Santi Martini
Departemen Epidemiologi, FKM, Universitas Airlangga Surabaya)
Articles
27
Documents
Analisis Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Tindakan Guru Sekolah Dasar Negeri di Surabaya tentang Masalah Kecacingan

The Indonesian Journal of Public Health Vol 3, No 2 (2006): The Indonesian Journal of Public Health
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Public Health

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Abstract

Worm infection is the most prevalence among elementary school students. Teacher hold an important role as second parents at school, one of some important factors for preventing worm infection are knowledge, attitude and practice of elementary school teacher. The objective of this research was to analized knowledge, attitude and practice of elementary school’s teacher in Surabaya about worm infection problems. A cross-sectional research was conducted at Surabaya. The population was all of public elementary school teacher at Surabaya. Sample was 217 teachers randomly selected by using sampling formulation. The research variables were age, education level and religion, knowledge, attitude and practice . The result indicate that 79.3% of respondents with moderate level of knowledge, and 82,5% of respondents have a good attitude towards worm infections problems. Based on FGD, it’s found that most of the respondents have positive practice towards the prevention of worm infections. Programs to prevent worm infections also have been held in almost all of the public elementary school in Surabaya. The programs were including medication, health promotion and education, immunization, and distribution of milks to the public elementary school students. By the observation, it is known that most of the school health program at Surabaya doesn’t have an appropriate room and other facilities.Key words: knowledge, attitude, practice, teacher of elementary school, worm infections

POPULASI NYAMUK DEWASA DI DAERAH ENDEMIS FILARIASIS STUDI DI DESA EMPAT KECAMATAN SIMPANG EMPAT KABUPATEN BANJAR TAHUN 2004

Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Vol 2, No 1 (2005): Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan
Publisher : Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan

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Abstract

Filariasis is one of communicable disease which is caused by infestation of Filaria worm. The disease is transmitted by many various mosquitoes. South Kalimantan is included endemic area of Filariasis. It had been reported that there were 125 endemic villages that are in 49 subdistrict spreadingly. The objectives of the research were to get description of adult mosquito population which lived in filariasis endemic areas, through indentifying chased adult mosquitoes by using man-feed and to investigate bitting and resting habits. The reseach was an observational study which used cross sectional design. The samples were adult mosquitoes which were chased at five houses whose filariasis patient. The width area of Empat village is 1500 ha. Most of them is slump and the remains are wet rice field and plantation. In Empat village, microfilaria rate is 1,2 in 2003. Chased adult mosquitoes consist of 4 genus and 15 spesies. They are 7 species of Culex genus, 2 spesies of Mansonia genus, 1 spesies if Aedes genus, and 5 spesies of Anopheles genus. The most of species in Empat villages is Mansonia uniformis (35,54%). The peak time of bitting among adult mosquitoes happened at 19.00-20.00 and 04.00-05.00. The habits was used to indoor (innerhouse), outdoor (outer house), and livestock stable. Resting habit among adult mosquitoes were happened indoor area (inner house), and they were rested at 76-150 cm height. They were 95 mosquitoes. The research was incomplete due to assessment of major vector and potential vector have not been investigated yet in Empat village.   Keywords: Adult mosquitoes, Filariasis.

TEMPAT PERINDUKAN VEKTOR, SPESIES NYAMUK ANOPHELES, DAN PENGARUH JARAK TEMPAT PERINDUKAN VEKTOR NYAMUK ANOPHELES TERHADAP KEJADIAN MALARIA PADA BALITA

Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan Vol 2, No 2 (2006): Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan
Publisher : Jurnal Kesehatan Lingkungan

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Abstract

Malariae affects almost part of Indonesia, one of them is Lombok District West Nusa Tenggara where malariae incidence is high. One indicator to show magnitude of malariae transmition in a certain area through ascertaining malariae disease among infants, children under five years, and children up to nine years old. Lenght of flying is an influenced factor of malariae vector to look for resting, feeding, and breeding. So, the factor is a concerned factor of controlling effort to malariae disease. The study objectives were to investigate breeding places, vector species of malariae, and lenght of flying influence of Anopheles mosquito to malariae incidence among children under five years. The study was an observational research with cross sectional design which conducted in Sambelia Subdistrict East Lombok District. The sample size was 347 children under five years. The study showed that most of children’s age (47,3%) was 37–59 months with no differences according to sex. The nature of breeding places were 134,70 – 750 m2 in average width, with algae, grass, and moss area in water biota, and mostly muddy on turbidity level except at breeding places in two sub-villages. The study founded two genus of mosquitoes, Culex and Anopheles. The species of Anopheles that are found in the study area are An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. aconitus, An. barbirostris, An. minimus dan An. Anullaris. There were 9 sub villages near from the breeding places (less than 1000 m), 7 sub-villages with midlle distance from the breeding places (1000 – 2000 m), and 8 sub-villages far from it (more than 2000 m). The risk of malariae occurence was 1,78 more for children who lived near from breeding places than children who lived far from it. Distance between their home and breeding places influenced to malariae occurence among children under five years in Sambelia Subdistrict. The distance is nearer increasing the risk of malariae occurence among children under five years. Keywords: Anopheles species, Breeding place, Children Under Five Years, Malariae.

Faktor Risiko Kejadian Kandidiasis Vaginalis pada Akseptor KB

The Indonesian Journal of Public Health Vol 3, No 1 (2006): The Indonesian Journal of Public Health
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Public Health

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Abstract

The objective of the research was to investigate risk factors of candidiasis vaginalis occurrence among family planning acceptors. A case control research with 30 acceptors of family planning who did Pap smear test and diagnosed as candidiasis vaginalis were set as cases, and 90 acceptors of family planning who weren’t diagnosed as candidiasis vaginalis were set as control group. Chi square test with a = 0.05 was used to analyzed the correlation between variable, and strength of association was determined by odds ratio. Some variables that correlate significantly with candidiasis vaginalis occurrence. However, factors which were associated significantly, were antibiotics using (OR = 4.26), kind of contraceptive method (OR = 2.39), frequency of changing underwear (OR = 3.53), kind of underwear materials (OR = 2.86), kind of vaginal douching agent (OR = 2.49), method of vaginal douching (OR = 2.47), vaginal condition after douching (OR = 3.54). Those variables were increased factors to candidiasis vaginalis occurrence. Giving attention to sexual hygiene especially vaginal hygiene by changing underwear at least twice a day, wearing underwear made from cotton, doing douching with specific solution for vagina, douching vagina with a proper method and keeping vagina dry after douching were protective measures to candidiasis vaginalis occurrence. Acceptors of family planning with hormonal method must do examining vagina routinely by Pap smear test.Key words: candidiasis vaginalis, acceptor of family planning

Relationship between Life Style and Pre Eclampsia

The Indonesian Journal of Public Health Vol 8, No 3 (2012): The Indonesian Journal of Public Health
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Public Health

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Abstract

Pre eclampsia is one of the three biggest causation to maternal mortality in Indonesia. Three primary signs of pre eclampsia arehypertension, proteinuria and edema. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to fi nd out association between life style and pre eclampsia.This was an observasional and analytical study using case control study design. The sample size were 56 persons, consist of 28 pre eclampsiacases and 28 control group. Independent variables were age, dietary and physical activity. Bivariate analysis by chi square test, calculatedOR value with 95% CI value and multivariate analysis by logistic regression. Based on bivariate analysis by chi square test, the variablesassociated signifi cantly with pre eclampsia were age (p = 0.000, OR = 11.50, 95% CI = 3.24 < OR < 40.8 = 0.418, OR = 1.80, 95% CI =0.62 < OR < 5.25). Multivariate analysis by logistic regression, revealed that age (p = 0.000, OR = 11.21) and dietary (p = 0.028,OR = 4.71) were signifi cantly affect pre eclampsia. Finally, it is necessary to plan pregnancy at 20–35 years old in order to prevent preeclampsia and make sure pregnant women get adequate dietary intake.

Determinants of Knowledge about Stroke Among Students

Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi Vol 1, No 1 (2013): Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
Publisher : Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi

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Abstract

ABSTRACTStroke is one of the degenerative diseases that cause death and coronary heart after cancer. Nowdays strokes even attackthe youth began. In stroke case, the speed of getting treatment is associated with disability and mortality risk in patients.So, knowledge about stroke is very important to know how to detect stroke disease early and that we can cure stroke faster.This study aims to analyze the determinants of knowledge about stroke among the students. This study use analytic crosssectionalstudy design. Questionnaires were administered to 102 respondents. Data was analysis using Chi-Square andSpearman test. The results showed that 65.7% respondents had received information about stroke and most of respondentsgot the stroke information from their closest peers (28.8%), and the others get the informations from electronic media(27.7%). More than half of the respondents (56.9%) had knowledge in "good" category analysis. Results showed thesignifi cant value is the type of faculty (p = 0.038) so that the value of p < α (0.05), information (p = 0.023) so that thevalue of p < α (0.05), and respondents parents income (p = 0.006) so that the value of p < α (0.05). Related factor of thestroke level knowledge among students is the type of faculty, information, and respondents parent income whereas gender,age, and stroke illness history in their family is not related to stroke knowledge level among the students.Keywords: treatment knowledge, risk factors, symptoms, stroke, time window

Epidemiological Determinants Low Birth Weight in Malaria Endemic Areas Banjar District

Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi Vol 1, No 2 (2013): Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
Publisher : Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi

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Abstract

 ABSTRACTThe main reason of high rate of infant death, especially during prenatal period is LBW. In Malaria endemic areas, pregnant mothers are highly risked of suffering from malaria sinced it can cause LBW to pregnant mothers. In Banjar District, LBW has become the main cause of infant death. Aim of this research was to analyzed determinants of LBW incidence epidemiology in malaria endemic areas of Banjar District. This research used case control study design. The numbers of sample was 130 persons, divided into two groups 65 persons were case group and 65 persons were control group. Data collecting instruments were questionnaire and MCH book. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis (Chi square Test) and multivariate analysis (Logistic Regression Test). The result of this research show that mother factors related to LBW were age (OR 2.835), nutritional status (OR 2.583), family income (OR 2.275), knowledge of antenatal care (OR 2.252), antenatal care visit (OR 5.673) and anemia (OR 2.739). Based on multivariate analysis, it could be concluded that the LBW determinants were antenatal care visit, mother age, and anemia. Recommendation is highly risk pregnant mothers (< 20 years and > 35 years old) and those who suffer from anemia during pregnancy can maximize the antenatal care visit routinely during pregnancy.Keywords: Antenatal care, LBW, malaria endemic

The Relationship Between Obesity and Osteoporosis (Study at Husada Utama Hospital Surabaya)

Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi Vol 1, No 2 (2013): Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
Publisher : Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi

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Abstract

ABSTRACTObesity and osteoporosis are two chronic diseases which prevalence is increasing. Obese individuals often suffer from variety of degenerative diseases, while obesity is a protective factor to osteoporosis. However, some recent research showed that obesity is a risk factor for osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between obesity and osteoporosis. This case-control study involved 77 cases and 77 controls selected randomly from patients who examined their bone density at Husada Utama Hospital, Surabaya during January 2011 to March 2013. Cases were patients with osteoporosis while controls were patients without osteoporosis. The inclusion criteria were patients who examined their bone density at lumbar spine L1-L4, female, and aged ≥ 50 years. The exclusion criteria were patients with other risk factors (tobacco user, alcohol drinker, having rheumatoid arthritis, secondary osteoporosis, family history fracture, glucocorticoid, and having history of fracture). Cases and controls were matched by age. Data were analyzed using Pearson and Spearman Correlation. Univariate analysis showed that the mean of BMC, BMD, T-Score, Z-Score, weight, height, and BMI in the case group were lower than in the control group. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that when BMI value was increased, then some indicators of bone density, such as BMC (p = 0.000; r = 0.452), BMD (p =0.000; r = 0.473), T-Score (p = 0.000; 0.477), and Z-Score (p = 0.000; r = 0.279) were also increased with OR = 0.24 (95% CI = 0.07–0.68). This study proved that obesity had a protective effect to osteoporosis. Keywords: BMI, BMC, BMD, T-Score, Z-Score

Differences Incidence of Complications Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Based on Blood Sugar Level

Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi Vol 1, No 2 (2013): Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
Publisher : Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi

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Abstract

ABSTRACTNowadays many countries had changed the pattern of original disease from infectious disease to chronic disease and degenerative disease. Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic degenerative disease with a prevalence continue to increase, there are 300 thousand patient with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in East Java with total population 33 million people and in Indonesia there are 2,5 million. The purpose of this study was Analyzing differences incidence of complications patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus based on Blood Sugar levels in Lidah Kulon Surabaya. The design of this study was study comparative with cross sectional design. Respondents in this study were 69 patients and used simple random sampling. The variables are blood sugar, age, sex and incidence of complications. The result of this study showed the proportion of patients Diabetes Mellitus was highest in the group patients without complication (73.9%), female (76.8%) and age ≥ 50 years (86.3%). According to the statistic there was no difference between incidence of complications Diabetes Mellitus with age (p = 0.67), sex (p = 0.206), blood sugar level (p = 0.989) and frequency of checking blood sugar (p = 0.85). There was no difference between incidence of complications Diabetes Mellitus and blood sugar level patient with type 2Diabetes Mellitus in Puskesmas Lidah Kulon. Keywords: incidence of complications, blood sugar, diabetes mellitus type 2

Waist Circumference as The Strongest Factor Related to Blood Glucose Level

Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi Vol 2, No 1 (2014): Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi
Publisher : Jurnal Berkala Epidemiologi

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThe increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity is associated with the increasing incident of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity is an important risk factor for the onset of diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index, waist circumference and waist hip ratio with blood glucose level. The study design was cross-sectional. The study population was elderly posyandu member aged 45 to 70 years in Menur clinic work area who were registered in elderly posyandu activities in May 2013. The numbers of sample were 60 respondents who drawn by simple random sampling method. The variabels of this study were the characteristics of respondent, body mass index, waist  circumference,  waist hip ratio and fasting blood glucose level. The study showed that respondents classified as overweight (38%), obesity (33, 3%), abdominal obesity based on waist circumference  (77.8%), abdominal obesity based on waist hip ratio (81,7 %) and blood glucose level more than 125 mg/dl (8.3%). Pearson correlation test showed that there was relationship between body mass index with blood sugar levels (p=0,007; r=0,345), between waist circumference with blood sugar levels (p=0,001; r=0,424) and  between waist hip ratio with blood sugar levels (p =0,002; r=0,392). Waist circumference as the strongest factor related to blood glucose level. Waist circumference measurement should be done in elderly posyandu activities to detect high-risk individuals with diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio,                     blood glucose level