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Dialektika Induksi dan Deduksi dalam Pemikiran Hukum Islam

ISLAMICA: Jurnal Studi Keislaman Vol 4, No 1 (2009): Islamica
Publisher : Program Pascasarjana UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya

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Abstract

Modern science requires that dialectic between induction and deduction should take place so that development of knowledge and its promotion may be acquired. In modern sciences in other words, such dialectic constitutes the very condition for the creation and invention of new theories, discoveries and fields of knowledge. This paper is trying to argue that as a science, fiqh in one way or another has appropriated a similar route of using these two methods of induction and deduction in its process to extrapolate religious laws and rules.We argue that in fiqh induction produces norms that may serve as the foundation for the deductive method. We contend that induction is a general rule extracted directly from the first source of Islamic law, namely revelation, whereas deduction is the legal principles (alqawa’id al-fiqhiyyah) that the ulama formulated on the basis of their understanding on the contents of revelation.

OPTIMASI EKSTRAKSI AMPAS TEH HIJAU (Camellia sinensis) MENGGUNAKAN METODE MICROWAVE ASSISTED EXTRACTION UNTUK MENGHASILKAN EKSTRAK TEH HIJAU

Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 19, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Indonesia memiliki kekayaan keanekaragaman hayati yang besar, namun sayangnya potensi sumber daya alam yang tersedia masih sedikit yang diteliti dan digunakan dalam pengobatan. Salah satu tanaman yang banyak dibudidayakan di Indonesia adalah teh.  Ampas teh adalah limbah dari industri teh, tersedia cukup banyak dan belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kondisi ekstraksi ampas teh hijau menggunakan  metode MAE (Microwave Assisted Extraction) yang paling efektif sehingga dihasilkan ekstrak teh hijau yang mempunyai antioksidan optimum.  Dari hasil penelitian, kondisi optimum MAE adalah daya 450 W, pelarut etanol 60%, perbandingan simplisia – pelarut  1 : 8 dan lama ekstraksi 8 menit untuk menghasilkan ekstrak dengan kadar polifenol optimum. Ekstrak yang diperoleh mempunyai kadar air 7,83 %; pH 5,5; dan polifenol total, flavonoid total, asam galat, katekin, EGCG serta kofein berturut-turut sebesar 7,1%; 1,04%; 2,76%; 0,83%; 5,18% dan 1,03%. Dibandingkan dengan acuan yang ada, ekstrak yang diperoleh memenuhi syarat sebagai bahan baku kosmetik.  

Al-Qawaid Al-Fiqhiyyah Proses Penalaran Induktif dalam Kajian Hukum Islam

Asy-Syirah: Jurnal Ilmu Syariah dan Hukum Vol 43, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Fakultas Ilmu Syariah dan Hukum

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Abstract

Tulisan ini hendak mengungkap dan menggambarkan proses penalaran dalam pemikiran hukum Islam yaitu al-qawaid al-fiqhiyah dengan perspektif induktif. Munculnya al-qawaid alfiqhiyah dimulai dari kegiatan membuat rincian aturan hukum Islam yang dideduksi dari sumber-sumber wahyu. Teks-teks wahyu adalah pembangkit pertama munculnya upaya membuat norma tentang perilaku (fiqh) dengan sarana metodologi yang disebut usul al-fiqh. Kemudian fiqh berkembang dalam kuantitas demikian besar hingga menjadi sulit untuk menguasainya. Maka muncullah gagasan membuat kristalisasi fiqh dalam bentuk kaidah dalam jumlah yang relatif terbatas yang mempermudah penguasaannya dan lahirlah al-qawaid al-fiqhiyah, yaitu himpunan dari kaidah-kaidah itu. Sebagaimana hasil induksi yang ditingkat probabilitas kebenarannya memerlukan sandaran teori atau pengetahuan a priori, al-qawaid al-fiqhiyah juga membutuhkan keabsahan dari sumber wahyu. Karenanya, untuk menyikapi kasus baru dilakukan dengan cara menemukan terlebih dahulu semangat wahyu sebagaimana tercermin di dalam fiqh secara induktif. Semangat itu menjadi kerangka umum pembuatan aturan untuk kasus-kasus baru. al-qawaid al-fiqhiyah, dengan demikian merupakan rasionalisasi dari kehendak Allah sejauh yang dapat dipahami oleh manusia.

Effectiveness of Piper betle leaf infusion as a palpebral skin antiseptic

Universa Medicina Vol 28, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University

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Abstract

The goal of an antiseptic is to eliminate or greatly reduce the number of microorganisms in the surgical field at the time of the surgery. The objective of this study was to verify the effectiveness of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion as an antiseptic solution in pre-surgery cataract patients. A clinical trial with partner-matching design was conducted on 31 pairs of eyelids. From each pair of eyelids, one eyelid was asigned to the Piper betle infusion group and the opposite one to the povidone-iodine group. The microorganisms were collected by swab from the patient’s palpebral skin, inoculated on nutrient agar, and incubated at 37oC for 20 hours. The antiseptic effectiveness was measured by counting the microbial colonies before and after administration of the antiseptic solutions. This study demonstrates that the mean colony counts after application of 20% Piper betle leaf infusion showed a significant reduction of 27-100% compared with those before administration (p=0.001). Mean colony counts after 10% povidone-iodine administration showed a significant reduction of 88-100% compared with the mean counts before the solution was applied (p=0.000). The 20% Piper betle infusion has an antiseptic potential. Nevertheless, the 10% povidone-iodine solution has more effective antiseptic capability.

Cinnamic Acid Derivatives as α-Glucosidase Inhibitor Agents

Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 17, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

This paper reviews biological activity of some cinnamic acid derivative compounds which are isolated from natural materials and synthesized from the chemical compounds as an agent of α-glucosidase inhibitors for the antidiabetic drug. Aegeline, anhydroaegeline and aeglinoside B are natural products isolated compounds that have potential as an α-glucosidase inhibitor. Meanwhile, α-glucosidase inhibitor class of derivatives of cinnamic acid synthesized compounds are p-methoxy cinnamic acid and p-methoxyethyl cinnamate. Chemically, cinnamic acid has three main functional groups: first is the substitution of the phenyl group, second is the additive reaction into the α-β unsaturated, and third is the chemical reaction with carboxylic acid functional groups. The synthesis and modification of the structure of cinnamic acid are very influential in inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase.