statement of the problems. Furthermore, it is significant to be on familiar terms with the data that it is from the novel entitled The Patience Stone, written in 136 pages plus 4 pages of brief introduction by KhaledHossaeni. It is written by AtiqRahimi with original title of SynguéSabour. Pierre de patience, published with ISBN: 9780701184102, and by Chatto&Windus. It is addressed at Random House, 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, in London at 7wiv 25a. The book design is created Chatto and Windus group and translated by Polly McLean. On the dark cover, there is laid a stamp of Goncourt Winner 2008.   CULTURAL APPROACH The term culture is a description of a particular way of life, which expresses certain meanings and values not only in art and learning but also in institutions and ordinary behavior (Frow, 1996: 8). Frow also states that culture is the way of life and is the meanings and values in that way of life. Therefore, basically a cultural approach is a way to think about a literary text based on the ideas or customs of certain society in which the text is made. According to Stanley Fish, J. Hillis, and Michael Foucault, language helps create what we call objective reality, thus reality is a social construct since it is created from language which is a product of customs produced by certain society. (Bressler, 1999: 264) Each society or culture contains in itself a dominant cultural group which determines that culture’s ideology, its dominant values it sense of right and wrong, and its sense of personal self worth. (Bressler, 1999: 264) Culrural approach is divided into some theories. Those are: Marxism, post colonialism, new historicism, and feminism (Bressler, 1999: 178). As stated above, cultural approach investigates the domination and the dominated groups. Therefore, this approach will be used to analyze Atiq Rahimi’s The Patience Stone and since the dominated group in this novel is women, the theory of feminism will be used for further analysis. Before going deeper to the feminism, it is important to see that feminism that will be used is the feminism from the glasses of Islam. In the West and East alike, feminists were up against home-grown patriarchalist opponents who used sundry means to denigrate feminism and its supporters. In the West, detractors portrayed feminists as man-haters. In the East, enemies branded feminists as agents of cultural subversion and, ironically in so doing ‘colluded’ with westerners in declaring feminism western. (Kynsilehto, 2008: 26). Therefore, what can be integrated from this Islam feminism understanding is the way Islam see the equality between men and women, from the agents of truth about the equality between men and women, not creating women to hate men just to beg an equality as what west feminism says to. This thought is also influence to the way of the culture move by times, Eastern as universal truth sees, is culturally have features of moral, politeness, differences, and those all shape a unity of eastern culture that is very cultural. While, in Western, thought, rationality, and will or dreams becomes the subjects that move them to be better, and it shapes their mind and finally becomes the culture of west, therefore, the freedom of women seems to be radical rather that to grab the equality.   PATRIARCHY Patriarchy system is a system that has been rooted in society generally. Erich From asserts that Patriarchy system is where men is fated to dictate/control women, and it rules to all part in the world. (Fromm, 2002: 177). Engels gives different perspective that patriarchy system is begun when human have already understood about privacy owning, and it marks the birth of system of class. (Budiman, 1981: 21). What Engels means, must reflect to the birth of system of class of men and women. To add it, to make the establishment of this system of men, chronologically there are some experts that give distance between men and women where men are supposed to be the better one.Classically, women  are inequality creature, and it is added by Aristotle who views women as an imperfectness of nature (Beauvoir, 2003:ix). Francis Bacon comments that the more negative assertion  that women are the jail of men because women give bad effect or influence to men (Arivia, 2002:40). Kant even says that women does not have any ability to use their cognitive ability therefore women should not be allowed to deliver what they think (Arivia, 2002:40). While, St. Thomas supposes women as “imperfect men”, women are creature who are created not deliberately, and it is proven by the symbolic story where Eve is portrayed by Bossuet as a creature who is made of the “Adam’s Rib” (Beauvoir, 2003:xi). According to Cixous, the term of men and women pinpoints to the difference of the two where the first term must posit the higher or better meaning, and it is placed by men. Therefore, men are self and women are the Liyan. Women live in men’s world, therefore women are considered as the Liyan for men. (Tong, 2009:292). Based on those facts, society finally construct a system where men dominate the whole contents of social life. J. Douglas (1976: 34) adds that many feminists use the term patriarchy as a generic term for male privilege, supremacy, and domination, referring to their current as well as past forms. The attraction of this usage is readily apparent: first, its rhetorical punch and strongly pejorative connotations; second, its reminder of the tenacity and continuity of male domination. Despite earth-shaking social changes, not the least of which are the women´s Movements of the nineteenth and twentieth century, male power remains. These all continuously give a perspective that women are really controlled, handled, and dictated by men particularly in society. The representation of society can be found in family. Family is the crucial institution in society (Millet, 1972: 33) because it can represent to what happens in the society. In a family the women mostly being the victim of oppressed by their husband or brother. Furthermore, feminist knowledge develops and becomes more sophisticated throughout the 1970s; the family comes to be an important object of analysis. In many cases, it is the crucial site of women s oppression, the space where, unheeded by the world outside, women are at the mercy of fathers or husbands; where the law of patriarchy holds its most primitive form (Pilcher&Whelehan, 2004: 44). Engels as quoted by Millet  explains that the ideal type of the patriarchal family and the ancestor is the Roman family, whence come both the term and the legal forms and precedents in the west. Engels informed the word familiaas follow: signify the composite ideal of sentimentality and domestic strife in the present day philistine mind. Among the Romans it did not even apply in the beginning to the leading couple and its children, but to the slave alone. Famulus means domestic slave, and familia is the aggregate number of slaves belonging to one man the expression [familia] was invented by the Romans in order to designate a new social organism the head of which had a wife, children and a number of slaves under his paternal authority and according to Roman law, the right of life and death over all of them(Millet, 1972: 123—124). In family, Gough as quoted by Jo, mentions that men and women cooperate through a division of labor based on gender. Child care, household tasks and crafts closely connect with the household, tend to be done by women; war, hunting, and government by men. Besides that, men in general have higher status and authority over the women of their families, although older women may have influence, even some authority, over junior men (Jo, 1984: 84). Therefore, what things can be inferred to those all understandings, are the problem that is faced by women in the society, the society is like the jail of women and it is sourced by thoughts where place men in a good position to control women. This is also what things reflected on AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone that finally makes the main character, the woman, whispers something as the silent voice in the middle of patriarchy system. This reaction potentially can be said as the thing to get attention and sympathy about what happens to women in Afghanistan, and this can be said as the movement of feminism.   FEMINISM In general, feminism is the theory of women’s liberation since the intrinsic in all its approaches is the belief that women suffer injustice because of women’s sex (Humm, 1989: 74). From the inequality that exists between both gender, women want to search equality in the society, they start to speak up their voices in the publicarena. Women themselves must articulate who they are and what role they play in the society. Most importantly, they must reject the patriarchal assumption that women are inferior to men. This started the feminist movement. It was started by the reality that male-female relations is a form of power structure in which men dominate women (Thebaud, 1994: 290). From this starting point the feminist believe that existing inequalities between dominant and marginalized groups can and should be removed. In the practive the feminist scholars attempt to examine beliefs and practices from the viewpoint of the “other”, in this case women, treating them as subjects, not merely objects. Based on all general understanding, it is important to sharpen it into the good shape for not going out of the limitation and wasting buss of explanation of the theory. First of all, it is a long discussion of talking about feminism and its complex sources. To maintain the stability of this research that uses feminism as the knife to slice the discourse of patriarchy reflected in AtiqRahimi’s The Patience Stone, thus the first feminism, the main slicer, continuously will be the main point of theory to discuss. The first wave of feminism appeared in the 19th and early 20th centuries, when women’s suffrage was at the pole position of an industrializing world. In other word, it happened at the age of Victorian age. In 1800, women had little control over their lot in life. The average married female gave birth to seven children. Higher education was off-limits. Wealthier women could use limited authority in the domestic scope but possessed no property rights or economic autonomy. Lower-class women toiled alongside men, but the same social and legal restrictions applied to this stratum of society as well. Somewhat ironically, religion fueled some of the initial social advancements women made at the beginning of the 19th century. The Second Great Awakening, which started in 1790, emphasized emotional experience over dogma, allowing women more leadership opportunities outside of the home. Abolition and temperance movements that shared Protestant undercurrents activated women as well. It is like to what Stuurman, as quoted by Bryson, says that feminist theological arguments were further elaborated in the seventeenth century: for example, some writers used the creation story to argue that Eve was superior to Adam because she wascreated last, or because she was created out of Adam’s rib rather than out of mud and slime (Bryson, 2003: 6). Thus, it can be seen, that in religion, or theologically, the inequality women have, has been rooting to put them down under the knee of men. That means, men are taking higher position in human life where men and women separate them. To talk about the theologically term about the inequality, then women want to get the equality, means that women have something different from the way theology thinks about it and the way of thought is Cartesian with all rationality to think. Bryson notes that the inspiration for these new ways of thinking (feminisms) was the revolution in western philosophy, which had been started in the first half of the seventeenth century by Descartes. According to Cartesian philosophy, all people possess reason, and true knowledge, which is based on experience and self-discovery rather than study of the classics or sacred texts, is in principle available to all. This means that traditional authority is rejected in favor of rational analysis and independent thought, and that customs and institutions which are not in accordance with reason should be rejected. (Bryson, 2003: 6). Therefore, what has been done by feminist is breaking the old thought that is sourced by the empirical way of theology. Moreover, what becomes the main point of this born is the equality that is thought as the right that has been robbed by men and their all system. The first-wave of feminism began in the United Kingdom and the United States around the nineteenth century and lasted until the early twentieth century. The focus of this movement at this time was on de jure inequalities, or officially mandated inequalities. There were many people during this time who were considered to be feminists, Mary Wollstonecraft, Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, Olympia Brown, and Helen Pitts; there are countless more. The first-wave of feminism was monumental to the movement, however, without the continuing second-wave, there would be no hope for feminism in current times, for each wave is connected and dependent on the other´s history. In simpler words, feminism is not some simple thing that people can generalize, like it is just an excuse for women to kick men in the balls, and not take care of themselves, or that men and women must be equal at all costs. Feminism is a movement, which has been incredibly important to the success and failures of this country and has been a necessary journey for the women in our country to travel upon so that they can discover and create their own unique place in society. First wave feminists spent hundreds of years in activism, writing, protesting and working for the betterment and equality of their sex and gender. First wave feminists worked not only for suffrage, or the right to vote, but also for the right to an education, the right to work, the right to work safely, the right to the money they earned when they worked, the right to a divorce, the right to their children and the right to themselves and their own bodies. Rights for women can be traced back to the Middle Ages in the Middle East when early reforms under Islam gave women greater rights in marriage, divorce and inheritance. Women in other cultures were not afforded such rights until centuries later. Further improvements of the status of Arab women included things such as the prohibition of female infanticide and recognizing women’s full personhood. The things mentioned above are necessary and were necessary, and in some case, came at the end of long efforts. First wave feminists had to work against this impression, and they had to work against the society that allowed an unmarried woman to be property of her father and a married woman to be property of her husband. The first wave of feminism was the longest, and it is the most taken for granted. It is common now to speak with women who do not identify as feminists who think that feminism is a dirty word, who simultaneously pursue careers and an education, who exercise their right to vote, who own property and benefit from the fruits of their labor. Understanding the history and the efforts of feminism, understanding how much progress they made and how long it took them is important both to those who think they are not feminists, and those who identify as feminists and who live life trying to better the world by the feminist ideal. (Retrieved from uic.edu and pacificu.edu). Victorian feminism is a difficult concept to analyze. On the one hand, some of the greatest reforms of women’s social and legal position before those of the late twentieth century occurred in a few decades of the nineteenth century; on the other, many of those women who were active campaigners—Caroline Norton, Florence Nightingale, Emily Davies, and Barbara Bodichon—were ambivalent about the extent of their own feminism, and over-anxious to distance themselves from unconventional lifestyles and behavior. Moreover, they seemed concerned mainly with the plight of intelligent middle-class single women. Their commitment to respectability gave them something of a timorous or half-hearted allegiance to a more wide-ranging kind of feminism; in any case, their contribution to the feminist cause was often narrowly specialized as they concentrated on a particular campaign—whether for women’s colleges at Cambridge or child custody rights—to the exclusion of others, and many still relied on men to help them with the legal or parliamentary part of their activism. For some, however, it was impossible to avoid being drawn into a wider examination of women’s rights, as happened with Caroline Norton and Harriet Martineau, for example, and by the end of the century, most of the major journals were carrying heated debates about the unsatisfied needs of the modern woman. Beginning initially with spasmodic bursts of activism, first wave feminism gathered pace through the work of specific individuals working for specific ends, until the momentum of events made concern for women’s full participation in social and political life a matter of public interest across the whole political spectrum. This in itself was no mean achievement (Gamble, 2006: 24). According to those all explanations about first wave feminism, that is majorly from west, then it is continued to see this based on the glasses of Islam feminism reflected to AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone. There is a woman that faces a fact of patriarchy system, she cannot do anything except confessing something about the inequality that indirectly getting sympathy for anyone who read to pay the pity about equality of thee Woman should have. The equality is something has been robbed by the patriarchy system, and the way the Woman acts, can be said as feminist movement. As Muslim, this thought can be clearly is seen as east feminist movement. It is like to what Kynsilheto says that it was in this context that some of us reported that Muslim women were subverting the patriarchal Islamist project through what appeared to be a new form of feminism-in-the-making which Muslim women in different parts of the world would soon call Islamic feminism. (Kynsilehto, 2008: 26). Therefore, the understanding of this feminism toward this research goes clearer to see as the relevant theory that will be used to slice the data just to become a good shape of analysis without going out of the limitation.   STATUS WOMEN IN AFGHANISTAN The position of women in Afghanistan traditionally has been inferiorto that of men. This position has been continuing to age, socio-culturalnorms, and ethnicity. In fact, Afghan women, even until the beginning of 20thcentury are still being the slaves of their father, husband, father-in-law, and elder brother. Thus, it can be said that the status of women are silence and obedience. The essence of attitude towards women could be clearly seen in the relationshipof the family after the birth of a female baby.The birth of a female baby,particularly in those cases where the mother gives birth to several girls, is the main cause of contracting a second marriage, and it is still happened until nowadays. Girls areusually raised to be good mothers and tolerant housewives. Thus no one pays attention to their education, except in very rare cases in some well-to-do families. Furthermore, they are married to young and even to very old men, in most caseswealthy ones between the ages of 13 and 16, and in certain cases between the ages of 10 and 12, if their parents desire. They were exchanged for what is called “Toyana” or marriage price. Young girls had no right to choose theirfuture husbands, or question their engagement, which is arranged by theirparents. Early marriage is the main cause of suffering for girls in Afghansociety. Such marriages are both physically and psychologically unhealthy,and often resulted in sickness and psycho-neurotic diseases. Many youngmothers pass away during releasing it because of physiological reasons and earlymotherhood.Divorce is an easy act if the husband wants it. Afghan women do not have any right to ask for divorce. The man is the governor, the controller, the dictator, of every authorizing in divorcing. It is a slur for both families.Occasionally, wives were deprived of their rights and claims on their ownchildren. Traditional women refer to their husbands as "Sahib", the lord. Wives aregreatly trusted by their husbands. This great confidence rendered byhusbands has led Afghan wives towards great honesty, chastity, courage, andproper manners. Women are mainly occupied with rearing children, cooking,sewing, milking, weaving, spinning, and other similar house-works. For thosewho can pay for servants, their servants free them from the burden of home duties. Women take part in social occasions and family entertainments,but they separate from men. On all occasions where both sexes take part,they remainsto be separated. According to Scharmann (Kakar, 1971), thedivision of men and women into two separate worlds is pronounced inAfghan society. In entering the world outside their homes, women are toveil themselves. They usually try to hide their faces from men, calling them “Namahram”, though the exception was for women in upper class families,the number of which was very small. Afghan women are patriotic. They love their native land. That is whyAfghan women in time of war helped Afghan warriors in the battle fields byproviding services such as carrying supplies, removing bodies, helpingwounded soldiers, etc. For example, in the second Afghan war with theBritish, Maiden Malalyis known as the symbol of courage at Maiwand war.At present, women take an active part in defending the revolution. They areorganized in committees for such defense. Based on the paraphrasing of Wali M. Rahimi in his book Status of Women: Afghanistan that is supported by UNESCO, therefore it can be accepted that what things happen to the Woman in AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone, is not only a kind of play of the plots of a fiction, but it can be related to the reflection of the reality world, where women are still living in the jail, they live in the armpits of men that are very rotten.   HOW AL-QURAN VIEWS PATRIARCHY As a religion that is always involved in patriarchy, Islam actually seems to be like a scapegoat religion. By the showing from the first creature of Adam, the duty of men of being a leader and women should follow their husband, until the greater rights of wealth heritage. Those all constantly strike Islam as a religion that gives privilege to men rather than to women. This all happen, potentially from the miss understanding toward the interpretation of Al Quran.In Al Quran, the holly book of all Muslim, there is told some reason of those wrong perceptions. In a verse from Surah An-NAhl. There is written, Anyone who works righteousness, male or female, while believing, we will surely grant them a happy life in this world, and we will surely pay them their full recompense (on the Day of Judgment) for their righteous works(16:97). This is what is said as the equality of Men and Women. Both men and women are treated with same treatment, and those all based on what they do in the world with regardless what sex they have. Additionally, there are some verses and Surah that show Islam give similar position between men and women, and the difference of the two is not a hierarchal system, but difference of patching each other. This is very different to what patriarchy understands about, therefore, there is no reason to call Islam as patriarchal religion.   SILENT VOICE This is a new term that will be a source of question, what does it mean? How can this term raise among all problems that this thesis emerges up? And many questions follow to trace with no end. However, this term is actually taken from the basic problem of the Woman, as the main character, in AtiqRahimi’sThe Patience Stone. The Woman faces problems of patriarchy system, she cannot do anything except following that system. She is just woman, and she has no voice to demonstrate what she feels, but, when her husband comes back in comate condition, she finally can utter everything she feels. Based on this fact, it can be said that the Woman has a chance to say what she feels from the comate condition of her husband, with that moment she says. She voices something, something that is always hidden and repressed. This repressed voice, finally can be seen as the silent voice, because silent literally mean cannot be uttered directly, it exists but it is not heard and listened, even it cannot be heard nor listened. The voice symbolically shows the heart, the feel, and experience. Therefore, it is completely seen as the silent voice of the Woman, definitely.   DEPICTION OF PATRIARCHY’S HANDCUFF THROUGH THE WOMAN’S SILENT VOICE IN ATIQ RAHIMI’S THE PATIENCE STONE The things become the crucial issue in Atiq Rahimi’s The Patience Stone is the problem that is faced by the Woman. The Woman here is unnamed character, she has a comate husband after taking back from the war. Here, the Woman delivers everything she has kept, hid, and buried. These feelings are blown up by what she utters to the “dead” husband. Here the conflict emerges as long she delivers it. To start it, the conflict can be rushed to the conflict where the Woman has a sex with her husband at the first night, ‘Oh yes bleeding…I was lying to him, of course.’ She glances keenly at the man, more mischievous than submissive. ‘Just as I’ve lied to you…more than once!’ she pulls her legs up to her chest and wedges her chin between her knees. ‘But there is something I’d better tell you…’ (Rahimi, 2010: 28). There is something different going wrong in this case. On the quotation, the Woman admits to her comate husband that she has been lying to him. What she lies, is the thing happens when they firstly sleep in gathering. Pulling the plot before, the man comes after homing from war. He is as nervous as the woman in facing the first having sex. Then, they finally have a sex. The Husband feels happy because he thinks that the woman is still virgin. The proof is, the blood melts down while the Husband penetrates his penis down. It is accepted because, in oriental countries, culture, women are like the special things. Therefore, the virginity of women is the crucial thing every man should have got. It can be thought carefully when it is compared with western culture. In western culture, a man and a woman can live together although they have not been married, but it is not accepted in mostly eastern culture, moreover in Afghanistan. To get it, men’s culture construct a jail where women are prohibited to be out of house in order to make them saves of being not virgin. However, the blood that melts on the Woman’s vagina is the blood of menstruation. The Husband does not know, and he does not want to know. The way the Husband does it, the way the Husband treats his wife with regardless the condition of the wife appears something. It is a kind of a force, the insisting seems that the Husband, as a man, has a power and right to do everything to the wife. This authority can be belonged to an action of domination of a man to his wife. Further explanation, the way these two creatures marry, is not in a proper equal right. What is meant by this statement is, the Woman marries to her husband in a condition where she has to be sit with a photo because the Husband in on process of war. That is the pity thing for every woman to marry with someone she never sees directly and physically. This marriage happens because the Woman is believed as a woman who has been already of being married. With regardless the love, the feeling, and the desire to marry, the Woman is insisted to marry. This is harsh thing, the hard thing for women to neglect it. Women are poisoned by this system, because if women try to make a move of changing it means that women have not been ruling the law, and it is considered as fighting to God’s rule. As it can be mirrored directly that, this system, this marriage gives something pleasant for the men because they (men) do not have to be so serious in facing the marriage because they can represent their appearance, their existence, in the ceremony. Another fact is, when the Husband has a sex with the Woman, actually the Woman is in the period that means she has menstruation. However, what thing that can stick to every eye is the fact that the Husband firstly meet the Woman, his wife, three years after they marry.‘When you and I went to bed for the first time after three years of marriage, remember! Anyway, that night, I had my period.’ (Rahimi, 2010: 28).From the quotation above, it can be read unmistakably that the Woman meets her husband firstly after three years passed. This is added the explanation above that the Woman is jailed in the system of patriarchy. The Woman cannot break the rule, she has to follow the rule, she has to be laid down on the feet of a man. It can be imagined, how can a marriage is not attended by one of the couple? It is really strange and seemed not to be a fair marriage. Additionally, the Woman marries to her husband is caused by the time she has to marry. Moreover, her sister has been sold to a man because her father cannot pay the debt after being lost in his bet. After having a sex, the days after, the Husband should go to the war again. It means that he has to leave his wife again. The Woman, as a woman generally in the world, must feel sad of being left by the husband. Therefore, the Husband looks to be a pride thing for everyone in Afghanistan, because he struggles for nation, for religion, for Afghanistan. Although, what the Husband does is sacrificing the happiness of the Woman. This is the voice of the Woman in front of the comate Husband. She utters everything she feels, what she utters means that she has been keeping, holding, and defending her emotion and anger because of the relation with her husband. She marries with a man, and during the marriage, for ten years, she never speaks, she never does something husband-wife does generally such a chit-chatting, joking, giving romantically action, and other actions. The coming of the Husband is only run out by drinking, partying, and laughing with all his friend, then he wants to have sex with his husband,  the Woman. Therefore, it means that the woman is only an object of sexuality, object to deliver the Husband desire of sexuality, the object that is only for satisfying his ambition of the desire. Within this context, within this culture that asks every woman to fulfill the desire of the husband, becomes the thing that can be good and bad. Generally, it is good for a normal relation that has good husband and wife. For example, the filling what husband desires can strengthen the relation of the two, between the husband and the wife. However, the context that the Woman faces is different. She is very seldom of meeting with his husband, she never speaks, talks, and make conversations. Then the Husband comes home, and wants to have sex after drinking and partying. Can it be looked as a duty for every woman in the world to fill what the husband wants? This is unfair thing. This is the thing that can slice the feel of every woman. Women are also creature, they are human being, they also have feeling and desire. They want to be felt, they want to treated humanely. If the Husband just want to throw out his desire and after that he goes off again. It makes the impression of the Woman that she just a whore of the man, she is just a slut of the Husband, she is only a harlot of his husband. This s irony, but this is what happens to the Woman in Atiq Rahimi’s The Patience Stone. Because the setting is in Afghanistan, it can be reflected that something happens to the Woman, is what the things happen to some women in Afghanistan. Talking about Afghanistan, it must relate to the system they use. Afghanistan is a complicated country. Therefore, what can be inferred from the explanation has been noted in the understanding before about the position women in Afghanistan, is the women have no freedom to move, to express something, to say something such as “Excuse me, I want to divorce you.” Or something like “Um… Sorry we need to discuss it before.” The fate of women seems to have been robbed out. They do not have anything in the world, everything they want to say, everything they want to deliver based on what they feel, based on what they think is unfair, is unsaid, and it is kept in heart. What else that has to be said that this system is called as patriarchy system. Indeed, it is Islam, but it is longer used as what equality in Islam has been written on the holy Koran. This is caused by the wrong interpretation of human, the wrong interpretations are finally used as the culture, and for the God’s sake, it is inherited. The Quran makes it clear that Women and Men are equal in the eyes of God. This is the weakness of human, to see something they always see it by what they can accept, although God has different point of view. One of the most misunderstood areas in Islam is the position, the situation, and the condition of women in the religion. The universal view in the West is that Muslim women are subjugated and almost seen as property or the object of men. Although, not all Muslims deal with that statement that women as inferior, this is unfortunately true in some segments of the Muslim world and this treatment is supposedly reasonable thing by the religion. However, when it is looked at the basis of the religion, the Quran, it can be seen a different picture. In the Quran God makes it very clear that men and women are equal. Their Lord responded to them: "I never fail to reward any worker among you for any work you do, be you male or female - you are equal to one another. Thus, those who immigrate, and get evicted from their homes, and are persecuted because of Me, and fight and get killed, I will surely remit their sins and admit them into gardens with flowing streams." Such is the reward from GOD. GOD possesses the ultimate reward. (3: 195). The only criterion for distinguishing among the people. Based on what those show, it can be articulated that God seems to have no distinguishing, or special thing to differ between men and women. The two can have sins, the two can hbe living in the paradise, the promised place. If the God seems to say that, why men creates their own understanding to control women in their armpits, is that a kind of breaking the rule of God whereas God say that there is no difference between men and women, the two can live in paradise and have sins. If the paradise is for good human, and men try to be good by slaving women, and women try to be good women by being slaved by men, is that a kind of justice? Men can live freely by slaving women in the world, and slaving is kind of joyful action. They do not have to be pregnant, they do not have to be working at house, wiping the shits of the baby, feeding the baby, menstruation, and busy of massaging their husband. If they (women) have to do so as their duty, they should have the same result of what they have done, the same right of not being slaved. They should have similarity, because of what they do for men are rightfully consisted of rights. However, men, the culture of men, the system of men, the wrong interpretation, makes them fall to the disgusting thinking about women. How can that clear verses be ignored? Why are women treated so poorly in some Muslim communities? The answer lies in the fact that those communities take other sources besides the Quran as the basis of their religion. There are many Hadiths that degrade women. In addition, the pre-Islamic cultures of much of the Muslim world do not value women and have little use for them. The following verses demonstrate this fact: Long and complicated, the tradition that brings and leads the system of men to mostly Muslim nations, here is Afghanistan. However, it can be traced that what makes this becomes the intimate problems of Afghanistan is their condition. Their variety of religion and the territorial that is surrounded by West and East culture makes them are easy to be got down, especially in their rule. Islam, where the verses are delivered beautifully, but it is interpreted wrongly, and makes the wrong system of men. There are difference between men and women, but the difference does not mean they are not equal. They have same duty and right, the same means to the effect rather than the direct meaning of duty, so does the right. However, this right does not longer exist for many women, and it can be represented by the Woman in AtiqRahimi. Again, she has to admit that to be married with the Husband is not what she wants. ’Your mother, with her enormous bust, coming to our place to ask for the hand of my younger sister. It wasn’t her turn to get married. It was my turn. So your mother simply said, “no problem, we’ll take her instead!”, pointing her fleshy finger at me as I poured the tea. I panicked and knocked the pot over.’ She hides her face in her hands.in shame, or to dispel the image of a mocking mother in law. ‘as for you, you didn’t even know this was happening. My father, who wanted nothing more, accepted without the slightest hesitation. He didn’t give a damn that you weren’t around! Who were you, really? No one knew. To all of us, you were just a title: the hero! And, like every hero, far away. Engagement to a hero was a lovely thing, for a seventeen year old girl. I said to myself. (Rahimi, 2010: 53—54). Here is told that the Woman does not have any right to choose which man she wants to be married to, because her mother selects the man for her. It shows that the power of parents is strongly grabbing the children, and the children that gets the bigger grab is woman. Women are considered as slow, weak, and brittle. Thus, it is not right if women are given a chance to choose men. Furthermore, the Women does not love the man she marries. It is a kind of insisting. Why should be woman? This is the patriarchy system, the system that control women. The more ironical thing happens to the Woman in Atiq Rahimi’s The Patience Stone is, she marries with a man she never knows, and even in the marriage ceremony, she marries to a photo. ‘… they celebrated our engagement without the fiancé. Your mother said. “don’t worry, victory is coming! It will soon be the end of the war, we will be free and my son will return!” Nearly a year later, your mother came back. Victory was still a long way off. “It’s dangerous to leave a young, engagement woman with her parents for such a long time!” she said. And so I had to be married, despite your absence. At the ceremony, you were present in the form of photo and that wretched khanjar, which they put next to me in place of you. (Rahimi, 2010: 54). Based on the quotation above, it can be read obviously that the Woman marries to a man she never knows and during the marriage ceremony, she just sits next to a photo, not the man she marries to. This is an irony fact, the Woman must feel sad, besides the force of marrying the man she never knows, she must also feel sad of this moment. This is an unfair thing for woman, and can it be said that this is the fair thing for woman to marry with a photo? Furthermore, for years the Woman is not allowed to jostle, to join with a group, with neighbors, and friends. She has to be in home, doing everything in home. The home is like the jail of her, she is prohibited of talking to anyone. And I had to wait another three years. Three years! For three years I wasn’t allowed to see my friends, or my family…it was not considered proper for a young married virgin to spend time with other married women. Such rubbish1 I had to sleep in the same room as your mother, who kept watch over me, or rather my chastity. And it all seemed so normal, so natural to everyone. To me, too! I didn’t even know how lonely I was.’ (Rahimi, 2010: 54). The way her mother in law treats her can be analogized that the Woman seems like a prisoner. She is forbidden to interact with the other side of the house, she has to sleep with her mother in law while the Husband is in war. The mother always keeps watching on her, and it is like a guard in the jail, and the woman is the prisoner. She is like a creature who is born to be kept watching, with no right to do, every move she makes is something her mother in law catches.When she is like a prisoner, she must be the fault one whether she is fine or doing a mistake. It is portrayed to this below quotation. Those all are what the Woman feels and it is portrayed in a conclusion where patriarchy system in Atiq Rahimi’s The Patience Stone is drawn. The Woman is the representation of this portrayal, she feels in jail, she feels like a prisoner, no right and no freedom to move. She marries to a man she never knows, her sister becomes the stake of her father’s bet, and she forced to be pregnant although the Husband is the unfertile one. She is insisted to meet someone like a priest to consult the pregnant, and the priest is actually a procurer. She is asked to get in a room, and a man with blindfolded penetrates her until she gets pregnant. The way her mother insists her to get pregnant with not knowing the condition of her son, makes the Woman has a baby from a man she does not know. This the cruel of the patriarchy, when women do not have any right to speak something, they are jailed, and the only one thing the Woman in the story can do is, delivering everything she feels to her comate husband. With a silent voice, she utters and posits herself.   THE IMPACT OF THE WOMAN’S SILENT VOICE IN ATIQ RAHIMI’S THE PATIENCE STONE As the response of facing this problem, the Woman cannot do anything except telling the truth of what she feels, what she hides, what she wants to deliver, because she does not want to hurt anyone. Therefore, she wants to tell it to no one, besides that she must be afraid of telling what she feels because what she faces is the culture, the misunderstood religion, and social truth. This problem is delivered through this below quotation, she thinks that it is better to keep silent and to tell to no one. ‘I never wanted anyone to know that. Never! Not even my sisters!’ she leaves the room, upset. Her fears echo down the passage. ‘He’s driving me mad. Sapping my strength.Forcing me to speak.To confess my sins, my mistakes.He’s listening to me. Hearing me.I’m sure of it. He wants to get to me…to destroy me!’ (Rahimi, 2010: 60—61). This is what happens to the Woman’s sister. Her sister is forced to marry, her father sells her sister because her father defeats in bet. However, what can the Woman do? She is just a woman, she has no voice, her voice is not to be heard or listened, she is just a creature that is created by not deliberation, therefore, woman should be in room, cooking, bearing baby, feeding baby, and doing “female” activity. She does not have to have something like man, like voicing voice. This shows that the Woman posits herself in a mute, in silence, and in the broken heart with no fight back. The culture has constructed them t be like this, silence and mute. This is the best position the Woman can replace because if she wants to break the rule, she must be destroyed, tortured, and punished by the law the men create. One of the best way, besides keeping silence, is telling the truth to God. When her husband is comate, the Woman always prays on her Husband. Her Husband is just comate, cannot respond, cannot do anything. A hand, a woman hand, is resting on his chest, rising and falling in time with his breath. The woman is seated. Knees pulled into her chest. Head sunk between her knees. In the other hand, the left, she holds a long string of black prayer beads. She moves them between her fingers, telling them. Silently.Slowly.In time with her shoulders. In time with the man’s breath. Within reach, open at the flyleaf and placed on a velvet pillow, is a book, the Koran. Her plump, dry, pale lips are softly and slowly repeating the same word of prayer. (Rahimi, 2010: 2—3). This is what the Woman does, he prays for the Husband, although everyday it seems no worth, no use, and it even seems to be in vain. However, as a Good wife, she always prays, and never quits for stopping praying. This is the way the Woman posits herself, although she gets unfair life, although her life is grabbed by the system of men, although her happiness is robbed by the injustice, she just tries and keeps trying to be a good wife fro her evil Husband. The way the Husband keeps silence and receives all things the Woman tells, is analogized as the Patience Stone. It is the mythical stone for Muslim in Hajj, the stone that is very soft and can release all burden. Probably, this is why the Woman tells it to her comate Husband. There are so many internal conflicts the Woman faces, and she almost has a plan to leave her comate Husband. However, she is a god wife, and she is so sorry of having it. It is reflected on this below quotation. ’Forgive me’, as she strokes his arm. ‘I’m tired. At breaking point. Don’t abandon me, you’re all I have left.’ She raises her voice : ‘Without you, I have nothing. Think your daughters! What will I do with them? They’re so young…’ She stops stroking him. ‘The Mullah won’t come today,’ she says with some relief (Rahimi, 2010: 14—15). In this quotation, it shown and portrayed that the Woman is almost surrendered, she almost quits, she is almost getting tiring. Her frustration is caused by the condition of the Husband that is not different days by days. However, she remembers about her daughter, and it adds something in her heart not to leave the Husband. Based on this fact it can be seen that the Woman is trying to posit herself in a god way, she is just trying to be a good wife, a good Muslim who works the rule of not leaving the Husband and doing everything for the Husband, although the Husband is in comate condition. This portrayal, is the form of faith, the Woman is really special woman, by the condition that can strike her, the situation that can make her angry, the experience that can make her has a revenge for the injustice, she keeps having a feeling to take care of her Husband. Then, the reflection of the Woman to posit herself is clearly seen b this quotation. As a good mother, the Woman also treats her children with lovely treatments. It is shown by this quotation below that shows that the children are not allowed to disturb the comate father. ‘Don’t be frightened, darling. I’m here.’ The mother reassures her : ‘I wasn’t shouting. I was talking to your father.’ They walk away from the door. ‘Why are you calling my father Al-Qahhar? Is he cross?’ ‘No, but he will be if we disturb him.’ The little girl falls silent (Rahimi, 2010: 17). The way the Woman asks to her children not to disturb their father who is comate shows that the Woman keeps the Husband, she does not want her Husband gets worse by the disturbing. This is showing the Woman posits herself in treating her Husband. Based on the experience when she has to marry with a photo, the experience where she has to be penetrated while she has menstruation, until her Husband’s brothers who always spy the Woman while she takes a bath, she does not have any revenge. If she has, she must kill the Husband easily because the Husband is between the condition of dead and alive. He is comate, and it is very easy for everybody to kill him, no exce
Urgensi Pendidikan Shalat pada Anak dalam Keluarga; Studi Analisis Ḥadîth tentang Hukuman bagi Anak Tidak Shalat Mustofa, Ali; Ishak, Ishak
Muróbbî: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan Vol 1 No 1 (2017): Pendidikan Islam
Publisher : Fakultas Tarbiyah Institut Agama Islam Bani Fattah Jombang

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Abstract

The family is the primary educational environment for children. In Islam, education must make people who devote themselves to worship God. And worship was first required is prayer because prayer is pillar of religion. Inside are virtue and wisdom to who do it well as threat to the left. Little kid is not obligated to pray, but the family (parents) have a responsibility and obligation to educate their children, to invite children to pray after a seven year old child, and hit if not want to do the prayer at the age of ten years. But before hitting, parents also need to have educating prayer before age ten. Although the children were not required to prayers, but parents should always pay attention and control the execution of a child prayers. Education prayers in these children very well have implications for the psychological, physical, and social child. Moreover, if the study is successful, the prayer will become a necessity. So the psychiatric, physical, and social child always running stable until in adulthood.
Co-Authors - Suryani ACHMAD FURQON Ahmad Fauzi AHMAD MUNIR AHMAD YANI AZMI Amanda, Widyasni Andreas Zulfikar, Andreas Ari Wibawa Budi Santosa Arifah Nur Isnaini Arifal Paslah, Arifal Ariyanti, Mei Asmungi, Gaguk AYU CINTYA HADIYANTI, AYU Bahar, Albar Rizka Bambang Riadi BIMA AGUSTINA R Cahyan, Pramuda Akariusta Citra, Siti Yulia Damayanti, Astrida Devi Novitasari, Devi Dewi Ayu Purnamasari, Dewi Ayu DWI KURNIA WATI Edi Suyanto Elisa Novitasari, Elisa Endah Budi Purnomowati Endang, Heti Kus ERA KARTIKA SARI EVVA ANNISAA M. Firdaus, Vipkas Al Hadid Fitri Wahyuni Gunawan, Andry Hajijah, Hajijah Haris Nur Prasetyo Harry Soekotjo Dachlan Hilda Fatah Asih Amrillah, Hilda Fatah Asih INES INDIRA PRAMESWARI Iqbal Hilal Ishak Ishak Istikomah, Rohmah Iza, Dzikru Rohmatul JEANETTE HERDITA JUNIARUNI WID, JEANETTE journal, journal Kahfie Nazaruddin Karomani Karomani Kartikasari, Yeni Dyah Nur Khoirunnisa, Alfi Zuhriya Kusuma, Aditya Angga Leny Gustina Yunregiarsih LESTIANA PRIHATINI Maizaldi, Ahmad Pandu Mauliddiyah, Ainy Ma’mun, Muhammad Aman Miftahul Jannah Muhaimin Muhaimin Muhammad Aswin Muhammad Fuad Mulyanto Widodo Munaris Munaris NENDEN SYAHBANA M Ni Nyoman Wetty Suliani NINDYA AFDRIANI DEWI SARI Novalina, Niyan Wahyu Novalina, Niyan Wahyu Nurlaksana Eko Rusminto Nurzafira, Istiqomah Okta, Rosi Oktriza Melfazen Palupi, Dyah Retno Patar Albert Marpaung POETRA AJIE BUDIMAN WASKITO Pramudia A., Zikrie Pratiwi Retnaningdyah, Pratiwi Pravira, D. Satria Purnomo, Muhammad Fauzan Edy Raharjo, Andri Bangun RAHMANIA ISWIN CINDYTHYA RAHMAT SETIAWAN Ria Anggraeni Risalatul Latifah RIZKI SURYA ADI P Rokayah, Cucu Rudy Yuwono Saifulloh, Ragil SAPRIYADI Sari, Inge Vestika Sari, Nazella Putri Sarjito Jokosisworo Sensusiati, Anggraini Dwi Septianti, Ajeng Sholeh Hadi Pramono Sigit Kusmaryanto, Sigit Siti Fitriana Siti Samhati SLAMET SETIAWAN Sri Andreani Utomo, Sri Andreani Sugeng, Mohammad Sulaiman Sulaiman TANGKAS PRIAMBODO Tazkia, Fahima Ulfi VIANEY PARAMITHA Wahju Adi Priyono, Wahju Adi Wahyu Adi Priyono Wini Tarmini Yazlin, Alvin Yesi Wariesta Yesie Lia Dirwanti, Yesie Lia YEVIANA PRAMESWARI Yoga, Septriandi Wira YOHANES BAYU ADHYTIA, YOHANES Yolanda Priyandani, Yolanda Yuspa Fitri Meza, Yuspa Fitri