Anopheles mosquito could be as a disease vector if having age for the growth of malaria parasitein its body. The research was conducted by catching mosquito in nature, namely: using human collection,wall-resting collection, around cattle and using light trap. The caught mosquito was assessing its proportionof parous and longevity, the composition of parous proportion in each species difference, namely: An.aconitvs reached its highest 0.8 and its lowest 0.2. An. barbirostris reached its highest 0.55 and its lowest0.02. The low Index parous indicates that mosquito could not transmit plasmodium to human. The estimation of An.aconitus age reaches the highest of 8.58 days and the lowest 1.23 days. At the age of 8.58 days An.aconitus is able to grow plasmodium in its body. The estimation of An. barbirostris age reachesits highest of 3.49 days and its lowest 1.3 days. An. maculatus age reached its highest age of 2.65 days and its lowest 1.44 days. The mosquito with short age could not be as a malaria vector. It is concluded that An.aconitus was potential as malaria vector. Key words: Anopheles sp, age composition, vector, hill
One of the important factors in malaria transmission is population density of vector. The intensity of transmission is also influenced by the occurrence of contact between vector and human beings. The study aims to determine the correlation between malaria incidence of An. aconitus and rainfall in Lengkong sub-district, Sukabumi. The highest SPR was 25% in June. The highest indoor bite to human occurred in October with the average of 0.35 and the lowest indoor bite was only 0.11 per hour in January. The highest outdoor bite of An. aconitus occurred in October of about 0.58 per hour and the lowest one was only 0.03 in January. An. aconitus was found to bite goats instead of human of about 65.7%. The study revealed that there was a positive correlation between the bites of An. aconilus with the incidence of malaria (p<0.05). Similarly, rainfall also indirectly influenced the incidence of malaria since the rainfall influence the development of mosquitoes. There were no differences between indoor and outdoor bites in influencing malaria incidence in the area of study. Keywords: An. aconitus, malaria, rainfall, Sukabumi
Confirmation A nopheles Vagus As Vector Implicated Malaria Outbreak In Sukabumi District, Indonesia.A study on adult anopheline of malaria vector incrimination for the vector status ofAn. aconitus, An.sundaicus and An. barbirostris, An. vagus were infected with malaria parasites was conducted in Simpenan sub-district, Sukabumi district, West Java from January 2003 to February 2003. The observation of the identification of Anopheles spp. and its relationship with outbreak malaria as well as the determination of Anopheles spp. as malaria vectors in endemic areas should be given attention as an effort in preventing malaria outbreaks. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human bait indoor and outdoor catches. Mosquitoes head-thoraces were tested for the presence of circumsporozoite of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax for the presence of human blood by ELISA. A total of 3,308 female anophelines representing 9 spesies were collected. Nine identified Anopheles species ie: An.aconitus, An.sundaicus, An maculatus, An.indefinitus, An. vagus, An. baezai, An.kochi, An.barbirostris and An.annularis, recorded during outbreak, were the main vectors of malaria in the Simpenan district. Malaria parasite infections were seen in nine mosquito species, with natural infection 0.12% of the positive An. vagus mosquitoes containing P. faciparum. An. vagus occurring in abundance, was involved in malaria transmission in outbreak period. The average inoculation rate was 0,213 While there was strong ELISA-based evidence implicating An. vagus as a dominant vector. Of these, An.aconitus, An.maculatus and An.sundaicus are suspected primary malaria vector in Simpenan sub-district, Sukabumi district, Indonesia, but An. vagus has been implicated with certainty in malaria transmission in the country.Keywords: Anopheles, vagus, vector status, ELISA, outbreak, implicated vector
A study on the longevity of three anophelines species were carried out in Buleleng regency, Bali province The objective of this study was to detect the longevity of three anophelines species malaria vectors in Indonesia. i.e.: Anopheles aconitus, An. subpictus and An. sundaicus. Collections of natural specimen were done by three methods: (1) man-biting-catches, (2) night resting catches around cattle shelters, and (3) morning indoor resting catches. All specimens collected were then brought and dissected in the laboratory for defining dilatations. The results shown that the oldest of An. aconitus found in Buleleng regency, Bali province, was with 7 dilatations, estimated as about 21 days old; the oldest An.subpictus with 9 dilatations, estimated as about 27 days old; while for An. sundaicus was 8 dilatations, estimated as about 24 days old. The conclusion of this study shown that the oldest of An. (lconitus reach 21 days, An. subpictus reach 27 days, and An. sundaicus reach 24 days.Keywords: Anopheles, longevity, parous, dilatation
The capability of Beauveria bassiana fungus to kill mosquito larvae was challenged with Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in a study conducted at the entomology laboratory of the Health Ecology Research Centre. Cx. p. quinquefeasciatus was more sensitive compared to Ae. aegypti to the B. bassiana strain from Sukamandi (West Java), which is probably due to the mosquitoes behaviour and conidiospore larvacidal effect. Conidia dust application, with a dosage of 2.2 mglliter, to water surface, within 48 hours was able to kill almost all the Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. However a dosage of 4 mglliter was required to kill all the Ae.aegypti. And a dosage of 1.3 mg conidiospore I liter is able to kill 50% Cx. p. quinquefasciatus. It seems that B. bassiana has greater capability to eradicate Cx. p. quinquefasciatus compared to Ae. aegypti
Susceptibility test of 0,223% d-alletrin against adult Cx. p. quinquefasciatus was conducted in the Entomology Laboratory of Health Ecology Research Centre in Jakarta. A randomized complete design was performed using 4 replicates for each application. Regression analysis was applied to analyse the data. The adult mosquitoes of 3 days old, blood-fed females was involved in the test. The indicator of 0,223% d-alletrin effectiveness was knock-down time and mortality. The results showed that d-alletrin was able to knock-down 20% of Cx. p. quinquefasciatus within one hour. Based on regression analysis (Y = 3,31 + 0,31 X) knock-down time 50 (WLso) was reached at the 170th minute. While 50% mortality was reached at the 198th minute (Y = -3,6 + 0,37 X). After 6 hours of exposure all of the mosquitoes were knocked-down and 91% were killed and after 7 hours of exposure all of the mosquitoes were killed.
A study to evaluate the efficacy of an insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene 1.3% (trade name: Allosid G) against Aedes aegypti larvae was conducted in Jakarta from November 1991 through March 1992. The study was conducted by uniformly scattering 1.3% G methoprene in bottom of metal drums filled with 50 liter of regular tap water. Total of 24 drums were utilized for the study with 20 of them given varied dosage rate of 0.315 gr, 0.625 gr, 1.25 gr, 2.5 gr and 5 gr. Four of the drums without IGR were used for control. One hundred 2 days old larvae of Ae. aegypti were poured into each drum weekly for total of 14 weeks. Also subsequently 25% (total of 12.5 liter) of water from each drum was taken out and replaced with same amount of regular tap water weekly for same period (14 weeks). Observation of larvae growth in the water taken out of the drum was carried by counting the number of dead and alive pupae. Living pupae were transferred into a paper cup covered with mosquito net for further observation number of pupae and adults died and alive. A split plot design was performed using 4 replicates for each application and regression analysis was applied to analyse the data. Efficacy of the IGR in each treatment was calculated through the percentage calculation of efficacy of each replicate devided by four. Weekly efficacy of IGR was calculated as follows : number of died pupae and number of died adults devided by total number of died pupae, number of died adults and number adults alive mutiplied by 100%. The trial showed that 100% mortality occured three weeks after treatment, and it decreased from 100% to 91.56% and 99.25% 14 weeks after treatment.
A study to evaluate the efficacy of biological larvicide Teknar 1500 S which contains 1500 SAAU of Baccillus thuringiensis israeliensis (Bti) serotype H-14 crystal delta endotoxin against Anopheles maculatus larvae was conducted at Kokap district, Kulon Progo Regency in Yogyakarta Province. Three methods of applications were compared, i.e. spraying, using plastic bags and pouring off the larvicide on a small stream. The design of the study was Split Plot design with six replicates. The larval densities were measured one day before application; 1, 8, 14, and 21 days after application. The larvae reduction rates of the three methods of applications were significantly different ( a = 0,01). Spraying produced significantly better results compared to the two other methods.
The level of genetic polymorphism found in An.barbirostris was obtained by employing the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method and then analyzing the patterns of DNA bands formed, some of which would be polymorphic and other monomorphic. Polymorphic DNA band frequency was calculated to obtain the persentages polymorphic of DNA bands occurring in An.barbirostris from all 10 villages. The result of DNA band pattern analysis managed to be amplificated from An. barbirostris was found to contain a different number of polymorphism in each village. The highest level of polymorphism was obtained in the sample from Cikondang village (88.9%),Cijulang (81.2%) and Rajadatu (77.8%) which are both HCI areas While in MCI areas, the level of polymorphism was lower for Ciampanan (63.6%) and Nagara Tengah (69.2%) Then, for LCI villages, the result for Pasirmukti (50%). Cisarua was 50%, Cineam was 44.5%, and Ancol was 50%. The regression analysis showed the relation of genetic variation in An. barbirostris in each village with the prevalence showing positive correlation Y = 0.692 X + 3.2, R = 0.58, p >0.05, in which the level of polymorphism affected the high level of malaria prevalence, either from SPR.
Abstract. Nyamuk merupakan organisme hidup yang tersebar di berbagai penjuru dunia, yang sebagian besar dapat merugikan bagi kehidupan manusia karena perannya dapat menyebar luaskan penyakit menular (penyakit tular vektor) diantaranya malaria, demam berdarah, radang otak hencephalitis, filaria, chikungunya. Tidak semua spesies nyamuk betina dapat berperan sebagai penular penyakit hanya beberapa saja diantaranya genus Anopheles, culex, Aedes dan Mansonia. Penyakit penting yang dapat ditularkan oleh keempat genus tersebut adalah malaria, filaria, demam berdarah dan Japanese encephalitis. Tujuan dari penulisan ini mengkaji sejahu mana nyamuk Anopheles dapat menimbulkan masalah kesehatan masyarakat serta sebarannya yang terkait dengan aktivitas kehidupan manusia di Indonesia. Berbagai aktivitas manusia dapat memberikan kontribusi terhadap tempat perkembangbiakan bagi kehidupan nyamuk, apabila tempat-tempat tersebut tidak terawat /terkontrol dengan baik. Hal ini akan memberikan kerugian bagi manusia sendiri, karena populasi nyamuk bertambah memberi peluang kontak gigitan nyamuk terhadap manusia. Spesies nyamuk vektor tertentu mempunyai kaitan erat dengan aktivitas kehidupan manusia dari mulai pengelolaan lahan sawah, tambak ikan, perkebunan, peternakan, menampung air sampai pembuangan air limbah rumah tangga akan memberikan peluang nyamuk untuk berkembangbiak. Pada umumnya vektor malaria di Indonesia mempunyai sifat perilaku zoojilik dan sedikit antropojilik yang berbeda pada setiap daerah endemis, dan bersifat eksofagik, eksojilik berbeda pula sebagai parameter entomologi kesehatan.Kata kunci: Nyamuk, penyakit menular, Anopheles, aktivitas kehidupan manusia