Surip Mawardi
Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute
Characteristics of Quality Profile and Agribusiness of Robusta Coffee in Tambora Mountainside, Sumbawa

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Coffee development in Indomesia by means of optimalizing local resources needs to be done for increasing national coffee production as well as for expanding domestic and international markets. These opportunities must be used to gain benefit as a strategic action for raising farmer’s prosperity. This study was aimed to observe physical quality and flavor profile of Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside, and to identify agribusiness coffee system applied by the farmers, including problem identification at farmer’s level. This research was carried out at Pekat Subdistrict (Dompu District) and Tambora Subdistrict (Bima District), West Nusa Tenggara Province. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were conducted in this study. Data collected consisted of primary and secondary data, as well as 11 green coffee samples from farmers to be analysed its physical quality and flavor profile. The number of respondents were nine stakeholders consisted of three farmers, two farmer group leaders, one field officer, one duty officer, one trader, and one large planter official. Respondents selection were based on convenience sampling method. The results showed that physical quality of coffee bean was belonged to Grade 4—6 (fair to poor quality), while broken beans shared the highest number of physical defects. Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside performed good taste profile, that the coffee can be promoted to be fine Robusta by improving post harvest handling. Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside was characterized by monoculture cropping system, average of land ownerships about 1 ha/household, and average productivity about 900—1,000 kg green coffee/ha/year. Major problems on Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside consisted of lack of coffee plant maintenance as well as limited accessibility to financing and technology. Key words: agribusiness, physical quality, flavor, Robusta coffee, Tambora mountainside

Confirmation of Transgenic Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora) Transformed by Chitinase-encoding Gene and Its Propagation Through Somatic Embryogenesis

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Genetic engineering of Robusta coffee resistant to fungal diseases might be done by introducing a chitinase-encoding gene into genome of this plant. This research was aimed to confirm transgenic plant of BP 308 clone Robusta coffee transformed by chi gene and to evaluate its ability for the somatic embryogenesis. Confirmation of transgenic was carried out by analysis the presence of NPTII gene as a selectable marker for Canamysin resistant using PCR technique. The somatic embryo initiation and reproduction were evaluated in 11 plant accessions. Three kinds of sucrose concentration, 20%, 30% and 40% were applied in initiation stage of somatic embryo germination. The suitability of 4 medium, namely M1 (without addition by liquid medium), M2 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l kinetin), M3 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l IAA) and M4 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l GA3 ) was evaluated for somatic embryo maturation. The result showed that 8 out of 10 plant accessions tested were transgenic and they could be propagated through somatic embryogenesis. The ability of transgenic plant for somatic embryo initiation, reproduction and regeneration were similar with that of nontransgenic one. Germination of somatic embryo could be improved by using 40% sucrose. Maturation of somatic embryo could be improved by addition of fresh liquid medium on the ancient gelled medium that used for somatic embryos reproduction. The best result was obtained on addition of fresh medium contained 0.25 mg/l GA 3 in which 65% of the somatic embryos developed to pre-germinate somatic embryo. Key words: Coffea canephora, transgenic plant, somatic embryogenesis.

Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste, intensity of after taste and preference, than the recent harvest and two years stored coffee. recent harvest had higher body, bitterness, and astringency, than that of one and two years stored coffee. The main off-flavor of recent harvest coffee was green and grassy, the one year stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy, and sour, while the two years stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy and moldy. The flavor change in the first year was higher than in the second year storage. The varieties, that had lowest change on flavor during storage, were BP 416 A, AS 1, P 88, BP 432 A and S 795. Key words: Coffee, Arabica, variety, clone, storage, quality, flavor, color.

Distribution of Soil Fertility of Smallholding Arabica Coffee Farms at Ijen-Raung Highland Areas Based on Altitude and Shade Trees

Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Soil fertility is one of the most important factors influencing plant growth and productivity and it depends on the availability and quantity of nutrients in the soil. To study soil fertility status of an area, a study on soil chemistry and physics has to be conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate soil fertility status of smallholding Arabica coffee farms based on altitude and shades trees utilization. This research was carried out in April-August 2012 at IjenRaung highland areas by field survey. The results showed that the soil contained high content of organic carbon, nitrogen total, and C/N ratio; low available phosphorus; moderate to high cation exchange capacity, and low base cation of calcium, magnesium, and potassium; as well as slightly low pH. Higher altitude tended to have higher C organic and N total content, C/N ratio as well as pH. In contrast, in lower altitude tended to have lower available P, base saturation, as well as Ca, Mg, and K content. The dominant shade trees for coffee farming at the Ijen-Raung highland areas were suren (Toona sureni) , dadap (Erythrina sp.), kayumanis (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), pinus (Pinus mercusii), and kayu putih (Eucalyptus globulus). Different shade tree species resulted in different of soil fertility. Shade trees tended to influence cation exchange capacity from moderate to high, pH slightly acid, high base saturation, and low P available. Suren tree influenced better base cation than that of other trees but dadap tree was better in increasing soil fertility. Key word: Soil fertility, arabica coffee, andisol, shade trees, smallholding


Zuriat Vol 15, No 2 (2004)
Publisher : Zuriat

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Kriterium genetik yang mendasari pemilihan tetua persilangan perlu untuk diketahui. Penelitian untuk mengetahui kemampuan daya gabung umum dan daya gabung khusus beberapa klon kakao lindak untuk sifat-sifat pertumbuhan vegetatif dan presentase pembungaan telah dilakukan dengan rancangan persilangan dialel 7 × 7, tanpa selfing dan resiprokal. Klon-klon yang digunakan sebagai tetua persilangan adalah UIT 1, ICS 60, NIC 4, Sca 12, KEE 2, TSH 858 dan ICS 13. Sifat-sifat pertumbuhan vegetatif diukur adalah diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan pertunasan cabang. Persentase pembungaan dihitung berdasarkan frekuensi tanaman berbunga pada saat 17 minggu setelah tanam. Data sifat sifat tersebut dianalisis ragamnya menggunakan metode Griffing 4. Efek daya gabung umum (dgu) menunjukkan pengaruh nyata pada sifat diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan persentase pembungaan, namun tidak terdapat pengaruh nyata efek daya gabung khusus (dgk) terhadap sifat-sifat tersebut. Klon Sca 12 dan KEE 2 memiliki nilai dgu nyata untuk sifat diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan persentase pembungaan; klon NIC 4 memiliki nilai dgu nyata untuk sifat diameter batang dan persentase pembungaan; dan klon ICS 13 memiliki nilai dgu nyata hanya untuk sifat tinggi jorget. Terdapat nilai dgk yang nyata pada kombinasi persilangan UIT 1 × ICS 60 untuk sifat diameter batang, dan kombinasi persilangan UIT 1 × Sca 12; ICS 60 × NIC 4; dan KEE 2 × TSH 858 untuk sifat persentase pembungaan.