Dieni Mansur
Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan PUSPIPTEK Serpong, Tangerang Banten 15314

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Pemanfaatan Limbah Pretreatment Dalam Produksi Bioetanol Dari Lignoselulosa Untuk Me-Recovery Fine Chemicals Dengan Proses Pirolisa Mansur, Dieni; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Rinaldi, Nino
REAKTOR Volume 16 No.1 Maret 2016
Publisher : Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14710/reaktor.16.1.17-23

Abstract

UTILIZATION OF PRETREATMENT WASTE DURING PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIALS FOR RECOVERY FINE CHEMICALS BY PYROLYSIS. In production of second generation bioethanol by utilizing lignocelluloses as raw material, black liquor was produced from its pretreatment process. As waste of pretreatment process, the black liquor was rich in lignin. Therefore, the black liquor has potential to be proceeded to produce fine chemicals. In this study, black liquor powder was pyrolyzed at 450-600°C for 15 minutes using a fixed bed type reactor. Pyrolysis process produced four types of products thal called as liquid tar, heavy tar, char and gas. Liquid tar was condensable volatile product in condenser and uncondensable ones was called gas. Heavy tar was heavier volatile product that stick to reactor wall on bed of feed and unable to enter a condenser. Whereas, char was deposited carbon left in the pyrolizer. The liquid tar consisted of several chemical compounds that classified into groups of chemicals based on similar functional groups. In a range of temperatures process, higher yield of liquid tar was produced after treated at 550°C compared to other conditions. The main chemical compounds in the liquid tar were phenol, alcohols and alkyl phenols that mainly predicted derived from decomposition of lignin and represented as the fine chemicals from black liquor powder.  Keywords: bioethanol; black liquor powder; fine chemicals; lignocelluloses; pyrolysis Abstrak Dalam produksi bioetanol generasi kedua dengan memanfaatkan lignocellulosa sebagai bahan baku, akan menghasilkan black liquor pada saat proses pretreatment. Sebagai limbah proses pretreatment, black liquor ini kaya akan lignin. Oleh karena itu, black liquor berpotensi diolah untuk menghasilkan fine chemicals. Pada penelitian ini, bubuk black liquor diproses secara pirolisa pada suhu 450-600°C selama 15 menit menggunakan reaktor jenis fixed bed. Proses pirolisa menghasilkan produk yang dapat digolongkan menjadi empat jenis yaitu liquid tar, heavy tar, char dan gas. Liquid tar merupakan volatile product yang terkondensasi di kondensor dan yang tidak dapat terkondensasi disebut sebagai gas. Heavy tar adalah volatile product yang lebih berat dan terlebih dahulu menempel di dinding reaktor pirolisa di atas bed umpan dan tidak sampai masuk ke kondensor. Sementara char adalah deposit karbon yang tertinggal di dalam reaktor pirolisa. Liquid tar tersusun oleh berbagai macam senyawa kimia yang bisa dikelompokkan menjadi grup-grup berdasarkan kesamaan gugus fungsi. Dari rentang suhu proses tersebut, liquid tar paling banyak dihasilkan pada suhu 550°C. Liquid tar tersebut banyak mengandung fenol, alkohol dan alkil fenol yang diprediksi umumnya berasal dari dekomposisi lignin dan menjadi fine chemicals yang dapat di-recovery dari bubuk black liquor Kata kunci: bioetanol; bubuk black liquor; fine chemicals; lignoselulosa; pirolisa.
Sodium Bisulfite as SO3 Source for Synthesis of Methyl Ester Sulfonate Using RBD Stearin as Raw Material Mansur, Dieni; Astrini, Nuri; Tasrif, Tasrif
IPTEK The Journal for Technology and Science Vol 18, No 4 (2007)
Publisher : Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1189.737 KB) | DOI: 10.12962/j20882033.v18i4.161

Abstract

Methyl Ester Sulfonate (MES) is an anionic surfactant that be used for making cleansing products. MES is a biodegradable product because it is made from vegetable oil. MES can replace LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate) and AS (Alcohol Sulfate) that made from petrochemical substances. Process synthesis of MES was required the source of SO3 which can be obtained from sodium bisulfite. Various of process variables such as temperature and mole ratio between SO3 and methyl ester was required to get the optimal condition of sulfonation process using falling film reactor. In this research was obtained optimal temperature at 900C and mole ratio between sodium bisulfate and methyl ester was 1.6 : 1 giving active matter 32%. The qualities of obtained MES have near to the quality of MES of Chemithon and of LAS. Iod value and color of MES of Chemithon were 0.1–1 and 100 klett respectively while in this research was 6.11 for iod value and 135 klett for the color. Surface tension of LAS was 31.6 dyne/cm while MES as the experimental product rest at 50 dyne/cm.
SIMULASI PENGARUH UKURAN PARTIKEL DAN EQUIVALENCE RATIO DALAM PROSES GASIFIKASI TANDAN KOSONG KELAPA SAWIT Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Mansur, Dieni; Rinaldi, Nino
Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 17, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Research Center for Chemistry - LIPI

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (660.815 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jkti.v17i2.26

Abstract

In this study, a simulation for gasification process of oil palm empty fruit bunches waste (OPEFB) using a fixed bed gasifier (throat downdraft) by varying the particle size of OPEFB and equivalence ratio (ER) was investigated. The rate of fuel consumption was 10 kg/h with air as the oxidizing medium and 1 hour process time for 1 batch. Simulation was performed with two-dimensional approach (2D) using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) ANSYS FLUENT 14 software. Simulation results show that ideal amount of equivalence ratio (ER) for gasification process of OPEFB pellets with diameter (φ) of 6 mm and 8 mm is 0.1 ≤ ER ≤ 0.2. ER variation affects the higher heating value of syngas (HHV), the carbon efficiency (ηC), gasification efficiency and temperature distribution in the gasification reactor. Variations in particle size did not have a significant effect in the gasification process.Keywords: CFD, OPEFB gasification, particle size, equivalence ratio
PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI KOPOLIMER VINIL ASETAT DAN ASAM AKRILAT -Cu SEBAGAI BIOSIDA UNTUK ANTIFOULING Sampora, Yulianti; Mansur, Dieni; Haryono, Agus
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 15, No 4: JULI 2014
Publisher : BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (369.222 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jsmi.2014.15.4.4339

Abstract

PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI KOPOLIMER VINIL ASETAT DAN ASAM AKRILAT -Cu SEBAGAI BIOSIDA UNTUK ANTIFOULING. Perkembangan teknologi navigasi pada saat ini sangat dibutuhkan, salah satunya dengan penggunaan biosida antifouling untuk efisiensi bahan bakar. Mengingat pentingnya biosida untuk anti fouling maka perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mencegah terjadinya fouling pada material yang terendam air laut. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan proses polimerisasi untuk menghasilkan biosida. Biosida disintesis dengan mereaksikan monomer-monomer asama krilat dan vinil asetat yang ditambah CuprousOxide (Cu2O)melalui reaksi polimerisasi membentuk kopolimer. Pada proses polimerisasi tersebut digunakan inisiator Benzoyl PerOxide (BPO), dengan variabel perbandinganmol monomer 1:1 dan 1:2, konsentrasi Cu2O 1%; 5% dan 15%, serta digunakan pula etanol 93% sebagai pelarut. Polimerisasi selama 3 jam. Struktur dari kopolimer tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spektrofotometer, dan Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan bahwa poli(asam akrilat-ko-vinil asetat-Cu) telah berhasil dipreparasi.
Copper and Cadmium Toxicity to Marine Phytoplankton, Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis sp. Suratno, Suratno; Puspitasari, Rachma; Purbonegoro, Triyoni; Mansur, Dieni
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry Vol 15, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : Universitas Gadjah Mada

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (369.984 KB) | DOI: 10.22146/ijc.21211

Abstract

In Copper (Cu) based antifouling (AF) paints Cu was largely used as booster biocide after organotin was banned. Cu is micronutrient which is important in photosynthesis process because Cu is an essential metal as component of enzyme and electron transport chain. But in certain dosage, Cu could be toxic to marine organism. Chaetoceros gracilis and Isochrysis sp. are dominant microalgae in aquatic ecosystem. In this study the effect of Cu and Cadmium (Cd) on two marine microalgae, C. gracilis and Isochrysis sp. were compared. Toxicity test was based on American Standard for Testing Material (ASTM). IC50-96 h of Cd as reference toxicant was 2,370 mg.L-1 for C. gracilis and 490 mg.L-1 for Isochrysis sp. IC50-96 h of Cu to growth of C. gracilis was 63.75 mg.L-1 and Isochrysis sp. was 31.80 mg.L-1. Both Cd and Cu were inhibited growth of microalgae. Based on IC50-96 h value, it could be concluded that Cu was more toxic than Cd. Toxicity of Cu was 37 times stronger than Cd for C. gracilis and 15 times for Isochrysis sp. It was estimated that at concentration 10 mg.L-1 Cu does not show observable effect (NOEC) to C. gracilis and 5 mg.L-1 to Isochrysis sp. The lowest observable effect of Cu (LOEC) to C. gracilis was at concentration 17 mg.L-1 and 10 mg.L-1 for Isochrysis sp.
POLIMERISAS IMONOMER VINIL ASETAT DENGAN ASAM AKRILAT MENGGUNAKAN INISIATOR AZOBISISOBUTILRONITRIL (AIBN) SEBAGAI BIOSIDA POLIMER Harmami, Sri Budi; Mansur, Dieni; Haryono, Agus
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 16, No 2: JANUARI 2015
Publisher : BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (110.003 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jsmi.2015.16.2.4213

Abstract

POLIMERISAS IMONOMER VINIL ASETAT DENGAN ASAM AKRILAT MENGGUNAKAN INISIATOR AZOBISISOBUTILRONITRIL (AIBN) SEBAGAI BIOSIDA POLIMER. Telah dipelajari Polimerisasi vinil asetat dan asam akrilat dengan Cu sebagai kopolimer biosida (PVAc/AA-Cu) dalam pelapisan material kelautan. Pendekatan proses yang akan digunakan adalah kopolimer untuk pembuatan biosida sebagai antifouling. Proses polimerisasi asam akrilat dengan vinil asetat menggunakan AIBN sebagai inisiator telah berhasil dilakukan. Karakterisasi produk dilakukan dengan menggunakan analisa FT-IR (Fourier transform infra red) untuk menentukan struktur molekul polimer. Selain itu, menggunakan AAS (Atomic absorption spectroscopy) untuk menentukan konsentrasi Cu yang terperangkap ke dalam biosida polimer (PVAc/AA-Cu). Selanjutnya, analisa TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) untukmengidentifikasi morfologi, ukuran dan bentuk dari produk polimer.
SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISASI SODIUM-POLISTIREN SULFONAT DAN IDENTIFIKASI PENEMPELAN GUGUS SULFONAT DENGAN METODE FT-IR DAN NMR Mansur, Dieni; Haryono, A
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 16, No 1: OKTOBER 2014
Publisher : BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (517.579 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jsmi.2014.16.1.4331

Abstract

SINTESIS DAN KARAKTERISASI SODIUM-POLISTIREN SULFONAT DAN IDENTIFIKASI PENEMPELAN GUGUS SULFONAT DENGAN METODE FT-IR DAN NMR . Sodium polistiren sulfonat merupakan polimer yang banyak digunakan sebagai bahan baku dan bahan penunjang di industri kimia. Namun kebutuhan sodium polistiren sulfonat di Indonesia masih diperoleh dari impor. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan sintesis polimer dan karakterisasi produk yang dihasilkan untuk mengurangi impor. Sintesis sodium polistiren sulfonat dilakukan melalui proses sulfonasi menggunakan H2SO4 sebagai agent sulfonasi. Dari hasil penelitian ini, produk sodium polistiren sulfonat ada yang larut air dan ada yang tidak larut air. Produk yang larut air adalah sodium polistiren sulfonat yang diinginkan. Berdasarkan analisis Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) dan Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), gugus sulfonat menempel pada posisi para dari benzen. Dengan posisi gugus sulfonat tersebut maka struktur produk yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan struktur sodium polistiren sulfonat acuan.
PEMBUATAN METIL ESTER SULFONAT DARI REFINED BLEACHED DEODORIZED STEARIN MINYAK SAWIT MENGGUNAKAN OLEUM Mansur, Dieni; Astrini, Nuri; Tasrif, Tasrif; R., Wuryaningsih S.
Jurnal Sains Materi Indonesia Vol 8, No 3: JUNI 2007
Publisher : BATAN

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (649.369 KB) | DOI: 10.17146/jsmi.2007.8.3.4698

Abstract

PEMBUATAN METIL ESTER SULFONAT DARI REFINED BLEACHED DEODORIZED STEARIN MINYAK SAWIT MENGGUNAKAN OLEUM. Telah dilakukan proses pembuatan metil ester sulfonat dengan menggunakan oleum sebagai sumber SO3. Beberapa variabel proses seperti suhu dan perbandingan mol antara SO3 dan metil ester telah dilakukan untuk mendapatkan kondisi optimal untuk proses sulfonasi yang menggunakan reaktor falling film. Kondisi proses yang optimal diperoleh pada suhu antara 80 0C hingga 90 0C. Perbandingan mol reaktan 1,2 menghasilkan kandungan bahan aktif sebesar 93%. Metil ester sulfonat yang diperoleh dengan bilangan iod 1,15, tegangan permukaan 29 dyne/cm dan 180 klett sebagai indikasi warna.
HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION OF BLACK LIQUOR INTO PLATFORM CHEMICALS Mansur, Dieni; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan; Rinaldi, Nino; Abimanyu, Haznan
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 39, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.054 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v39i1.245

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Currently, much attention is devoted to produce bioethanol based on lignocellulosic materials for alternativefuels. Production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic generates black liquor as a waste during the pretreatmentprocess. The black liquor has a potential to produce platform chemicals. Conversion of black liquor into platformchemicals was carried out by hydrothermal liquefaction by involving water as reaction medium at 200275 C.Through the hydrothermal process combined with water at high temperature, catalytic role could be taken over bysodium sulfate. Increase in temperature up to 275C, activity of water combined with sodium sulfate also increasedin decomposition of block chemicals containing in the black liquor. The black liquor was converted into oxygenatedcompounds, such asphenol, propylene oxide, butyrolactone, and quaiacol. The chemicals were recovered as23, 16, 11 and 8 mol%, respectively.
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PYROLYSIS OF CACAO POD HUSKS AND PRODUCT YIELDS IDENTIFICATION Mansur, Dieni
Teknologi Indonesia Vol 37, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : LIPI Press

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (16.051 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/jti.v37i2.221

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Pyrolysis of cacao pod husks as one of agricultural crop residue took place in a fixed bed type of pyrolyzer under atmospheric pressure at 500oC. The process was studied by varying methods and temperature of feeding.The effect of N2 flow rate as carrier gas was also investigated. These effects influenced yield of product after pyrolysis especially on the char. Char as the main product of pyrolysis was recovered as 70 C mol% with one step feeding at 25oC under 20 ml/min of N2. Pyrolysis of cacao pod husk also produced bio-oil that consisted of several chemical compounds such as aliphatic and cyclic ketones, carboxylic acids, furans, aldehydes, alcohols, phenols and heterocyclic aromatics.