Munakhir Mudjosemedi
Bagian Radiologi Dentomaksilofasial, Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Feature Selection of the Combination of Porous Trabecular with Anthropometric Features for Osteoporosis Screening Sela, Enny Itje; Hartati, Sri; Harjoko, Agus; Wardoyo, Retantyo; Mudjosemedi, Munakhir
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE) Vol 5, No 1: February 2015
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

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Abstract

This study aims to select the important features from the combination of porous trabecular pattern with anthropometric features for osteoporosis screening. The study sample has their bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the proximal femur/lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Morphological porous features such as porosity, the size of porous, and the orientation of porous are obtained from each dental radiograph using digital image processing. The anthropometric features considered are age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Decision tree (J.48 method) is used to evaluate the accuracy of morphological porous and anthropometric features for selection data. The study shows that the most important feature is age and the considered features for osteoporosis screening are porosity, vertical pore, and oblique pore. The decision tree has considerably high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.
Peningkatan Jumlah Mikronukleus pada Mukosa Gingiva Kelinci Setelah Paparan Radiografi Panoramik Shantiningsih, Rurie Ratna; Suwaldi, Suwaldi; Astuti, Indwiani; Mudjosemedi, Munakhir
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 20, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia

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Abstract

Mikronukleus merupakan salah satu tanda awal terjadinya kerusakan DNA yang ditemukan pada mukosa gingiva manusia setelah paparan radiografi dental panoramik.   Peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus terjadi paling tinggi pada hari ke-10 dan selanjutnya mengalami penurunan sampai dengan hari ke-14. Kelinci memiliki karakter dan periode turn-over mukosa gingiva yang hampir sama dengan manusia berkisar antara 10-12 hari. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengevaluasi apakah peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus pada mukosa gingiva kelinci setelah paparan radiografi panoramik.Sembilan ekor kelinci dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok untuk mewakili hari ke-3, 6 dan 9 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Sebelum dan sesudah diberikan paparan radiografi panoramik,  setiap  hewan  coba  dilakukan  apusan  pada  mukosa  gingiva  anterior  rahang  bawah  menggunakan cervical brush. Hasil apusan dilakukan pewarnaan dengan modifikasi Feulgen-Rossenbeck dan dihitung jumlah mikronukleus menggunakan mikroskop yang disambungkan dengan optilab. Analisis statistik dilakukan menggunakan paired t-test. Analisis statistik menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan (p<0,05) antara jumlah mikronukleus sebelum dan 9 hari sesudah paparan radiografi panoramik. Akan tetapi tidak ditemukan perbedaan yang signifikan (p>0,05) antara sebelum paparan dibandingkan hari ke-3 dan ke-6 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Kesimpulang dari hasil penelitian ini sejalan dengan penelitian sebelumnya pada manusia bahwa peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus terjadi pada hari ke-9 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa pada kelinci juga menunjukkan peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus di mukosa gingiva akibat paparan radiografi panoramik.ABSTRACT: Micronucleus Increase After Panoramic Radiography Exposure In Rabbit’s Gingival Mucosa. Micronucleus is one of the early states of DNA damage found in human gingival mucosa after dental panoramic radiography exposure. The increasing amount of micronucleus will reach a peak in the tenth day after the exposure, and it will continuously decrease right after the fourteenth day. Rabbit has almost the same gingival mucosa and turn-over period with human for about 10-12 days. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the increasing amount of micronucleus in rabbit’s gingival mucosa after panoramic radiography exposure. A total of nine New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups to represent day of 3rd, 6th  and 9th after the panoramic radiography exposure. The mandibular anterior gingival mucosa of each animals was swabbed using a cervical brush before and after panoramic radiography exposure. The samples were stained with Feulgen-Rossenbeck modification, and the amount of micronucleus was counted using a microscope that is connected to Optilab. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test. The statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference (p <0.05) between the number of micronucleus before exposure and 9th day after panoramic radiography exposure. Moreover, there was no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the amount of micronucleus before exposure compared with 3rd  and 6th  day after panoramic radiography exposure. Based on the experiment, it is concluded that the result is consistent with previous studies conducted in human that there was increasing amount of micronucleus at the 9th  day after panoramic radiography exposure. This result   indicates that rabbit   performs the increasing amount of micronucleus in gingival mucosa because of panoramic radiography exposure
Peningkatan Jumlah Mikronukleus pada Mukosa Gingiva Kelinci Setelah Paparan Radiografi Panoramik Shantiningsih, Rurie Ratna; Suwaldi, Suwaldi; Astuti, Indwiani; Mudjosemedi, Munakhir
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 20, No 2 (2013): December
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Mikronukleus merupakan salah satu tanda awal terjadinya kerusakan DNA yang ditemukan pada mukosa gingiva manusia setelah paparan radiografi dental panoramik. Peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus terjadi paling tinggi pada hari ke-10 dan selanjutnya mengalami penurunan sampai dengan hari ke-14. Kelinci memiliki karakter dan periode turn-over mukosa gingiva yang hampir sama dengan manusia berkisar antara 10-12 hari. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengevaluasi apakah peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus pada mukosa gingiva kelinci setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Sembilan ekor kelinci dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok untuk mewakili hari ke-3, 6 dan 9 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Sebelum dan sesudah diberikan paparan radiografi panoramik, setiap hewan coba dilakukan apusan pada mukosa gingiva anterior rahang bawah menggunakan cervical brush. Hasil apusan dilakukan pewarnaan dengan modifikasi Feulgen-Rossenbeck dan dihitung jumlah mikronukleus menggunakan mikroskop yang disambungkan dengan optilab. Analisis statistik dilakukan menggunakan paired t-test. Analisis statistik menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan (p<0,05) antara jumlah mikronukleus sebelum dan 9 hari sesudah paparan radiografi panoramik. Akan tetapi tidak ditemukan perbedaan yang signifikan (p>0,05) antara sebelum paparan dibandingkan hari ke-3 dan ke-6 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Kesimpulang dari hasil penelitian ini sejalan dengan penelitian sebelumnya pada manusia bahwa peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus terjadi pada hari ke-9 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa pada kelinci juga menunjukkan peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus di mukosa gingiva akibat paparan radiografi panoramik.Micronucleus Increase After Panoramic Radiography Exposure In Rabbit’s Gingival Mucosa. Micronucleus is one of the early states of DNA damage found in human gingival mucosa after dental panoramic radiography exposure. The increasing amount of micronucleus will reach a peak in the tenth day after the exposure, and it will continuously decrease right after the fourteenth day. Rabbit has almost the same gingival mucosa and turn-over period with human for about 10-12 days. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the increasing amount of micronucleus in rabbit’s gingival mucosa after panoramic radiography exposure. A total of nine New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups to represent day of 3rd, 6th  and 9th after the panoramic radiography exposure. The mandibular anterior gingival mucosa of each animals was swabbed using a cervical brush before and after panoramic radiography exposure. The samples were stained with Feulgen-Rossenbeck modification, and the amount of micronucleus was counted using a microscope that is connected to Optilab. Statistical analysis was performed using paired t-test. The statistical analysis showed that there was significant difference (p <0.05) between the number of micronucleus before exposure and 9th day after panoramic radiography exposure. Moreover, there was no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the amount of micronucleus before exposure compared with 3rd  and 6th  day after panoramic radiography exposure. Based on the experiment, it is concluded that the result is consistent with previous studies conducted in human that there was increasing amount of micronucleus at the 9th  day after panoramic radiography exposure. This result   indicates that rabbit   performs the increasing amount of micronucleus in gingival mucosa because of panoramic radiography exposure
Perbedaan Hasil Pengukuran Horizontal pada Tulang Mandibula dengan Radiograf Panoramik Mudjosemedi, Munakhir; Widyaningrum, Rini; Gracea, Rellyca Sola
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (2015): August
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Radiograf panoramik mencitrakan gigi-geligi rahang bawah dan atas beserta seluruh jaringan pendukungnya dalam sebuah citra tunggal, proses pemeriksaannya murah, cepat, dan mudah, serta paparan radiasi yang diterima oleh pasien relatif rendah. Di samping memiliki sejumlah keunggulan tersebut, radiograf panoramik juga memiliki kelemahan karena gambaran yang dihasilkan pada teknik radiografi ini mengalami distorsi geometris, sehingga hasil pencitraan pada radiografi panoramik cenderung tidak sesuai dengan ukuran struktur anatomi yang sesungguhnya pada pasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbedaan hasil pengukuran horizontal pada preparat mandibula dibandingkan dengan pengukuran horizontal pada citra radiograf panoramik, serta untuk mengetahui seberapa besar distorsi pengukuranhorizontal pada radiograf panoramik. Sampel penelitian berupa 56 buah preparat mandibula yang masing-masing diberi 23 buah metal marker. Radiograf panoramik diambil dari masing-masing sampel. Pengukuran horizontal pada sampel menggunakan sliding caliper digital, sedangkan pengukuran horizontal pada radiograf panoramik menggunakankomputer. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan rerata yang bermakna (p<0,05) antara hasil pengukuran pada radiograf panoramik dibandingkan dengan hasil pengukuran pada preparat mandibula, kecuali pada hasil pengukuran horizontal regio gigi geligi posterior dan regio median line hingga posterior korpus mandibula. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada penempatan posisi kepala pasien yang memenuhi standar akan dihasilkan radiograf panoramik dengan distorsi geometris berupa penyempitan dimensi horizontal pada regio anterior mandibula. Pengukuran horizontal pada radiograf panoramik memiliki akurasi yang baik jika dilakukan pada regio posterior, namun cenderung tidak akurat jika dilakukan secara memanjang melintasi median line. Differences of Horizontal Measurement on Dry Mandibles and Panoramic Radiographs. Panoramic radiograph produces one single image of both maxillary and mandibular dental arches and their supporting structures. This technique is cheap, fast and easy, with relatively low radiation exposure received by patients. However, the panoramic radiograph also has some disadvantages related to its geometric distortion. The images of patient’s anatomical structureson panoramic radiograph are not equal with their actual dimension. The aim of this study is to determine the distortion of panoramic radiograph, by comparing the horizontal measurements on panoramic radiographs with those on the real object, which was the dry mandibles. The samples of this study were 56 dry mandibles with 23 metal markers on each ofthem. Panoramic radiograph was taken from each sample. Horizontal measurements on dry mandibles were done using digital sliding caliper, while horizontal measurements on panoramic radiograph were done using computer. The result of this study shows that there were significant differences (p<0.05) between horizontal measurements on panoramicradiographs compared with the measurements on dry mandibles, except in posterior dental arch and median line up toposterior region of mandible corpus. The results of this study indicate that panoramic radiograph taken on standardized patient’s head positioning procedure would produce geometric distortion that tends to be narrow on mandibular anterior region. The horizontal measurements of panoramic radiographs show good accuracy in posterior region, but tend to be inaccurate if done extended across the midline.
Korelasi antara jumlah mikronukleus dan ekspresi 8-oxo-dG akibat paparan radiografi panoramic (The correlation of micronucleus formation and 8-oxo-dG expression due to the panoramic radiography exposure) Shantiningsih, Rurie Ratna; Suwaldi, Suwaldi; Astuti, Indwiani; Mudjosemedi, Munakhir
Dental Journal (Majalah Kedokteran Gigi) Vol 46, No 3 (2013): (September 2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga

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Abstract

Background: The expression of 8-oxo-dG is defined as one form of damaged DNA occuring as the result of oxidation reaction due to X ray exposure. Panoramic radiography exposure has been widely known to be able to increase micronucleus which are signing the early stage and as biomarker in carsinogenesis mechanism. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the correlation between micronucleus number and 8-oxo-dG expression as a result of panoramic radiography exposure. Methods: Twelve New Zealand male rabbits aging 6 months were divided into 4 groups. Group I were rabbits that represented 0 day, group II represented 3th day, group III represented 6th day, and group IV represented 9th day after the panoramic radiography exposure. Respectively samples were swabbed at mandibular anterior gingival mucosa before and after the panoramic radiography exposure. The swabbed samples were coloured by using Feulgen-Rossenbeck modified staining for calculating the amount of micronucleus formation. Expression of 8-oxodG was detected using immunohistochemical of rabbit’s gingival mucosa epithelium. Statistical analysis were carried out on pearson correlation. Results: There was a highest increasing of micronucleus on the 9th day after panoramic radiography exposure. Meanwhile, there was significant correlation (p=0,049) of the increasing amount of micronucleus and 8-oxo-dG expression in negatively correlation (r = -0,578). The increasing of micronucleus formation on the 9th day after panoramic radiography exposure was accordance with some previous studies. The expression score of 8-oxo-dG decreases as the day goes by. Conclusion: There was a correlation between the number of micronucleus and expression score of 8-oxo-dG.Latar belakang: Ekspresi 8-oxo-dG adalah suatu bentuk kerusakan DNA yang terjadi akibat reaksi oksidatif dari paparan sinar X. Paparan radiografi panoramik telah diketahui menyebabkan peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus yang merupakan biomarker tahap dini mekanisme karsinogenesis. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti korelasi antara jumlah mikronukleus dan ekspresi 8-oxo-dG akibat paparan radiografi panoramik. Metode: Sebanyak 12 ekor kelinci New Zealand jantan usia 6 bulan dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok. Kelompok I merupakan kelinci untuk mewakili hari ke-0, kelompok II untuk mewakili hari ke-3, kelompok III untuk mewakili hari ke-6, dan kelompok IV untuk mewakili hari ke-9 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Terhadap seluruh kelinci dilakukan usapan pada mukosa gingiva anterior rahang bawah sebelum dan sesudah dilakukan paparan radiografi. Selanjutnya terhadap sampel usapan itu dilakukan pewarnaan menggunakan teknik pewarnaan modifikasi Feulgen-Rossenbeck untuk menghitung jumlah mikronukleus. Ekspresi 8-oxo-dG dinilai dari pemeriksaan imunohistokimia pada sel epitel mukosa gingiva kelinci. Analisis statistik menggunakan uji korelasi Pearson. Hasil: Peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus paling tinggi terjadi pada hari ke-9 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik. Sementara itu, terdapat korelasi yang signifikan (p=0,049) antara peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus dan ekspresi 8-oxo-dG dengan arah korelasi yang negatif (r=-0,578). Peningkatan jumlah mikronukleus yang terjadi pada hari ke-9 setelah paparan radiografi panoramik ini sesuai dengan penelitian sebelumnya. Dengan bertambahnya hari skor ekspresi 8-oxo-dG semakin menurun. Simpulan: Terdapat korelasi antara jumlah mikronukleus dan skor ekspresi 8-oxo-dG.
Perbandingan hasil pengukuran pada citra Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) dengan objek sesungguhnya Indias, Ratihana Nurul; Shantiningsih, Rurie Ratna; Widyaningrum, Rini; Mudjosemedi, Munakhir
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 3, No 3 (2017): December
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

The distance comparison of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) image with the real object. Dentist use radiographs to establish diagnosis, treatment plan, prognosis, as well as to evaluate patient’s treatment. Accurate anatomical dimension is a pivotal point in radiography, especially in the field of oral surgery and dental implant planning. The information about distortion in radiograph is very important to prevent any misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment plan. The purpose of this study was to compare the metal marker distance in CBCT image with the real measurement in dried mandibles. Samples in this study were 40 CBCT images of human dried mandibles, which were produced by using Volux 3D dental CT (Genoray, Korea, 60 kVp, 60 mAs, 10s). Horizontal, vertical, and oblique measurements on CBCT image were done by using Volux 3D dental CT software (GDP-1 software Triana). Themeasurement on CBCT image was compared with the real measurement by using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Image distortion was calculated by subtracting the metal marker distance obtained from CBCT images by the real distance obtained by a direct measurement on dried mandible. The distortion was expressed as a percentage. There were some significant differences (p<0.05) between metal marker distance on CBCT image with a direct measurement in dried mandibles, except oblique measurements on anterior mandibular body that was done without involving mandibular base. The maximal distortion on panoramic view of CBCT image in this study was 8%, and the distortion was different in each part of the mandible. ABSTRAKPemeriksaan radiografi diperlukan oleh dokter gigi untuk menetapkan diagnosis, rencana perawatan, prognosis, dan evaluasi hasil perawatan. Radiograf yang memiliki ketepatan dimensi anatomi diperlukan pada tindakan bedah dan pemasangan implan. Informasi mengenai distorsi hasil pengukuran pada radiograf diperlukan untuk mencegah kesalahan penetapan diagnosis dan rencana perawatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan jarak metal marker pada pengukuran horizontal, vertikal, dan oblique citra Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) dengan objek sesungguhnya pada preparat mandibula kering. Sampel penelitian berupa 40 citra CBCT preparat mandibula kering yang dihasilkan oleh mesin Volux 3D dental CT (Genoray, Korea) dengan menggunakan tegangan 60 kVp, kuatarus 60 mAs, dan waktu paparan 10 detik. Pengukuran pada citra CBCT dilakukan dengan mengukur jarak terjauh antara kedua metalmarker secara horizontal, vertikal, dan oblique menggunakan software Volux 3D dental CT (GDP-1 software Triana). Hasil pengukuran pada citra CBCT dibandingkan dengan hasil pengukuran pada preparat mandibula dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan wilcoxon signed rank test. Distorsi dihitung dari perubahan hasil pengukuran pada citra CBCT dibagi dengan ukuran sesungguhnya pada objek, dan dinyatakan dalam satuan persen (%). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (p<0,05) antara hasil pengukuran jarak metal marker pada citra CBCT dibandingkan dengan objek sesungguhnya pada preparat mandibula kering, kecuali hasil pengukuran oblique tanpamelibatkan basis mandibula di bagian anterior mandibula. Rerata distorsi tertinggi pada citra CBCT panoramic view sebesar 8%, dengan nilai distorsi yang berbeda pada setiap bagian mandibula.
Oral cancer imaging: the principles of interpretation on dental radiograph, CT, CBCT, MRI, and USG Widyaningrum, Rini; Faisal, Arif; Mitrayana, M.; Mudjosemedi, Munakhir; Agustina, Dewi -
Majalah Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia Vol 4, No 1 (2018): April
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Oral cancer is a malignant neoplasia on the lip and oral cavity. It is generally late-detected, locally invasive, and it has a high propensity for cervical lymph node metastases as well as blood-borne distant metastases. Diagnostic imaging for oral cancer is generally performed using conventional radiography, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), Computed Tomography (CT), ultrasonography (USG), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and bone scintigraphy. This review provides a general overview of oral cancer imaging and basic principles of interpretation for oral cancer using several imaging modalities. The selection of imaging modalities for oral cancer must be based upon clinical condition, availability of imaging modalities, and cost effectivity. Despite the limited availability of modern imaging modalities in Indonesia, understanding on the major concept of various oral cancer imaging and its interpretation are certainly required by the dentists. Imaging and its interpretation are required to assist the diagnosis and determine the most appropriate treatment plan. Thus, the survival rate can be improved.
Feature Selection of the Combination of Porous Trabecular with Anthropometric Features for Osteoporosis Screening Sela, Enny Itje; Hartati, Sri; Harjoko, Agus; Wardoyo, Retantyo; Mudjosemedi, Munakhir
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE) Vol 5, No 1: February 2015
Publisher : Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science

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Abstract

This study aims to select the important features from the combination of porous trabecular pattern with anthropometric features for osteoporosis screening. The study sample has their bone mineral density (BMD) measured at the proximal femur/lumbar spine using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Morphological porous features such as porosity, the size of porous, and the orientation of porous are obtained from each dental radiograph using digital image processing. The anthropometric features considered are age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Decision tree (J.48 method) is used to evaluate the accuracy of morphological porous and anthropometric features for selection data. The study shows that the most important feature is age and the considered features for osteoporosis screening are porosity, vertical pore, and oblique pore. The decision tree has considerably high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity.
β-Carotene gingival mucoadhesive patch on Cx-43 and 8-Oxo-dg expression to prevent micronucleus formation due to panoramic radiography exposure Shantiningsih, Rurie Ratna; Suwaldi, Suwaldi; Astuti, Indwiani; Mudjosemedi, Munakhir
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 31, No 1 (2019): March
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran

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Introduction: β-carotene as a lipid-soluble antioxidant substance, expected to prevents the oxidative reaction and to improve the junctional communication detected by Cx-43. Micronucleus is known as one of the early markers of DNA damage which might be related to carcinogenesis mechanism that increased by panoramic radiography radiation exposure. The objective of this research was to analyse the effect of the β-carotene gingival mucoadhesive patch on Cx-43 expression and 8-oxo-dG to prevent micronucleus formation at the gingival mucosa of New Zealand rabbit due to panoramic radiography radiation exposure. Methods: β-carotene gingival mucoadhesive patch was applied to gingival mucosa of the experimental rabbits. In Group I, the rabbits without patch was a control group. Group II has applied the patch before radiography exposures, Group III during the radiography exposures, and Group IV after radiography exposures. Micronucleus samples were taken from the rabbit’s swabbed gingival mucosa, then stained using modified Feulgen-Rossenbeck. The 8-oxo-dG and Cx-43 expressions were detected using immunohistochemistry technique. The results were then analysed using two-way ANOVA. Results: The increasing number of micronucleus in Group I had a different mean (p < 0.05) with Group III and IV. The expression of 8-oxo-dG and Cx-43 had significant differences (p < 0.05) between Group I and III. This results indicated that β-carotene gingival mucoadhesive patch prevents the increasing number of micronucleus especially when it applied before and during panoramic radiography radiation exposure by the increasing Cx-43 and decreasing 8-oxo-dG expression. Conclusion: The β-carotene gingival mucoadhesive patch can be utilised to prevent the panoramic radiography radiation exposure’s effect. Keywords: β-carotene, gingival-mucoadhesive patch, micronucleus, radiation exposure