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Physical and Mechanical Properties of Palm Oil Frond and Stem Bunch for Developing Pruner and Harvester Machinery Design Ismi Intara, Yazid; Mayulu, Hamdi; Radite, P.A.S.
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 4, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1937.392 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v4i2.4583

Abstract

A development of oil palm pruner and harvester machinery design implemented in the field still faces a problem due to the lack of effective and efficient design which is need to be solved. It was noted that in order to develop the design, an early data and information of physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem fruits is critically important. The objective of the research was to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of palm oil frond and stem in order to develop the design of pruner and harvester machinery. The result showed that tool machinery was been advantageous by the physical properties of the plant i.e. the total weight of frond and leaf which enable to support the cutting process. The average of total weight of frond and leaf was 16.8 kg. The diagonal cutting trajectory was been more advantageous because of total weight and frond shape toward to the different of the plant tissue area. The measurement result shows that cutting curve follows the time required for cutting. The comparison among cutting curve shows differences in cutting thickness or length. In this case, the thickness is linear with cutting time. Besides, those curves show differences at the height which determine the maximum value of tested material cutting resistance. Alternative solution for machinery development design is pruner-harvester for height plant below 6 m and among 6 to 12 m. For below 6 m, pruner-harvester was designed by incorporating motor as power source and cutter-disc as the knife cutter. That condition was relied on that estate which was maintenance intensively commonly used cutter-disc. Pruner-harvester above 6 m and up to 12 m was improved based on manual egrek-designed by adding fresh fruit bunch alley supply glide in order to keep the fruits still in intact form. The consideration was based on affectivity and efficiency. It also considers homogenous ecological of palm oil plant which should be maintained to reduce global warming effect. Information obtained in this research could become positive consideration and alternative solution to provide problem solvingat early development design of palm oil pruner and harvester machinery.Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.69-74[How to cite this article: Intara, Y.I., Mayulu, H., and Radite, P.A.S. (2013). Physical and Mechanical Properties of Palm Oil Frond and Stem Bunch for Developing Pruner and Harvester Machinery Design. International Journal of Science and Engineering, 4(2),69-74. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.69-74]
The Effects of Amofer Palm Oil Waste-based Complete Feed to Blood Profiles and Liver Function on Local Sheep Mayulu, Hamdi; Sunarso, S; Imam Sutrisno, C.; Sumarsono, S
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 3, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB)

Abstract

Amoniation-Fermentation (amofer) technology should be conducted in order to improve the low quality of by product produced from palm oil plantations and mills (palm oil waste) which is used for constituent of feed ingredients in complete feed (CF). This technology also reforms the feed material into edible form. Before broadly applicable, it must be ensured that the feed does not have toxic effects on livestock. This research was peformed to evaluate the effects of amofer palm oil waste-based CF to blood profile and liver function on local sheep. Completely Randomly Design (CRD) was used with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The observed variables were the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood glucose, ALT and AST was analyzed by ANOVA. The average value of blood glucose levels at T1= 80.68 mg/dl, T2=79.08 mg/dl, T3=81.18 mg/dl and T4=73.70 mg/dl. The average value of hemoglobin levels at T1=10.80 g/dl, T2=10.30 g/dl, T3=11.23 g/dl and T4=10.25 g/dl. The average value of hematocrit levels at T1=31.00%, T2=31.00%, T3=33.75% and T4=30%. The average value of ALT levels at T1=17.90 ml, T2=13.83 ml, T3=18.75 ml and, T4=13.40 ml. The average value of AST level at T1=106.20 ml, T2=88.98 ml, T3=104.40 ml and T4=91.25 ml. There was no significant difference among four treatments (p>0.05). The administration CF did not cause hematological disorders which showed by the blood profiles and liver function were in normal range, so that suggested the CF was appropriate and safe for local sheep. [Keywords––amofer, complete feed, hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, liver function]
Profile of Sheep Blood After Administration with CF Amofer Mayulu, Hamdi; Sunarso, .; Sutrisno, C. I.; Sumarsono, .
JURNAL ILMU DAN TEKNOLOGI PETERNAKAN Vol 2, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Hasanuddin

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (19.032 KB)

Abstract

Amoniasi-Fermentation (amofer) technology should be conducted in order to improve the low quality of by product produced from palm oil plantations and mills (palm oil waste) which is used for constituent of feed ingredients in complete feed (CF).  This technology also reforms the feed material into edible form. Before broad application, it must be ensured that the feed does not have toxic effects on livestock. This research was peformed to evaluate the effects of amofer palm oil waste-based CF on blood profile and liver function on local sheep. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Nutrition and Feed Science Diponegoro University Semarang, using 16 local male sheep aged 9 months, weight at 14.82+0.82 kg (CV=5.52%), divided into four groups and put into individual cages. They are given CF containing crude protein (CP) 10.63% (T1), 12.27% (T2), 13.70% (T3) and 15.90% (T4), with Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) range 61.83–64.21%. Blood samples were taken after the sheep consuming the CF for 37 days.  Experimental design used was CRD with 4 replications. Observed variables were the levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and blood glucose. Data were analyzed using ANOVA of CRD. The average value of blood glucose levels for T1= 80.68 mg/dl, T2=79.08 mg/dl, T3=81.18 mg/dl and T4=73.70 mg/dl. The average value of hemoglobin levels for T1=10.80 g/dl, T2=10.30 g/dl, T3=11.23 g/dl and T4=10.25 g/dl. The average value of hematocrit levels for T1=31.00%, T2=31.00%, T3=33.75% and T4=30%. There was no significant difference among four treatments (p>0.05). The administration CF did not cause hematological disorders which showed by the blood profiles were in normal range, so that suggested the CF was appropriate and safe for local sheep.
Intake and Digestibility of Cattle’s Ration on Complete Feed Based-On Fermented Ammonization Rice Straw with Different Protein Level Mayulu, Hamdi; Sunarso, S.; Christiyanto, M.; Ballo, F.
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 4, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (256.687 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v4i2.4687

Abstract

Complete feed (CF) utilization is expected to have impact on higher productivity due to increased intake and digestibility. The objective of research was to evaluate the effects of different level protein of CF based-on fermented ammonization (amofer) rice straw to Simmental offspring intake and digestibility  Twenty males Simmental offspring with average live weight 372.15± 26.64 kg (coefficient of variance 7.16%) were used in this study. Feed treatment consisted of BC Nutrifeed 132 concentrate as control feed (T0) and CF based-on amofer rice straw consisted of T1, T2, T3 and T4 which had crude protein content 11, 12, 13 and 14% respectively and also total digestible nutrients (TDN) ±  62%. Completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates were designed for this research. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 95% significance level. The results showed that different crude protein did not affect the intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and TDN. It was significantly affected the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein (p<0.01). The highest digestibility was obtained to treatment with 12% crude protein and ± 62% TDN. Conclusion of this study was different level of crude protein constituted in CF which produced from specific material resource was proven to have impact in increasing cattle’s digestibility.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.86-91 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, S.,  Christiyanto, M. and Ballo, F. (2013). Intake and Digestibility of Cattle’s Ration On Complete Feed Based-On Fermented Ammonization Rice Straw  With Different Protein Level.  International Journal of  Science and Engineering, 4(2),86-91. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.4.2.2013.86-91]
Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan Mayulu, Hamdi; Sunarso, S; Sutrisno, C. I.; Sumarsono, S; Christiyanto, M; Isharyudono, K.
International Journal of Science and Engineering (IJSE) Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (700.385 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60

Abstract

By-product produced from plantation and palm oil mill can be utilized for energy and protein source of ruminant feed. Thus, it still has potency for further exploration. The objective of the research was to investigate the nutrient value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product used to formulate ruminant feed. The research located in 66,118.5 ha of palm oil plantation in Paser regency, East Kalimantan province. The research was carried out in palm oil plantation and mill of PTPN XIII comprising productive plants (TM) in +14,000 ha arranged in 9 divisions (afdeling). Measured variables consisted of: 1) dry mass production (mass of midrib every cutting and frond) (kg);                        2) Centrosema sp mass production (kg); 3) mass of empty fruit bunches (kg); palm pressed fiber (PPF) (kg), palm kernel cake (PKC) (kg) dan palm oil sludge (POS) (kg); 4) nutrient content analyzed under proximate analysis in accordance with the procedure of Ruminant Feed Nutrient Laboratory, Faculty of Livestock, Diponegoro University. The result showed that total dry matter (DM) production was 14.82 ton/ha/year, consisting: midrib 29.09% (crude protein (CP) 3.16% and crude fiber (CF) 37.85%), frond 10.31% (CP 6.53% dan CF 30.39%), Centrosema sp. 2.48% (CP 22.58% and CF 35.12), EFB 24.31% (CP 7.01% and CF 40.22%), PPF 1.23% (CP 5.56% and CF 50.36%), PKC 1.29% (CP 15.49% and CF10.45) and POS 1.20% (CP 17.86% and CF 45.99%). This could be concluded that palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product was recommended for ruminant feed as it had huge amount and appropriate nutrient contentDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno, Sumarsono, M. Christiyanto, K. Isharyudono. (2013).  Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan, 5(2),56-60. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60]
The Nutrient Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill’s By-product Processed with Amofer Technology as Ruminant Feed Mayulu, Hamdi
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 6, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (389.374 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.0.0.xx

Abstract

By-product derived from palm oil plantation and mill is very potential for energy and protein source for ruminant feed. However, it is still underutilized due to low content of crude protein (CP) with high crude fiber (CF). Ammoniation or fermentation technology could optimize the quality of by-product by increasing digestibility, reducing CF and increasing CP content. The objective of this research was to determine the nutrient and potency value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product applied with amofer technology for ruminant feed. Sample was prepared in two methods: 1) sample without amofer application, 2) sample with amofer application under anaerobic method and incubated for 18 days. Ammoniation was carried out by adding urea of 3% from the total material and then incubated for nine days. At the ninth day, some microorganisms starter i.e. cellulolytic, amillolytic and proteolytic were added by 1% of the total material. Proximate analysis was carried out in laboratory to examine the nutrient value. The crude protein content at each part of feed material before and after amofer treatment was follow: palm midrib: 3.16%:17%; palm leaves 6.53%:26.51%; empty fruit bunch 7.01%:1673%; palm pressed fiber 5.56%:16.00%. While the crude fiber at each part of feed material was: palm midrib 37.85%:30.86%; palm leaves 30.39%:24.41%; EFB 40.22%:34.98%; PPF 50.39%: 41.70%. The application of amofer could increase the amount of feed material (ton/ha/y): dry matter (DM) 14.82:15.89; CP 0.79:2.87; total digestible nutrient (TDN) 7.63:8.5. Moreover, amofer application could also increase the nutrient content of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product by increasing CP and reducing CF. This increasing was also followed by the increasing of DM, CP, and TDN which indicated that those feed sources were recommended as ruminant feed material
The Nutrient Digestibility of Locally Sheep Fed with Amofer Palm Oil Byproduct-Based Complete Feed Mayulu, Hamdi
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 7, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (265.387 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.7.2.106-112

Abstract

Utilization of palm oil by-product such as palm fronds, leaves, empty fruit bunches (EFB), fiber fruit juice (FFJ), palm kernel cake (PKC), and palm oil sludge (POS) as the source of energy and protein for ruminants, especially sheep is an efficient effort to make a new opportunities in term of economical and beneficial product that will reduce environmental pollution. The objectives of this research were to analyze the effect of palm oil’s byproduct-based complete feed on sheep’s nutrient digestibility. Sixteen male sheeps of nine month old with average body weight 14.69+0.82 kg were used. The complete feed was formulated by ammoniated-fermented technology from palm fronds and leaves, EFB and FFJ, also Centrosema sp., PKC, POS, ground corn, rice bran, cassava, molasses, urea, mineral mix and salt. The complete feed with different levels of crude protein (CP) and TDN were used in this research which consisted of T1=10,63% CP; 63.46% TDN; T2=12.27% CP; 62.38% TDN; T3=13.70% CP; 64.11% TDN; and T4=15.90% CP; 61.28% TDN. The study used a completely randomized design (CRD) which consisted of four treatments and four replications. Data was analyzed using ANOVA with significance level at 95% and followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The experimental results showed that the protein level affected the feed digestibility. The highest digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were 65.79%, 70.30%, and 84.34% respectively, resulting in 14% protein level (T3) were significantly different with treatment at protein level 10% (T1), 12% (T2) and 16% (T4) at p <0.05. It can be concluded that by-product of palm oil plantation and mill had good nutritional value. Therefore, this feedstuff can be used to formulate complete feed for sheep and it successfully increased the nutrient digestibility
Nutrient Potency of Rice Straw Processed with Amofer as Cattle Feed Stuff in East Kalimantan Mayulu, Hamdi; Suhardi, Suhardi
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 9, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (207.457 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.9.2.101-105

Abstract

Forage demand can be supplied from rice straw which processed with certain feed technology innovation. Some advantages can be derived under this technology i.e. increasing nutrient content, optimizing the utilization, improving the efficiency and reducing production cost by minimizing feed cost. Ammoniation fermentation (amofer) as an applied technology could give solution over the limitation of rice straw availability. The objective of this research was to determine the potency of rice straw processed with amofer (amofer-rice straw) as raw material to formulate complete feed. The experiment was carried out with randomized block design with three treatments and six replications. Amofer treatment was carried out by adding urea 3% from the total material and then placed into plastic jar +12 liter and then incubated under an-aerobic process for 18 days. Fermentation material i.e. biology starter by 1% of total material was added at the ninth day. Dry Matter (DM) content resulted from each treatments was 87,28%, 85,96% and 84,61% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Crude Protein (CP) content was T1=24,48%, T2=21,04%; and T3=24,46%, Crude Fiber (CF) content was T1=31,30%; T2=31,30%; and T3=31,39%. Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) for version 1 was  T1=57,29; T2=56,19; and T3=56,89 and version 2 was T1=53,11%; T2=52,28%; and T3=51,10%. The average value of Non Nitrogen Free Extract (NNFE) was T1=23,49%; T2=28,08%; and T3=26,57%. The utilization of amofer as applicable technology is considered as the most appropriate method to increase the quality of rice straw by significantly increase nutrient content in term of crude protein (CP) and reduce crude fiber (CF) content. This increasing quality can be seen from the result of proximate analysis, NNFE and TDN content
Kebijakan Pengembangan Peternakan Sapi Potong di Indonesia Mayulu, Hamdi; ., Sunarso; Sutrisno, Imam; ., Sumarsono
Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Vol 29, No 1 (2010): Maret 2010
Publisher : Pusat Perpustakaan dan Penyebaran Teknologi Pertanian

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (97.605 KB) | DOI: 10.21082/jp3.v29n1.2010.p%p

Abstract

Berbagai upaya telah dilakukan untuk meningkatkan produktivitas, produksi maupun populasi sapi potong dalam rangka mendukung program kecukupan daging (PKD) 2010, yang direvisi menjadi 2014. Produksi daging dalam negeri diharapkan mampu memenuhi 9095% kebutuhan daging nasional. Karena itu, pengembangan sapi potong perlu dilakukan melalui pendekatan usaha yang berkelanjutan, didukung dengan industri pakan yang mengoptimalkan pemanfaatan bahan pakan lokal spesifik lokasi melalui pola yang terintegrasi. Hingga kini, upaya pengembangan sapi potong belum mampu memenuhi kebutuhan daging dalam negeri, selain rentan terhadap serangan penyakit. Hal ini dapat disebabkan oleh berbagai kelemahan dalam sistem pengembangan peternakan. Oleh karena itu, perlu diupayakan model pengembangan dan kelembagaan yang tepat berbasis masyarakat dan secara ekonomi menguntungkan. Pemerintah sebaiknya menyerahkan pengembangan peternakan ke depan kepada masyarakat melalui mekanisme pasar bebas. Pemerintah lebih berperan dalam pelayanan dan membangun kawasan untuk memecahkan permasalahan dasar dalam pengembangan peternakan sehingga dapat mengaktifkan mekanisme pasar. Usaha peternakan hendaknya dapat memacu perkembangan agroindustri sehingga membuka kesempatan kerja dan usaha. Implikasi kebijakan dari gagasan ini adalah perlu dibuat peta jalan pembangunan peternakan nasional dan diuraikan secara rinci di setiap wilayah pengembangan ternak.
The Feed Intake and Daily Weight Gain of Locally Sheep Fed with Amofer Palm Oil Plantation and Mill’s Byproduct-based Complete Feed Mayulu, Hamdi; Suhardi, Suhardi
International Journal of Science and Engineering Vol 10, No 2 (2016)
Publisher : Chemical Engineering Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (224.465 KB) | DOI: 10.12777/ijse.10.2.67-73

Abstract

Livestock development through innovation of complete feed (CF) technology which cheap and potential could be optimized through utilizing palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product. The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of complete feed formulated with palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product to the feed intake and daily weight gain of sheep. Male thin tailed sheep 9 months old with average live weight of 14.69 kg were used in this research. CF was formulated from ammoniated-fermented of palm frond, palm leave, empty fruit bunch, and palm pressed fiber which mixed with Centrosema sp., palm kernel cake, corn, rice bran, dried cassava waste pulp, molasses, mineral mix and salt. The study used completely randomized design which consisted of T1=10%, T2=12%, T3=14% and T4=16% of crude protein and total digestible nutrient (TDN) 64% with 4 repetitions. Data was analyzed using ANOVA at 95% significance level which followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The experiment showed that the level of protein content influenced the feed intake. The highest average of dry matter intake, organic matter intake, crude protein intake and TDN were 865.83 g/sheep/day, 750.60 g/sheep/day, 118.66 g/sheep/day and 555.96 g/sheep/day, respectively. The highest average daily weight gain was 174.18 g/sheep/day which produced at crude protein level of 14% (T3). The statistical analysis showed that T3 was significantly different to T1, T2 and T4. It can be concluded that complete feed formulated from palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product with appropriate level of crude protein content could increase the feed intake and daily weight gain of local sheep