Surip Mawardi
Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Characteristics of Quality Profile and Agribusiness of Robusta Coffee in Tambora Mountainside, Sumbawa Aklimawati, Lya; ., Yusianto; Mawardi, Surip
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 30, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Coffee development in Indomesia by means of optimalizing local resources needs to be done for increasing national coffee production as well as for expanding domestic and international markets. These opportunities must be used to gain benefit as a strategic action for raising farmer’s prosperity. This study was aimed to observe physical quality and flavor profile of Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside, and to identify agribusiness coffee system applied by the farmers, including problem identification at farmer’s level. This research was carried out at Pekat Subdistrict (Dompu District) and Tambora Subdistrict (Bima District), West Nusa Tenggara Province. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were conducted in this study. Data collected consisted of primary and secondary data, as well as 11 green coffee samples from farmers to be analysed its physical quality and flavor profile. The number of respondents were nine stakeholders consisted of three farmers, two farmer group leaders, one field officer, one duty officer, one trader, and one large planter official. Respondents selection were based on convenience sampling method. The results showed that physical quality of coffee bean was belonged to Grade 4—6 (fair to poor quality), while broken beans shared the highest number of physical defects. Robusta coffee from Tambora mountainside performed good taste profile, that the coffee can be promoted to be fine Robusta by improving post harvest handling. Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside was characterized by monoculture cropping system, average of land ownerships about 1 ha/household, and average productivity about 900—1,000 kg green coffee/ha/year. Major problems on Robusta coffee farming at Tambora mountainside consisted of lack of coffee plant maintenance as well as limited accessibility to financing and technology. Key words: agribusiness, physical quality, flavor, Robusta coffee, Tambora mountainside
Confirmation of Transgenic Robusta Coffee (Coffea canephora) Transformed by Chitinase-encoding Gene and Its Propagation Through Somatic Embryogenesis ., Priyono; Budiani, Asmini; Mawardi, Surip
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 21, No 2 (2005)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Genetic engineering of Robusta coffee resistant to fungal diseases might be done by introducing a chitinase-encoding gene into genome of this plant. This research was aimed to confirm transgenic plant of BP 308 clone Robusta coffee transformed by chi gene and to evaluate its ability for the somatic embryogenesis. Confirmation of transgenic was carried out by analysis the presence of NPTII gene as a selectable marker for Canamysin resistant using PCR technique. The somatic embryo initiation and reproduction were evaluated in 11 plant accessions. Three kinds of sucrose concentration, 20%, 30% and 40% were applied in initiation stage of somatic embryo germination. The suitability of 4 medium, namely M1 (without addition by liquid medium), M2 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l kinetin), M3 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l IAA) and M4 (addition by liquid medium contained 0.25 mg/l GA3 ) was evaluated for somatic embryo maturation. The result showed that 8 out of 10 plant accessions tested were transgenic and they could be propagated through somatic embryogenesis. The ability of transgenic plant for somatic embryo initiation, reproduction and regeneration were similar with that of nontransgenic one. Germination of somatic embryo could be improved by using 40% sucrose. Maturation of somatic embryo could be improved by addition of fresh liquid medium on the ancient gelled medium that used for somatic embryos reproduction. The best result was obtained on addition of fresh medium contained 0.25 mg/l GA 3 in which 65% of the somatic embryos developed to pre-germinate somatic embryo. Key words: Coffea canephora, transgenic plant, somatic embryogenesis.
Physical and Flavor Quality of Some Potential Varieties of Arabica Coffee in Several Interval Storage Periods ., Yusianto; Hulupi, Retno; ., Sulistyowati; Mawardi, Surip; Ismayadi, Cahya
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 23, No 3 (2007)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Coffee storage was an active process, where the quality and flavor was depend on the origin, humidity, temperature, period, and ware house condition. The objective of this research was to know quality and flavor of some Arabica coffee varieties in interval of storage periods. The examined coffee varieties were BP 416 A, BP 430 A, BP 432 A, BP 509 A, BP 542 A, P 88, AS 1, S 795, and USDA-762. The treatments were recent harvest, one and two years stored green coffee. The green coffee were wet processed, sun dried, packed in polyethylene bags, one kg/pack and placed in some covered plastic boxes. The boxes were stored in ware house covered with wavy asbes roof and flat asbes ceiling. The green coffee was examined for its moisture content, color, and bulk density. The green coffee was roasted at medium level, and then examined for its the bulk density, yield, volume of swelling, and color of the roasted and powdered. The flavors examination was blind test method. The research showed that storage period significantly influenced the moisture content, color, and bulk density of green coffee, yield, volume of swelling, color of roasted coffee, color, and flavor profile of coffee powder. Those varieties tested showed significantly different on the moisture content, green coffee color, roasted coffee color, coffee powder color, and the profile flavor. The storage period influenced the green coffee color from greenish-gray to yellowish-red. The bulk density of green coffee decreased. The varieties that showed a little color changeduring storage, were BP 430 A,BP 416 A, AS 1, and S 795. One year of storage periode, the green coffee was still had the original color, but after two years, the original color had changed totally. The powder of recent harvest coffee was darker than that of one and two years storage. One year stored coffee had higher quality of aroma, intensity of aroma, quality of flavor, intensity of flavor, acidity, quality of after taste, intensity of after taste and preference, than the recent harvest and two years stored coffee. recent harvest had higher body, bitterness, and astringency, than that of one and two years stored coffee. The main off-flavor of recent harvest coffee was green and grassy, the one year stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy, and sour, while the two years stored coffee was harsh, woody, earthy and moldy. The flavor change in the first year was higher than in the second year storage. The varieties, that had lowest change on flavor during storage, were BP 416 A, AS 1, P 88, BP 432 A and S 795. Key words: Coffee, Arabica, variety, clone, storage, quality, flavor, color.
Distribution of Soil Fertility of Smallholding Arabica Coffee Farms at Ijen-Raung Highland Areas Based on Altitude and Shade Trees Puspita sari, Niken; Iman Santoso, Teguh; Mawardi, Surip
Pelita Perkebunan (Coffee and Cocoa Research Journal) Vol 29, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute

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Abstract

Soil fertility is one of the most important factors influencing plant growth and productivity and it depends on the availability and quantity of nutrients in the soil. To study soil fertility status of an area, a study on soil chemistry and physics has to be conducted. The aim of this study was to investigate soil fertility status of smallholding Arabica coffee farms based on altitude and shades trees utilization. This research was carried out in April-August 2012 at IjenRaung highland areas by field survey. The results showed that the soil contained high content of organic carbon, nitrogen total, and C/N ratio; low available phosphorus; moderate to high cation exchange capacity, and low base cation of calcium, magnesium, and potassium; as well as slightly low pH. Higher altitude tended to have higher C organic and N total content, C/N ratio as well as pH. In contrast, in lower altitude tended to have lower available P, base saturation, as well as Ca, Mg, and K content. The dominant shade trees for coffee farming at the Ijen-Raung highland areas were suren (Toona sureni) , dadap (Erythrina sp.), kayumanis (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), pinus (Pinus mercusii), and kayu putih (Eucalyptus globulus). Different shade tree species resulted in different of soil fertility. Shade trees tended to influence cation exchange capacity from moderate to high, pH slightly acid, high base saturation, and low P available. Suren tree influenced better base cation than that of other trees but dadap tree was better in increasing soil fertility. Key word: Soil fertility, arabica coffee, andisol, shade trees, smallholding
ANALISIS DAYA GABUNG KARAKTER PERTUMBUHAN VEGETATIF BEBERAPA KLON KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L.) Suhendi, Dedy; Susilo, Agung Wahyu; Mawardi, Surip
Zuriat Vol 15, No 2 (2004)
Publisher : Zuriat

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Abstract

Kriterium genetik yang mendasari pemilihan tetua persilangan perlu untuk diketahui. Penelitian untuk mengetahui kemampuan daya gabung umum dan daya gabung khusus beberapa klon kakao lindak untuk sifat-sifat pertumbuhan vegetatif dan presentase pembungaan telah dilakukan dengan rancangan persilangan dialel 7 × 7, tanpa selfing dan resiprokal. Klon-klon yang digunakan sebagai tetua persilangan adalah UIT 1, ICS 60, NIC 4, Sca 12, KEE 2, TSH 858 dan ICS 13. Sifat-sifat pertumbuhan vegetatif diukur adalah diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan pertunasan cabang. Persentase pembungaan dihitung berdasarkan frekuensi tanaman berbunga pada saat 17 minggu setelah tanam. Data sifat sifat tersebut dianalisis ragamnya menggunakan metode Griffing 4. Efek daya gabung umum (dgu) menunjukkan pengaruh nyata pada sifat diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan persentase pembungaan, namun tidak terdapat pengaruh nyata efek daya gabung khusus (dgk) terhadap sifat-sifat tersebut. Klon Sca 12 dan KEE 2 memiliki nilai dgu nyata untuk sifat diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan persentase pembungaan; klon NIC 4 memiliki nilai dgu nyata untuk sifat diameter batang dan persentase pembungaan; dan klon ICS 13 memiliki nilai dgu nyata hanya untuk sifat tinggi jorget. Terdapat nilai dgk yang nyata pada kombinasi persilangan UIT 1 × ICS 60 untuk sifat diameter batang, dan kombinasi persilangan UIT 1 × Sca 12; ICS 60 × NIC 4; dan KEE 2 × TSH 858 untuk sifat persentase pembungaan.
Ekspresi β -1,3 glukanase dan kitinase pada tanaman kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.) tahan dan rentan karat daun Expression of β-1,3 glucanase and chitinase of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) resistant and susceptible against leaf rust disease BUDIANI, Asmini; SUSANTI, I; MAWARDI, Surip; SANTOSO, D A; SISWANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 72, No 2: Desember 2004
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (353.775 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v72i2.122

Abstract

Summary Leaf rust disease caused by Hemileia vastatrix is considered to be one of the most important diseases on arabica coffee plantation. In order to understand the mechanism underlying resistance of arabica coffee against leaf rust disease, this research was aimed to study expression of β-1,3 glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI) genes in the arabica coffee S1934 and  BLP10 that have been reported respectively as a resistant and susceptible varieties to H. vastatrix. The two varieties were essayed against H. vastatrix, and an RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction) using total RNAs  from the S1934 and BLP10, both inoculated with H. vastatrix and uninnoculated was carried out for studying the expression of GLU and CHI. Two primer pairs were designed to amplify the conserved region of GLU and CHI. Amplification products were sequenced and the nucleotide sequences were subjected to BlastX analysis. The result of bioassay confirmed that arabica coffee S1934 was resistant to H. vastatrix, while BLP10 was susceptible.   β-1,3 glucanase was expressed in all of the four samples, the inoculated and uninnoculated S1934, and BLP10 in different degree. S1934 expressed higher GLU compared to BLP10. In the inoculated S1934 the expression of this gene was higher compared to that of the uninoculated one. Expression of CHI was detected only in the S1934, both inoculated and uninoculated. Sequence analysis confirmed that the RT-PCR products were exon regions of genes encoding β-1,3 glucanase dan chitinase respectively. Both of the cDNA fragment have been cloned in E.coli.  Ringkasan Karat daun yang disebabkan oleh jamur Hemileia vastatrix merupakan salah satu penyakit penting pada perkebunan kopi arabika. Untuk memahami mekanisme ketahanan kopi arabika terhadap karat daun, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari ekspresi gen β-1,3 glukanase dan kitinase pada varietas kopi arabika S1934 yang dilaporkan tahan karat daun dan varietas BLP10 yang termasuk rentan karat daun. Untuk itu kedua varietas diuji kembali ketahanannya terhadap H. vastatrix melalui bioesai dan dilakukan RT-PCR menggunakan RNA total dari S1934 dan BLP10, baik yang diinokulasi dengan H. vastatrix maupun yang tidak diinokulasi, untuk mempelajari ekspresi gen GLU dan CHI. Dua pasang primer spesifik dirancang untuk mengamplifikasi daerah konservatif kedua gen  tersebut. Hasil amplifikasi disekuen dan dianalisis menggunakan program BlastX. Hasil bioesai mengkonfirmasi bahwa S1934 tahan terhadap H. vastatrix, sedangkan  BLP10 rentan.  β-1,3 glukanase diekspresikan pada kedua varietas, baik yang diinokulasi maupun yang tidak diinokulasi, namun dengan tingkat ekspresi yang sedikit berbeda. Varietas S1934 mengekspresikan β-1,3 glukanase lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan BLP10. Ekspresi gen tersebut pada S1934 yang diinokulasi lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan yang tidak diinokulasi. Sedangkan kitinase hanya diekspresikan pada varietas S1934. Hasil sekuensing dan analisis DNA mengkonfirmasi bahwa sekuen hasil RT-PCR merupakan bagian ekson dari gen penyandi β-1,3 glukanase dan kitinase. Kedua fragmen tersebut telah diklon pada E. coli.
Transformasi kopi robusta (Coffea canephora) dengan gen kitinase melalui Agrobagterium tumefaciens LBA4404 Transformation of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) with chitinase gene mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 SISWANTO, .; OKTAVIA, Fetrina; BUDIANI, Asmini; , SUDARSONO, .; PRIYONO, .; MAWARDI, Surip
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 71, No 2: Desember 2003
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1075.003 KB) | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v71i2.162

Abstract

SummaryGenetic engineering of robusta coffee forresistance to pathogenic fungi is considered to beone of the potential approaches to overcome theproblem at robusta coffee plantation caused bypathogenic fungi. This research was aimed tointroduce chitinase (CHI) gene into embryogeniccalli of robusta coffee and regenerate theplantlets. Embryogenic calli were co-cultivatedwith Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404harboring pCAMBIA1301 which containschitinase gene under 35S promoter. In thisresearch four concentrations (0, 50, 100 and150 mg/L) of acetosyringone (AC) were used inthe co-cultivation medium. Selection fortransformed calli was conducted by graduallyincreasing the concentration of hygromicin from5 to 25 mg/L. Somatic embryo (SE) was inducedfrom callus on the medium containing acombination of BAP 5 mg/L and IAA (0, 0.25 or0.50 mg/L). Integration CHI in plant genome wasexamined by GUS assay and PCR. The resultrevealed that among the four AC concentrationstested, 100 mg/L gave the highest percentage ofcalli growing on the selection medium (42.5%).BAP concentration of 5 mg/L alone was the mosteffective for inducing of SE from transformedcalli with the highest percentage of 43.1% andaverage number SE of 8.8 ± 3. The strongestGUS expression on the calli at 3 days aftertransformation and the calli grown on selectionmedium containing 150 mg/L AC, which were56.5% and 40% respectivelly. PCR analysisshowed that 7 out of 12 plantlets tested,contained CHI gene. From this research 28transgenic plantlets of robusta coffee wereobtainedRingkasanRekayasa genetika untuk merakit tanamankopi robusta tahan jamur pathogen dipandangmerupakan salah satu pendekatan alternatif yangpotensial untuk mengatasi masalah padaperkebunan kopi robusta akibat serangan jamurpatogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meng-introduksikan gen kitinase (CHI) ke dalam kalusembriogenik kopi robusta dan regenerasinyamenjadi planlet, sebagai upaya untuk merakittanaman kopi robusta tahan serangan jamur.Kalus embriogenik diko-kultivasi denganAgrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 pembawapCAMBIA1301 yang mengandung gen kitinasedi bawah kontrol promotor 35S. Pada percobaanini, empat konsentrasi asetosiringon (AS) (0, 50,100 dan 150 mg/L) digunakan dalam medium ko-kultivasi. Seleksi kalus hasil transformasidilakukan dengan peningkatan konsentrasi higro-misin secara bertahap dari 5 mg/L sampai25 mg/L. ES diinduksi dari kalus pada mediumyang mengandung BAP 5 mg/L dan IAA (0; 0,25dan 0,50 mg/L). Integrasi gen CHI ke dalamgenom tanaman dianalisis melalui uji GUS danPCR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa darikeempat konsentrasi AS yang diuji, AS 100 mg/Lternyata menghasilkan persentase tertinggi kalusyang tumbuh pada medium seleksi (42,5%).Konsentrasi BAP 5 mg/L tanpa penambahan IAAefektif menginduksi ES dari kalus hasiltransformasi dengan persentase tertinggi 43,1%dan rata-rata jumlah ES 8,8±3. Ekspresi GUStertinggi dideteksi pada kalus tiga hari setelahtransformasi dan kalus yang tumbuh di mediumseleksi yang mengandung AS 150 mg/L,masing-masing 56,5% dan 40,0 %. Analisis PCRmenunjukkan bahwa 7 planlet dari 12 planletyang diuji, membawa gen CHI. Dari penelitianini dihasilkan 28 planlet kopi robusta transgenik.
Transformasi kopi robusta (Coffea canephora) dengan gen kitinase melalui Agrobagterium tumefaciens LBA4404 Transformation of robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) with chitinase gene mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 SISWANTO, .; OKTAVIA, Fetrina; BUDIANI, Asmini; , SUDARSONO, .; PRIYONO, .; MAWARDI, Surip
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 71, No 2: Desember 2003
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v71i2.162

Abstract

SummaryGenetic engineering of robusta coffee forresistance to pathogenic fungi is considered to beone of the potential approaches to overcome theproblem at robusta coffee plantation caused bypathogenic fungi. This research was aimed tointroduce chitinase (CHI) gene into embryogeniccalli of robusta coffee and regenerate theplantlets. Embryogenic calli were co-cultivatedwith Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404harboring pCAMBIA1301 which containschitinase gene under 35S promoter. In thisresearch four concentrations (0, 50, 100 and150 mg/L) of acetosyringone (AC) were used inthe co-cultivation medium. Selection fortransformed calli was conducted by graduallyincreasing the concentration of hygromicin from5 to 25 mg/L. Somatic embryo (SE) was inducedfrom callus on the medium containing acombination of BAP 5 mg/L and IAA (0, 0.25 or0.50 mg/L). Integration CHI in plant genome wasexamined by GUS assay and PCR. The resultrevealed that among the four AC concentrationstested, 100 mg/L gave the highest percentage ofcalli growing on the selection medium (42.5%).BAP concentration of 5 mg/L alone was the mosteffective for inducing of SE from transformedcalli with the highest percentage of 43.1% andaverage number SE of 8.8 ± 3. The strongestGUS expression on the calli at 3 days aftertransformation and the calli grown on selectionmedium containing 150 mg/L AC, which were56.5% and 40% respectivelly. PCR analysisshowed that 7 out of 12 plantlets tested,contained CHI gene. From this research 28transgenic plantlets of robusta coffee wereobtainedRingkasanRekayasa genetika untuk merakit tanamankopi robusta tahan jamur pathogen dipandangmerupakan salah satu pendekatan alternatif yangpotensial untuk mengatasi masalah padaperkebunan kopi robusta akibat serangan jamurpatogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meng-introduksikan gen kitinase (CHI) ke dalam kalusembriogenik kopi robusta dan regenerasinyamenjadi planlet, sebagai upaya untuk merakittanaman kopi robusta tahan serangan jamur.Kalus embriogenik diko-kultivasi denganAgrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 pembawapCAMBIA1301 yang mengandung gen kitinasedi bawah kontrol promotor 35S. Pada percobaanini, empat konsentrasi asetosiringon (AS) (0, 50,100 dan 150 mg/L) digunakan dalam medium ko-kultivasi. Seleksi kalus hasil transformasidilakukan dengan peningkatan konsentrasi higro-misin secara bertahap dari 5 mg/L sampai25 mg/L. ES diinduksi dari kalus pada mediumyang mengandung BAP 5 mg/L dan IAA (0; 0,25dan 0,50 mg/L). Integrasi gen CHI ke dalamgenom tanaman dianalisis melalui uji GUS danPCR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa darikeempat konsentrasi AS yang diuji, AS 100 mg/Lternyata menghasilkan persentase tertinggi kalusyang tumbuh pada medium seleksi (42,5%).Konsentrasi BAP 5 mg/L tanpa penambahan IAAefektif menginduksi ES dari kalus hasiltransformasi dengan persentase tertinggi 43,1%dan rata-rata jumlah ES 8,8±3. Ekspresi GUStertinggi dideteksi pada kalus tiga hari setelahtransformasi dan kalus yang tumbuh di mediumseleksi yang mengandung AS 150 mg/L,masing-masing 56,5% dan 40,0 %. Analisis PCRmenunjukkan bahwa 7 planlet dari 12 planletyang diuji, membawa gen CHI. Dari penelitianini dihasilkan 28 planlet kopi robusta transgenik.
Ekspresi β -1,3 glukanase dan kitinase pada tanaman kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.) tahan dan rentan karat daun Expression of β-1,3 glucanase and chitinase of arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.) resistant and susceptible against leaf rust disease BUDIANI, Asmini; SUSANTI, I; MAWARDI, Surip; SANTOSO, D A; SISWANTO, .
E-Journal Menara Perkebunan Vol 72, No 2: Desember 2004
Publisher : INDONESIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOINDUSTRY

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.22302/iribb.jur.mp.v72i2.122

Abstract

Summary Leaf rust disease caused by Hemileia vastatrix is considered to be one of the most important diseases on arabica coffee plantation. In order to understand the mechanism underlying resistance of arabica coffee against leaf rust disease, this research was aimed to study expression of β-1,3 glucanase (GLU) and chitinase (CHI) genes in the arabica coffee S1934 and  BLP10 that have been reported respectively as a resistant and susceptible varieties to H. vastatrix. The two varieties were essayed against H. vastatrix, and an RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction) using total RNAs  from the S1934 and BLP10, both inoculated with H. vastatrix and uninnoculated was carried out for studying the expression of GLU and CHI. Two primer pairs were designed to amplify the conserved region of GLU and CHI. Amplification products were sequenced and the nucleotide sequences were subjected to BlastX analysis. The result of bioassay confirmed that arabica coffee S1934 was resistant to H. vastatrix, while BLP10 was susceptible.   β-1,3 glucanase was expressed in all of the four samples, the inoculated and uninnoculated S1934, and BLP10 in different degree. S1934 expressed higher GLU compared to BLP10. In the inoculated S1934 the expression of this gene was higher compared to that of the uninoculated one. Expression of CHI was detected only in the S1934, both inoculated and uninoculated. Sequence analysis confirmed that the RT-PCR products were exon regions of genes encoding β-1,3 glucanase dan chitinase respectively. Both of the cDNA fragment have been cloned in E.coli.  Ringkasan Karat daun yang disebabkan oleh jamur Hemileia vastatrix merupakan salah satu penyakit penting pada perkebunan kopi arabika. Untuk memahami mekanisme ketahanan kopi arabika terhadap karat daun, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari ekspresi gen β-1,3 glukanase dan kitinase pada varietas kopi arabika S1934 yang dilaporkan tahan karat daun dan varietas BLP10 yang termasuk rentan karat daun. Untuk itu kedua varietas diuji kembali ketahanannya terhadap H. vastatrix melalui bioesai dan dilakukan RT-PCR menggunakan RNA total dari S1934 dan BLP10, baik yang diinokulasi dengan H. vastatrix maupun yang tidak diinokulasi, untuk mempelajari ekspresi gen GLU dan CHI. Dua pasang primer spesifik dirancang untuk mengamplifikasi daerah konservatif kedua gen  tersebut. Hasil amplifikasi disekuen dan dianalisis menggunakan program BlastX. Hasil bioesai mengkonfirmasi bahwa S1934 tahan terhadap H. vastatrix, sedangkan  BLP10 rentan.  β-1,3 glukanase diekspresikan pada kedua varietas, baik yang diinokulasi maupun yang tidak diinokulasi, namun dengan tingkat ekspresi yang sedikit berbeda. Varietas S1934 mengekspresikan β-1,3 glukanase lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan BLP10. Ekspresi gen tersebut pada S1934 yang diinokulasi lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan yang tidak diinokulasi. Sedangkan kitinase hanya diekspresikan pada varietas S1934. Hasil sekuensing dan analisis DNA mengkonfirmasi bahwa sekuen hasil RT-PCR merupakan bagian ekson dari gen penyandi β-1,3 glukanase dan kitinase. Kedua fragmen tersebut telah diklon pada E. coli.
ANALISIS DAYA GABUNG KARAKTER PERTUMBUHAN VEGETATIF BEBERAPA KLON KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L.) Suhendi, Dedy; Susilo, Agung Wahyu; Mawardi, Surip
Zuriat Vol 15, No 2 (2004)
Publisher : Breeding Science Society of Indonesia (BSSI) / PERIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24198/zuriat.v15i2.6798

Abstract

Kriterium genetik yang mendasari pemilihan tetua persilangan perlu untuk diketahui. Penelitian untuk mengetahui kemampuan daya gabung umum dan daya gabung khusus beberapa klon kakao lindak untuk sifat-sifat pertumbuhan vegetatif dan presentase pembungaan telah dilakukan dengan rancangan persilangan dialel 7 × 7, tanpa selfing dan resiprokal. Klon-klon yang digunakan sebagai tetua persilangan adalah UIT 1, ICS 60, NIC 4, Sca 12, KEE 2, TSH 858 dan ICS 13. Sifat-sifat pertumbuhan vegetatif diukur adalah diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan pertunasan cabang. Persentase pembungaan dihitung berdasarkan frekuensi tanaman berbunga pada saat 17 minggu setelah tanam. Data sifat sifat tersebut dianalisis ragamnya menggunakan metode Griffing 4. Efek daya gabung umum (dgu) menunjukkan pengaruh nyata pada sifat diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan persentase pembungaan, namun tidak terdapat pengaruh nyata efek daya gabung khusus (dgk) terhadap sifat-sifat tersebut. Klon Sca 12 dan KEE 2 memiliki nilai dgu nyata untuk sifat diameter batang, tinggi jorget, dan persentase pembungaan; klon NIC 4 memiliki nilai dgu nyata untuk sifat diameter batang dan persentase pembungaan; dan klon ICS 13 memiliki nilai dgu nyata hanya untuk sifat tinggi jorget. Terdapat nilai dgk yang nyata pada kombinasi persilangan UIT 1 × ICS 60 untuk sifat diameter batang, dan kombinasi persilangan UIT 1 × Sca 12; ICS 60 × NIC 4; dan KEE 2 × TSH 858 untuk sifat persentase pembungaan.