Ani Melani Maskoen
Pusat Studi Onkologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran

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Exploring TLR2 Gene Polymorphisms in Cervical Cancer Development Panigoro, Ramdan; Susanto, Herman; Arrazeen, Muhammad Noor; Tobing, Maringan; Maskoen, Ani Melani; Sahiratmadja, Edhyana
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Human papillomavirus is a pathogen that directly infects cervical keratinocytes and may cause persistent infection that leads to cervical cancer. Toll like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in initiating antiviral immune responses. Therefore, polymorphisms in TLR gene may contribute to cancer susceptibility. This study aimed to explore the TLR2 gene distribution and susceptibility to cervical cancer. In this case-control study, cervical cancer patients and their controls were recruited from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood of patients with histopathologically confirmed cervical cancer (n=100) and from unrelated, healthy female controls (n=100) during 2011. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TLR2 gene were genotyped on the BeadXpress Reader system (Illumina)®. Chi square test was used to calculate the role of TLR2 and susceptibility to cervical cancer. Only subjects with complete clinical and genetic data were analyzed. Analysis of TLR2 rs3804099, rs4696480 and rs5743708 of cervical cancer patients and controls showed no significant association with the cervical cancer risk (p 0.424, p 0.275, p 0.209, respectively). Further classification in the FIGO (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique) criteria for lower stage (FIGO I/II) and higher stage (FIGO III/IV) showed a lack of association between TLR2 and cancer development, suggesting the possibility that TLR2 polymorphism does not play a role in the susceptibility to cervical cancer in this study. Other toll like receptors may be involved in the cancer susceptibility. The significance of TLR polymorphism should be further studied. [MKB. 2013;45(4):257–62]Key words: Cervical cancer, toll like receptor, TLR2 Polimorfisme Gen TLR2 dan Perkembangan Kanker ServiksKanker serviks disebabkan oleh human papillomavirus (HPV), patogen yang dapat langsung menginfeksi keratinosit serviks secara persisten dan dapat berkembang menjadi kanker. Toll like receptors (TLR) berperan dalam merangsang respons imun, sehingga polimorfisme gen TLR dapat berkontribusi dalam kerentanan terhadap kanker. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui distribusi gen TLR2 dan peranannya terhadap kerentanan kanker serviks. Pada studi kasus kontrol, DNA genomik diekstraksi dari darah penderita kanker serviks yang terdiagnosis secara histopatologi (n=100) dan kontrol dengan Pap smear normal (n=100) tahun 2011 di Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung. Pemeriksaan tiga single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)gen TLR2 dilakukan menggunakan BeadXpress Reader system (Illumina). Hanya subyek dengan data klinik dan genetik lengkap yang dianalisis dengan menggunakan uji chi square. Analisis dari TLR2 rs3804099, rs4696480 dan rs5743708 antara pasien dan kontrol tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang bermakna (p 0.424, p 0.275 dan p 0.209). Di antara pasien dengan klasifikasi FIGO (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique) tingkat rendah (FIGO I/II) dan tingkat tinggi (FIGO III/IV) juga tidak tampak perbedaan yang bermakna. Dari penelitian ini terbukti polimorfisme TLR2 tidak berperan dalam proses kerentanan maupun perkembangan terjadinya kanker serviks. Kemungkinan TLR yang lain seperti TLR 1, 3, 9 lebih berperan dalam perkembangan terjadinya kanker serviks. [MKB. 2013;45(4):257–62]Kata kunci: Kanker serviks, toll like receptor, TLR2 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n4.173
Peran Ekstrak Etanol Topikal Daun Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) pada Penyembuhan Luka Ditinjau dari Imunoekspresi CD34 dan Kolagen pada Tikus Galur Wistar Rahmayani S., Indah Puti; Maskoen, Ani Melani; Hernowo, Bethy S.
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 45, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Luka akan menimbulkan masalah jika penanganannya kurang baik sehingga menyebabkan luka kronik. Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia L.) merupakan tanaman khas daerah tropis termasuk Indonesia, yang buah, daun, dan akarnya sering digunakan dalam pengobatan tradisional, di antaranya untuk menyembuhkan luka. Penelitian dengan rancangan eksperimental sederhana ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek penggunaan ekstrak etanol daun mengkudu terhadap penyembuhan luka pada pemberian topikal, dengan melihat gambaran histopatologis yang terdiri atas sel fibroblas, infiltrasi sel inflamasi, imunoekspresi cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), dan deposisi kolagen. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Farmakologi dan Patologi Anatomi RS Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung pada November 2010‒September 2011. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 36 tikus dengan membuat eksisi pada punggung tikus. Kemudian tikus-tikus tersebut dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan ekstrak etanol daun mengkudu topikal pada luka. Jaringan luka tiap kelompok diamati secara mikroskopis pada hari ke-3, 7, dan 14. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penyembuhan luka kelompok perlakuan cenderung lebih baik, dilihat pada data hari ke-3, 7, dan 14 pada semua parameter. Uji statistik Mann-Whitney pada tingkat kepercayaan 95% (p<0,05) untuk jumlah fibroblas, infiltrasi sel inflamasi, imunoekspresi CD34, dan kolagen berturut-turut p=0,319; p=0,290; p=0,251; dan p=0,245. Simpulan, ekstrak etanol topikal daun mengkudu cenderung bermanfaat pada penyembuhan luka, walaupun secara statistik tidak bermakna. [MKB. 2013;45(4):226–33]Kata kunci: CD34, daun mengkudu, kolagen, penyembuhan lukaRole of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Leaf Ethanolic Extract TopicalApplication on Wound Healing Examined from CD34 Immunoexpression and Collagen on Wistar RatsProblems in wound healing occurred if proper care is not given and the wound develops into a chronic wound. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is one of the most common plants in tropical areas, including Indonesia, which fruit, leaves dan root are used in traditional treatment, for example wound healing. This experimental research with post test-only control group design identified the effect of topical application of noni leaves ethanol extract on wound healing by examining the histopathological appearance of fibroblas count, inflammatory cell infiltration, cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) immunoexpression, and collagen deposition. The research was performed between November 2010 until September 2011 at the Pharmacology and Pathology Anatomy laboratories of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Excisions were made on each back of the rat of the 36 rats that were divided into control and test groups where the test group received topical application of noni leaves ethanol extract. The wound was examined on day 3, 7, and 14 using a light microscope. The result showed a tendency of better wound healing in the test group for all parameters based on the data on day 3, 7, and 14. Mann-Whitney Test with 95% confidence interval (p<0.05) showed that the p value for fibroblast count, inflammation cell infiltration, CD34 immunoexpression and collagen subsequently were p=0.319, p=0.290, p=0.251, and p=0.245, respectively. In conclusion, topical application of noni leaves ethanol extract has a benefit on wound healing although the results are not statistically significant. [MKB. 2013;45(4):226–33]Key words: CD34, collagen, noni leaves, wound healing DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n4.169
Analisis Filogenetik Gen L1 Human Papillomavirus 16 pada Penderita Kanker Serviks di Bandung Fadhilah, Fitri Rahmi; Sahiratmadja, Edhyana K.; Safitri, Ratu; Maskoen, Ani Melani; Susanto, Herman
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 47, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

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Abstract

Infeksi human papillomavirus (HPV) tipe high risk (hr) yang kronik dapat menyebabkan kanker serviks. Berbagai genotipe hrHPV telah teridentifikasi dan HPV-16 merupakan genotipe yang tersering menginfeksi serviks. Fragmen L1 HPV dapat digunakan untuk mengidentifikasikan asal usul HPV. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengeksplorasi asal usul HPV-16 dengan membuat pohon filogenetik. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif analisis. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Genetika Molekuler Unit Penelitian Kesehatan, Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung pada Februari hingga Agustus 2013. Isolat biopsi dari pasien kanker serviks disumbangkan oleh Departemen Kebidanan Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. Isolasi DNA dibuat dari biopsi jaringan kanker serviks dan fragmen L1 diamplifikasi dengan desain primer sendiri. Infeksi dengan HPV-16 dikonfirmasi dengan Linear Array test (Roche). Sekuens urutan basa kemudian dimasukkan dalam program filogenetik (MEGA5). Hasil konstruksi menunjukkan isolat pasien kanker serviks dari Bandung berada dalam satu subgrup dengan HPV asal Asia dan Asia Timur. Simpulan, cluster HPV Indonesia berada pada galur Asia dan Asia Timur. [MKB. 2015;47(3):174–78]Kata kunci: Filogenetik, fragmen L1,  human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16)Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Papillomavirus 16 L1 Gene from Cervical Cancer Patient in BandungAbstractChronic infection with high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) can lead to cervical cancer. Various hrHPV genotypes have been identified and HPV genotype 16 is the most common genotypes that infect cervical cancer. HPV L1 fragment can identify the origin of HPV. The purpose of this study was to explore the origins of HPV-16 by making a phylogenetic tree. This study used analytical descriptive method and was  was conducted at the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Health Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung in the period of February to August 2013. Biopsy from cervical cancer patient was donated by the Department of Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. Isolation of DNA was prepared from tissue biopsies of cervical cancer and L1 fragment was amplified with the specific primer. Infection with HPV-16 was confirmed by Linear Array test (Roche) design. The sequence then was constructed using the phylogenetic program (MEGA5). Results showed that the isolate from patient with cervical cancer from Bandung was in one subgroup with HPV from Asia and East Asia. In conclusion, cluster HPV of Bandung is in the same strain as the strain in Asia and East Asia. [MKB. 2015;47(3):174–78]Key words: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16), L1 fragment, phylogenetic DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v47n3.598
Frequency of MTHFR GENE C677T polymorphism for non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder patients Laksono, Bremmy; Maskoen, Ani Melani; Winarni, Tri Indah; Taufik, Syarief; Faradz, Sultana MH
Journal of Biomedicine and Translational Research Vol 1, No 2 (2015): December 2015
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Diponegoro University

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Abstract

Background: The folate metabolism is a pathway that may involve in the non-syndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme has a key role in folate metabolism. The C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene could reduce the effectiveness of the enzyme.Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of MTHFR geneC677T polymorphism for non-syndromic ASD patients.Method: Thirty-four DNA samples were taken from each group. PCR mixture was consisted of 1µL DNA, 2.5µL PCR buffer, 0.5µL dNTP, 1.5µL MgCL2, 0.125µLTaqenzyme, 0.5µLofforwardandreverseprimerandaquabidesttoreach a volume of 25 µL. The PCR profiles were initiation 95ºC for 5 min, denaturation 94ºC for 1min, annealing 55ºCfor 45 seconds, and elongation 72ºC for30 seconds. The cycles were done in 35 times an dfinal elongation was at 72ºC for 5min. The PCR product was 198bp, and then digested by the Hinfl enzyme for 16hours at 37°C, and visualized using2%agarosegeland then electrophoresed for 30 minutes at 100 volts.Result: Non-syndromic ASD samples showed none had homozygote mutant type (677TT), 3 (8.8%) samples had heterozygote (677CT)and 31 (91.2%) samples had wild type (677CC). Meanwhile, normal control showed only 1 (2.9%)sample had homozygote mutant type(677TT), 9 (26.5%) samples had heterozygote (677CT)and 24 (70.6%) samples had  wild type (677CC).Conclusion: The frequency of MTHFR geneC677T polymorphism in patients with non-syndromic ASD and controls are not significantly different.
Durian Consumption Effect on the Plasma Malondialdehyde Level as Biomarker of Stress Oxidative in Rats Amri, Anugrah Aulia Ulil; Maskoen, Ani Melani; Hidayat, Syarief
Althea Medical Journal Vol 3, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Althea Medical Journal

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Background: Excessive consumption of durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) in Indonesia is often connected with its effect on health. This study aims to understand the effect of durian consumption to malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma as oxidative stress biomarker.Methods: The study used an experimental research design on animal models, in the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, July–August 2012. Thirty two Sprague-Dawley rats were used, divided into four groups: control, treatment week 1, 2, and 3. Each treatment group was given 20 gram durian fruit diluted with water until 20 ml volume per oral, divided into two doses (10 ml each) with 4 hours interlude between doses for 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks. All groups got normal diet and water ad libitum. Plasma MDA level was measured by TBARS method, then analyzed using Kurskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.Results: Seventeen samples were successfully decapitated (5 for control; 6 for week 1; 3 for week 2; 3 for week 3). Average plasma MDA level for control treatment week 1, 2 and 3 groups were 0.707 nmol/ml, 0.432 nmol/ml, 0.312 nmol/ml, and 0.746 nmol/ml respectively. Data was significant (p<0.05) with p=0.02. Compared with control group, a significant increase occurred in week 1 and 2 groups with p=0.028 and p=0.025 respectively.Conclusions: Results of durian consumption show MDA level significantly decreases in week 1 and 2. However, MDA level dramatically increases exceeding control group level in week 3. [AMJ.2016;3(1):22–8] DOI: 10.15850/amj.v3n1.695
IFNG Polymorphism (+874 T>A) is not a risk factor for cervical cancer Maskoen, Ani Melani; Susanto, Herman; Surialaga, Samsudin; Sahiratmadja, Edhyana
Universa Medicina Vol 32, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Trisakti University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.18051/UnivMed.2013.v32.29 - 36

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INTRODUCTION Cervical cancer cases are rising and many women are infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). Interferon gamma (IFN-ã) is one of the key regulatory cytokines that influence the HPV clearance. The production and the function of IFN-ã may impaired by the defect of the IFNG gene leading to the cervical malignant progression. This study aimed to examine the association between IFNG+874 T&gt;A polymorphism and cervical cancer in women METHODS In a case-control study design, consecutive untreated women with cervical cancer who showed for the first time in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung were enrolled (n=98) and for controls women who came for PAP smear (n = 81). Controls were not matched in ages and ethnicities. DNA extracted from blood was amplified by amplification refractory mutation system - polymerase chain reaction method (ARMS – PCR) to detect IFNG+874 T&gt;A polymorphism. RESULTS The distribution of IFNG genotypes TT, TA and AA for women with cervical cancer who met the inclusion criteria (n= 64) and with negative intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (n=42) were 14.1%, 50.0%, 35.9% and 7.1%, 52.4%, 40.5%, respectively. No significant differences could be observed between both groups (p=0.64). Stratifying the cervical cancer women into a group of squamous cell carcinoma (n = 54) revealed no statistical different. CONCLUSION IFNG +874 T&gt;A polymorphismseems not to contribute in susceptibility to cervical cancer. Identification of other variants in IFNG gene signaling and its role in the development of cervical cancer diseases need to be further examined.
Optimalization of DNA isolation from oral epithelial mucous cell with smear method Nasroen, Saskia L.; Maskoen, Ani Melani; Nurwiadh, Agus
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 21, No 3 (2009): November
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (644.335 KB) | DOI: 10.24198/pjd.vol21no3.14110

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a genetic material which is found in all living organisms. On the human cell or eukaryotes cell, the DNA is found in the nucleus cell and the mitochondria. The DNA arrangement on each cell in human body is the same, that is why, for the analysis meaning, DNA can be isolated from any cell in the body. The source of DNA to be analyzed usually coming from the blood sample by an injection method, such a way resulting in pain and bringing about constraint. Therefore, a study was carried out to look for an alternative of DNA isolation. The aim of this experimental study was to get an optimal DNA isolation method by using oral mucous smear method with a purpose to get a quick and easy DNA isolation. The investigation materials were in the form of samples which were taken from the oral epithelial mucous cells out of three different subjects. The epithelial cells were obtained by the oral mucous smear method which in a variation of two, four and six times of smear applications, respectively. The DNA was then isolated using buffer extraction method. The concentrations of DNA were measured by using ultraviolet spectrophotometer at 260 nm wavelength. The results of DNA isolation were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. The optimal DNA isolation could be analyzed by PCR technique. The experimental results show that from three different subjects of study, DNA can be isolated optimally by oral mucous smear method with six times of smear applications.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Distribution among Cervical Cancer Patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Maskoen, Ani Melani; Kurniawan, Cynthia; Susanto, Herman; Sahiratmadja, Edhyana
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 48, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (207.831 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v48n4.754

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Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the world. Persistent infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the necessary causes of cervical cancer development. However, host genetic factors may also play a role in cervical cancer carcinogenesis. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme, encoded by the MTHFR gene, regulates folate metabolism which is important for genetic expression and stability. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C677T in MTHFR gene may produce a thermo-labile enzyme, resulting in a reduced enzyme activity. The aim of this study was to explore the SNP C677T of MTHFR gene and the susceptibility to cervical cancer among cancer patients visiting Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. This descriptive quantitative study involved cervical cancer patients recruited in 2010 and their control group. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients’ blood. MTHFR C677T genotype was performed using BeadXpress Reader Illumina® and some samples were re-genotyped for confirmation using conventional PCR-RFLP. The distribution of MTHFR C677T genotype in cervical cancer patients was 71.6%, 25.4%, and 3%, and 44%, 36%, and 20% in control group for CC, CT, and TT, respectively. This yielded a statistical significant difference of CC vs CT+TT (p 0.014 with OR 3.22 and CI 95% 1.24 – 8.33). Taken together, this result indicates that T allele has a protective effect against cervical cancer development. Further studies to confirm this effect in bigger population is warranted. [MKB. 2016;48(4):216–21]Key words: Cervical cancer, MTHFR C677T, polymorphism, Bandung Distribusi C677T gen Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase pada Pasien Kanker Serviks di Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin BandungKanker serviks menduduki peringkat kedua sebagai kanker yang paling sering ditemukan pada wanita di dunia. Infeksi persisten oleh human papillomavirus (HPV) tipe risiko tinggi merupakan salah satu penyebab utama kanker serviks. Selain itu, factor genetic juga turut berperan dalam proses perkembangan kanker serviks. Enzim methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase yang disandi oleh gen MTHFR berfungsi meregulasi metabolism folat. Polimorfisme C677T pada gen MTHFR dapat membuat produksi enzim menjadi termolabil sehingga terjadi penurunan aktivitas. Distribusi folat yang abnormal dapat mengganggu proses metilasi, sintesis, dan perbaikan DNA yang dikaitkan dengan perkembangan kanker serviks. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui distribusi polimorfisme C677T gen MTHFR pada pasien kanker serviks di Rumah Sakit Umum Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung, Indonesia. Penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif ini melibatkan pasien kanker serviks yang diinklusi tahun 2010 dan sebagai control adalah wanita yang datang untuk pemeriksaan PAPsmear. DNA genomic diisolasi dari darah pasien dan dihibridisasi dengan menggunakan system BeadXpress Reader Illumina® untuk menentukan jenis genotipenya. Genotipe beberapa sampel dikonfirmasi dengan metode PCR-RFLP. Hasil distribusi polimorfisme C677T gen MTHFR dengan genotipe CC, CT, dan TT pada pasien kanker serviks adalah 71,6%, 25,4%, dan 3% dan pada kontrol adalah 44%, 36%, and 20%. Hasil ini menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan antara pasien kanker serviks dan kontrolnya, dengan genotipe CC vs CT+TT menunjukkan nilai p=0,014 (OR 3.22 dan IK 95% 1,24–8,33). Simpulan, alel T menunjukkan efek yang protektif pada perkembangan kanker serviks. Penelitian harus dilanjutkan untuk membuktikan efek protektif alel pada kanker serviks.[MKB. 2016;48(4):216–21]Kata kunci: Kanker serviks, MTHFR C677T, polimorfisme, Bandung
Optimized steps in determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) standards on diagnostic of lipid peroxidation Fauziah, Prima Nanda; Maskoen, Ani Melani; Yuliati, Tri; Widiarsih, Erlina
Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry Vol 30, No 2 (2018): July
Publisher : Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (144.348 KB) | DOI: 10.24198/pjd.vol30no2.18329

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Introduction: Lipid peroxidation, one of the known indices of oxidative stress, is documented in various diseases. Secondary oxidation products such as malondialdehyde (MDA) is commonly measured to observe lipid peroxidation. In this study, a spectrophotometric method was evaluated to measure thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with high sensitivity. This study was aimed to optimisation standard of MDA using tetraethoxypropane (TEP) 97% (FW=220.3). Methods: The method is based upon the reaction of malondialdehyde (MDA) and TBA in the glacial acetic acid medium. MDA is a known biomarker of oxidative status in a biological system. This research consists of two phases: first, making a stock of TEP, and the second phase was testing the concentration of TEP for finding the standard curve of MDA before used in diagnostic of lipid peroxidation. Results: Result showed the concentration 1,875-60 uM of TEP could form a precise standard curve. Conclusion: This concentration of TEP can be used as a reference as the standard of control in diagnostic of lipid peroxidation using TBARS method.
Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Kasar Umbi Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia pendens) Dibanding dengan Klorheksidin terhadap Streptococcus sanguinis Attamimi, Fathimah Azzahra; Ruslami, Rovina; Maskoen, Ani Melani
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 49, No 2 (2017)
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (266.593 KB) | DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v49n2.1053

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Streptococcus sanguinis merupakan bakteri pionir penyebab plak gigi. Penggunaan obat kumur klorheksidin merupakan tindakan untuk mengontrol pembentukan plak gigi, namun karena efek sampingnya, klorheksidin tidak dapat digunakan untuk jangka panjang. Umbi sarang semut (Myrmecodia pendens) merupakan tanaman obat yang memiliki banyak aktivitas biologis untuk kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak kasar umbi sarang semut terhadap bakteri S. sanguinis dibandingkan dengan klorheksidin dan pengaruh pemberian konsentrasinya terhadap kematian sel bakteri. Metode penelitian menggunakan uji  Kirby-Bauer untuk menentukan diameter hambat pertumbuhan bakteri, dilanjutkan dengan uji MIC untuk mengetahui nilai MIC dari sampel dan pengaruhnya terhadap kematian sel bakteri. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Agustus-Oktober 2015 di Laboratorium Kimia Organik Universitas Padjadjaran Hasil uji Kirby-Bauer ekstrak kasar umbi sarang semut menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri. Zona hambat yang dihasilkan oleh ekstrak kasar tidak berbeda signifikan dengan klorheksidin (12 mm vs 15 mm, p>0,05). Nilai MIC ekstrak kasar berada diantara 9,77 ppm dan 19,53 ppm, nilai ini lebih kecil dibanding dengan klorheksidin, yaitu sebesar 1,935 ppm. Selain itu, terdapat korelasi positif dan kuat antara konsentrasi ekstrak kasar dan kematian sel bakteri S. sanguinis (r=0,867). Dapat disimpulkan ekstrak kasar umbi sarang semut memiliki efek antibakteri lebih kecil dibanding dengan klorheksidin. Peningkatan konsentrasi eksrak kasar umbi sarang semut memiliki korelasi positif dan kuat terhadap peningkatan kematian sel bakteri S. sanguinis. [MKB. 2017;49(2):94–101] Kata kunci: Antibakteri, ekstrak kasar, klorheksidin, S. sanguinis, umbi sarang semut  Antibacterial Activity Test of Ant Nest Tuber (Myrmecodia Pendens) Crude Extract against  Streptococcus Sanguinis Compared to Chlorhexidine Streptococcus sanguinis is a pioneer bacterium that causes dental plaque formation. The use of chlorhexidine mouthwash is one of the treatments to control dental plaque. However, due to its side effects, chlorhexidine cannot be used in a long period. Ant nest tuber (Myrmecodia pendens) is one of the medicinal plants with variousbiological activities that are beneficial to human health. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of ant nest tuber crude extract against bacteria S. sanguinis compared to chlorhexidine and measure the effect of increased concentration on bacterial cell death. This study was conducted using Kirby-Bauer method to measure the diameter of bacterial growth inhibition in August–October 2015 at the Organic Chemistry Laboratory of Universitas Padjadjaran. The MIC was then measured to determine the MIC values of the sample and the effect on bacterial cell death. Kirby-Bauer test showed that the inhibition zone produced by crude extract was not significantly different from the one produced by chlorhexidine (12 mm vs 15 mm, p>0.05) when both were used to inhibith the growth of S. sanguinis. The MIC value of crude extract was between 9.77 ppm and 19.53 ppm, smaller than the MIC value of the chlorhexidine of 1.93 ppm. In addition, there was a positive and strong correlation (r=0.867) between the concentration of crude extract and S. sanguinis cell death.  Hence,  crude extract from ant nest tuber has a lower antibacterial effect than chlorhexidine in inhibiting the growth of S. sanguinis. Additionally, there is a strong correlation between the increased concentration of crude extract and increased S. sanguinis cell death. [MKB. 2017;49(2):94–101] Key words: Antibacterial, ant nest tuber, chlorhexidine, crude extract, S. sanguinis