Sri Mulato
Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia, Jember

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Mechanical Cocoa Podbreaker Utilization in Cocoa Handling to Improve Labor Efficiency Widyoto, Sukrisno; Mulato, Sri; Soekarno, Siswoyo
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol 23, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

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Abstract

One of initial step of primary cocoa processing, which determine the final quality and processing costwas pulping and pod breaker. Pod breaker is used to take out the cocoa bean and separate it from fruitcrust and placenta. Presently, cocoa pod breaking and bean separating from crust fruit are still conductedmanually and need many workers, as well. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designedand tested the cocoa pod breaker with double cylinder pod breaking mechanism and vibration table graderwith bean separating mechanism. Testing result showed that cocoa pod breaker had maximum workcapacity of 9000 cocoa pod per hour at motor rotation of 2,000-2,200 rpm. Highest percentage of crust chipincluded in bean was 1.1%, which was obtained at treatment input feeding opening of 80% and percentageof broken bean of 2.1%. While the lowest percentage of crust bean was 0.16% that is obtained at 20%input feeding opening with 1.7% of broken bean. Optimum work capacity of 4,950 cocoa pod per hour wasobtained at 50% input feeding opening with 0.22% crust chip included in bean, and 1.9% of broken beanpercentage.Keywords: cocoa, podbreaker, labor saving, production efficiencyDiterima: 3 Maret 2009; Disetujui: 16 Juli 2009
Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans Widyotomo, Sukrisno; Mulato, Sri; Suharyanto, Edi
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 3 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Breaker unit has rotated by ½ HP power, single phase, 110/220 V and 1440 rpm. Transmission system that use for rotating breaker unit is pulley and single V belt. Centrifugal blower as separator unit between cotyledon and shell has specification 0.5 m 3 /min air flow, 780 Pa, 370 W, and 220 V. Field tests showed that the optimum capacity of the machine was 268 kg/h with 500 rpm speed of rotary cutter, 2,8 m/s separator air flow, and power require was 833 W. Percentage product in outlet 1 and 2 were 94.5% and 5.5%. Particle distribution from outlet 1 was 92% as cotyledon, 8% as shell in cotyledon and on outlet 2 was 97% as shell, 3% as cotyledon in shell. Key words:cocoa, breaking, rotary cutter, quality.
Optimizing of a Horizontal Cylinder Type Cocoa Roaster for Dried Cocoa Cotyledon Roasting Widyotomo, Sukrisno; Mulato, Sri; Suharyanto, Edi
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 22, No 2 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

The secondary process of cocoa is one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. One the other hand, the development for secondary cocoa process requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale business. Cocoa roaster is a basic equipment to produce good and competitive secondary cocoa products for chocolate industry. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has, therefore, designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type roaster for drying cocoa cotyledon. The cylinder has 405 mm diameter, 520 mm long and is rotated by a 1 HP (0.75 kW), 220 V, single phase and 1400 rpm electric motor. Assisted with a gear reducer, the final cylinder rotation is adjusted at approximately 6 rpm. The heat for roasting process is generated from kerosene burner. At the end of roasting, the roasted beans are cooled down by ambient air inside a cooling platform by natural air flow. The raw material used in this optimizing test was dried fine cocoa cotyledon. Field tests showed that the optimum performance of the roaster was 7 kg dried fine cocoa cotyledon loaded with roasting temperature 120 oC and 25.57 kg/h optimum capacity. The organoleptic test showed that score of aromatic, flavour, acidity, bitterness, astringency and burnt were 4.8, 5.2, 5.4, 5.2, 4.8 and 0.8 with 10 scale, also 4.2 with 5 scale for likely. The roasting time was 15—25 minutes to get 2.5—3% final water content depend on roasting temperature and cocoa cotyledon loaded. Key words: cocoa, roasting, horizontal cylinder, quality.
Performance of Disk Mill Type Mechanical Grinder for Size Reducing Process of Robusta Roasted Beans Mulato, Sri; widyotomo, Sukrisno; Karia Purwadaria2, Hadi
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13—14% moisture content (wet basis), 680—685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31—54 kg/h on 5,310—5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91—98% process efficientcy, 19—31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3—1% slips, 50—55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38—44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32—38% lightness was increased, 0.6—12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28—30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.
Influence of Milling Process of Roasted Cocoa Beans on Size Distribution Change of Cocoa Cotyledon Widyotomo, Sukrisno; Mulato, Sri; Suharyanto, Edi
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

One of important steps in secondarycocoa process is deshelling cocoa beans roasted. The aim of deshelling is to enrich cotyledon cocoa surface area which affects to reduce energy and processing time with good quality of the chocolate product. The objective of this research is to study the influence of milling process on physical characteristic change of cocoa beans roasted such as size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension of cotyledoncocoa roasted. The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested deshelling of roasted cocoa beans which will be used in this research. Before deshelling process, C grade bulk cocoa beans has been roasted up to 2.5—3% water contents. The result showed that optimal milling process by rotary cutter type milling unit has good size distribution change, geometrical diameter average, uniformity index, fineness modulus, and average dimension on 500 rpm rotary speed and 2.8 m/s air flow. On optimal process condition, 74.5% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm, 2.116 mm average of geometrical diameter, 0.864 mm average dimension, 3.052 fineness modulus, and 80% as crude size particel-20% as temperate size particel on uniformity index. Therefore, more than 80% of cocoa cotyledon roasted has diameter size between 2.0—4.75 mm with 700—900 rpm rotary cutter speed. Average of geometric diameter was 1.65—2.19 mm, and the dimension average was 0.69—0.89 mm. Uniformity index was crude size particle up to 80—90%, and in temperate size particle10—20%. Fineness modulus value was 2.73—3.09. Key words: cocoa, milling, size distribution, roasted beans.
Mechanical Cocoa Podbreaker Utilization in Cocoa Handling to Improve Labor Efficiency Widyoto, Sukrisno; Mulato, Sri; Soekarno, Siswoyo
Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian Vol 23, No 2 (2009): Jurnal Keteknikan Pertanian
Publisher : PERTETA

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Abstract

One of initial step of primary cocoa processing, which determine the final quality and processing costwas pulping and pod breaker. Pod breaker is used to take out the cocoa bean and separate it from fruitcrust and placenta. Presently, cocoa pod breaking and bean separating from crust fruit are still conductedmanually and need many workers, as well. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designedand tested the cocoa pod breaker with double cylinder pod breaking mechanism and vibration table graderwith bean separating mechanism. Testing result showed that cocoa pod breaker had maximum workcapacity of 9000 cocoa pod per hour at motor rotation of 2,000-2,200 rpm. Highest percentage of crust chipincluded in bean was 1.1%, which was obtained at treatment input feeding opening of 80% and percentageof broken bean of 2.1%. While the lowest percentage of crust bean was 0.16% that is obtained at 20%input feeding opening with 1.7% of broken bean. Optimum work capacity of 4,950 cocoa pod per hour wasobtained at 50% input feeding opening with 0.22% crust chip included in bean, and 1.9% of broken beanpercentage.Keywords: cocoa, podbreaker, labor saving, production efficiencyDiterima: 3 Maret 2009; Disetujui: 16 Juli 2009
PENINGKATAN MUTU BIJI KOPI RAKYAT DENGAN PENGOLAHAN SEMI BASAH BERBASIS PRODUKSI BERSIH Novita, Elida; Syarief, Rizal; Noor, Erliza; Mulato, Sri
Jurnal AGROTEKNOLOGI Vol 4, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Jurnal AGROTEKNOLOGI

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Abstract

Application of semi-wet processing in coffee post harvest is one effort to improve smallholder coffee bean quality, eventhough produce wastewater that harmfull for environmental. By implementing cleaner production concept with water minimization could solve environmental problems while maintaining the coffee bean. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of semi-wet processing based on water minimization on coffee quality. Coffee berries are treated by minimize water design to produce coffee bean. Quality testing includes water content analysis, physical quality test based on SNI standards and cup test (sensory test). Coffee bean samples from semi-wet processing are compare with coffee bean from dry process and Sidomulyo smallholder. The results showed selective picking during harvest and semi-wet processing affects physical quality. Water process minimization showed no difference on physic and sensory quality of coffee beans. Though physical assessment cannot fully guarantee the beverage quality, but could anticipate most of defects flavored coffee drink. Conversely, the error in estimating of coffee taste based on physical properties can be minimized by cup test. Although, the sensoric assessment is subjective likely, but the cup test showed there is effect of semi-wet processing to the quality of coffee drinks as a final product.Keywords: coffee quality, coffee bean, semi-wet processing, water minimization, cleaner production
Perubahan Distribusi Ukuran Partikel Tepung Iles-Iles Hasil Pengolahan dengan Metode Penggilingan Bertingkat Widyotomo, Sukrisno; Purwadaria, Hadi K.; Syarief, Atjeng M.; Mulato, Sri
Agritech Vol 24, No 2 (2004)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

The objectives of this research were to observe the distribution particle sizes change of konjac flour by dry milling method. The milling process of konjac flour included the milling by rotary cutter, burr mill, and conical ball mill. The particle size and the size distribution were determined by sieving, microscopic, and scanning electron microscope methods. The data obtained by using the microscopic method indicated the smallest geometric mean particles size, while data from the sieve method indicated the largest geometric mean size. The pictures obtained by using scanning electron microscope method showed the particles has broken after milling process by conical ball mill. The results indicated that the series of milling process decreased the geometric mean diameter, the finenes modulus, and the uniformity index of konjac flour particles.
PENINGKATAN MUTU BIJI KOPI RAKYAT DENGAN PENGOLAHAN SEMI BASAH BERBASIS PRODUKSI BERSIH Novita, Elida; Syarief, Rizal; Noor, Erliza; Mulato, Sri
JURNAL AGROTEKNOLOGI Vol 4 No 01 (2010)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Jember

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Abstract

Application of semi-wet processing in coffee post harvest is one effort to improve smallholder coffee bean quality, eventhough produce wastewater that harmfull for environmental. By implementing cleaner production concept with water minimization could solve environmental problems while maintaining the coffee bean. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of semi-wet processing based on water minimization on coffee quality. Coffee berries are treated by minimize water design to produce coffee bean. Quality testing includes water content analysis, physical quality test based on SNI standards and cup test (sensory test). Coffee bean samples from semi-wet processing are compare with coffee bean from dry process and Sidomulyo smallholder. The results showed selective picking during harvest and semi-wet processing affects physical quality. Water process minimization showed no difference on physic and sensory quality of coffee beans. Though physical assessment cannot fully guarantee the beverage quality, but could anticipate most of defects flavored coffee drink. Conversely, the error in estimating of coffee taste based on physical properties can be minimized by cup test. Although, the sensoric assessment is subjective likely, but the cup test showed there is effect of semi-wet processing to the quality of coffee drinks as a final product.Keywords: coffee quality, coffee bean, semi-wet processing, water minimization, cleaner production