Muhammad Makky
Dept of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agric. Tech., Andalas University, Padang 25163, West Sumatera, Indonesia

Published : 6 Documents

Found 6 Documents

Optical Characteristics of Oil Palm Fresh Fruits Bunch (FFB) Under Three Spectrum Regions Influence for Harvest Decision Dinah, Cherie; Sam, Herodian; Usman, Ahmad; Tineke, Mandang; Makky, Muhammad
International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology Vol 5, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1764.192 KB) | DOI: 10.18517/ijaseit.5.3.534


In current practice, appearance was used to determine ripeness for oil palm fresh fruits bunch (FFB), that accompanied by detachment of fruit-lets from the bunch. The FFB from marihat clone harvested at five ripeness stages, under ripeness (F0), ripeness (F1, F2, F3), and over ripeness (F4). At every ripeness stages, differences of oil content and pigment accumulation were observed on the bunch. All samples recorded using a digital camera (10 Mpixel) from 2, 7, 10, and 15 meter distance, simulating variation of light intensity upon recording. During image recording, three lighting were used, namely ultraviolet lamp (320-380 nm), visible light lamp (400-700 nm) and infrared lamp (720-1100 nm), all have similar power output of 600watt. Camera point of view was set to cover a square area of 12,5cm by 12,5cm of the frontal area of FFB, each picture produced has 3888 by 2952 pixel. Image processing software created to extract digital RGB information from the images, and displayed the information in histogram. From the experiment, it was observed that the changes of intensity influence the RGB value of recorded image with reverse correlation, and longer wave light spectrum produce smaller RGB value.  The correlation model among image recording distance and RGB of the image display similar nature.  From three color channels, G represents better correlation for sample’s oil content determination.  Using UV and visible lighting, the FFB samples may be determined for harvest decision, up to seven meter observation distance.
Pengembangan Alat Grading Limbah Serbuk Gergaji untuk Pemanfaatannya sabagai Bahan Campuran Komposit Makky, Muhammad; Napitu, Leo Saputra; Fahmy, Khandra
Rona Teknik Pertanian Vol 10, No 1 (2017): Volume 10, No. 1, April 2017
Publisher : Program Studi Teknik Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Syiah Kuala

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (433.764 KB) | DOI: 10.17969/rtp.v1i1.7571


Abstrak. Sampai saat ini kegiatan pemanenan dan pengolahan kayu di Indonesia masih menghasilkan limbah dalam jumlah yang besar. Pada umumnya serbuk gergaji dari industri perkayuan memiliki bentuk, ukuran dan jumlah yang beragam, sedangkan untuk pemanfaatannya sebagai bahan baku campuran komposit dibutuhkan ukuran bahan serbuk gergaji yang berbeda dengan ukuran tertentu. Adapun ukuran umum yang digunakan untuk pembuatan bahan campuran komposit terdiri partikel berukuran 80 mesh, 40 mesh, 20 mesh, dan 10 mesh. Pemisahan ukuran serbuk gergaji berdasarkan keempat ukuran mesh tersebut diperlukan agar mempermudah dalam memperoleh bahan baku komposit. Penelitian bertujuan untuk merancang alat grading limbah serbuk gergaji untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku campuran komposit. Proses penelitian ini meliputi pembuatan alat grading serbuk gergaji serta melakukan uji fungsional. Penelitian ini menghasilkan alat grading yang dapat memimsahkan serbuk gergaji berdasarkan empat ukuran berbeda dalam satu kali proses pengayakan. Hasil dari pengujian alat grading ini adalah: (1) alat grading limbah serbuk gergaji, yang memiliki kapasitas kerja sebesar 28,49 Kg/jam, (2) didapatkan nilai rata-rata modulus kehalusan dari masing-masing mesh 10, 20, 40 dan 80 berturut-turut yaitu : 889 gram, 651 gram, 431 gram, dan 168 gram. Sedangkan untuk indeks keseragaman hasil ayakan kasar (80 mesh), sedang (20 mesh dan 40 mesh), dan halus 80 mesh berturut – turut dari ulangan 1, ulangan 2, dan ulangan 3 adalah 5 : 4 : 1, 5 : 4 : 1, dan 5 : 4 : 1. (3) Daya spesifik yang dibutuhkan untuk mencapai kapasitas kerja 28,49 Kg/jam adalah 0,0001568 kW.jam/Kg. (4) didapatkan nilai rendemen sebesar 77,37 %. (5) alat grading limbah serbuk gergaji dengan biaya pokok alat grading sebesar Rp. 243,36/Kg. Development of Sawmill-Waste Grading for Composite Material UtilizationAbstract. Timber harvesting and wood processing in Indonesia produces wastes in large quantities. The waste materials come in variety of shapes, sizes and quantities. For adding the value of these wastes, such as for composite raw material, the particle-size should be uniform, and segregated into different categories. The general particle-size for manufacturing composite materials are 80, 40, 20 and 10 mesh. Therefore, separating the sawmills wastes based on these sizes is necessary in order to utilize it as raw materials for composite production. The study aims to develop a prototype of sawmill-waste grading machine for composite material utilization, and added the value of the waste for application as a raw material for the composite design. The methods includeddesign and manufacturing of a sawmill-waste grading machine as well as performing different tests. The prototype successfully grade and segregrate the sawmills-wastes into four different particles-sizes in a single operation process. The results showed that the machine working capacity is 28.49, while the materials segregrate into four particle-sizes obtained mean of modulus of fineness for each group-size (10, 20, 40 and 80 mesh) are889, 651, 431, and 168 grams respectively. While for the uniformity index of large (10 mesh), medium (20 and 40 mesh), and fine (80 mesh) particles are 5, 4, and 1 respectively, obtained from three replication tests. The specific power required to achieve the working capacity of 28.49 Kg / hr is 0.0001568 Overall, the machine performance achieved the efeciency of 77,37%, and the cost for grading the sawmill-waste material is Rp. 243,36 kg-1.
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Andalas Vol 12, No 1 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Andalas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25077/jtpa.12.1.1-11.2008


Komoditi pertanian merupakan produk yang sangat mudah untuk rusak bila disimpan pada kondisi yang tidak sesuai. Untuk menyimpan produk pertanian, pada umumnya dilakukan didalam ruang berpendingin, yang pada umumnya menggunakan thermostat sebagai pengatur suhu. Kelemahan yang paling umum ditemukan pada ruang penyimpanan produk pertanian berpendingin adalah besarnya rentang fluktuasi suhu di dalam ruang penyimpanan. Hal ini disebabkan penggunaan thermostat sebagai pengatur suhu ruang pendingin, dimana thermostat memiliki toleransi suhu yang cukup besar yaitu 3 oC sampai 5oC. Dengan demikian apabila suhu ruang pemnyimpanan yang diinginkan adalah 0 oC sampai 10 oC, maka suhu ruang pendingin sebenarnya berkisar antara -3 oC sampai 13 oC. Hal ini yang menyebabkan walaupun hasil produk pertanian sudah disimpan dalam ruang berpendingin, tetapi masih mudah rusak, karena suhu pada ruang pendingin tidak sesuai dengan suhu penyimpanan yang ideal. Pada penelitian ini telah dihasilkan sensor suhu yang lebih baik, menggunakan dioda yang mempunyai toleransi suhu lebih kecil dari thermostat. Dioda merupakan suatu komponen elektronik yang dapat dipengaruhi oleh perubahan suhu sebesar 0.2 oC . Sistem kontrol elektris yang digunakan dapat mengatur suhu ruang pendingin dengan toleransi kesalahan kurang dari 1 oC. Pada hasil pengujian diperoleh rentang kerja sensor dan sistem kontrol adalah 6 oC hingga 26 oC dengan error suhu 0.75 oC
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Andalas Vol 12, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Andalas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25077/jtpa.12.2.19-25.2008


 The Application of solar drying for food commodity has been widely used in Indonesia. This Cost efficiently drying technique become a commonly use since it is easy to build, cheap and could be applied in any area as long as it has enough sun intensity trough out the year. Since this type of drying very dependent to sun, it has a limitation to be used in places where rainy days are longer than sunny days. This research has been conducted to solve the problem by implementing a rack type solar dryer with another heat resource which is a gas stove.A rack type solar dryer has build with a secondary heat source using gas fireplace. The rack build from light material using fickle timber and aluminums made it become portable. The dryer build with a knock down system, so it can be assemble and disassemble to reposition it in area with better solar recipient. Total weight of this dryer is only 32 kg and consists of four major parts. The first part is solar collector, height 22 cm, width 85 cm and length 187 cm at an angle of 5o to the horizontal axle. The solar collector constructed in wave shape to maximize the acceptance area of solar ray. The collector builds in a glass house frame to optimize the heat dissipation so it can reach Working temperature of 65oC. The fireplace was the second part, and made from rust proof steel. It has dimension of 85 cm width, 65 cm length and 22 cm height. The fireplace filled with 6 liters sand to maximize heat collect from the stove. The stove was the third part; consist of a gas stove and a 5 kg gas tube. The stove can be turn on in rainy day or at night as an alternative heat source for drying process. The tube contain of 3 kg gas that can fuel the stove for 60 hours. The last part was the drying rack with 360 liters volume. It has five cabinets and can fill up to 1500 pieces of dried banana. The rack equipped with a shell type door to simplify the containing process.
Analisa Kebutuhan Teknis Peralatan dan Sarana Pendukung Bagi Sentra Industri Kecil Menengah (IKM) “Simpati” Kabupaten Pasaman, Sumatera Barat Makky, Muhammad; Zein, Alfian; Indah Mutiara, Vonny
Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian Andalas Vol 13, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Andalas

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.25077/jtpa.13.1.119-131.2009


IKM ”Simpati” telah beroperasi selama tiga bulan. Selama waktu tersebut seluruh biaya operasi disubsidi dari anggaran bantuan peralatan, dan hasil operasi seluruhnya diserap oleh pabrik makanan Unibis di medan. Namun Saat ini kondisi peralatan pengolahan coklat di IKM tersebut tidak lagi beroperasi. Hal ini disebabkan untuk mengoperasikan peralatan tersebut dibutuhkan infrastruktur dan biaya operasional yang cukup tinggi. Agar seluruh alat tersebut dapat beroperasional, maka setidaknya dibutuhkan daya Listrik sebesar 6500 watt – 7500 watt dengan biaya operasional 2 -3 juta rupiah perbulan. Biaya ini seharusnya dapat ditutupi oleh penjualan hasil produksi, namun rendahnya kapasitas kerja peralatan yang dihibahkan tersebut membuat operasi seluruh peralatan ini tidak ekonomis.Dari seluruh peralatan pengolahan kakao yang ada di IKM Simpati, kapasitas alat yang satu dengan yang lainnya tidak seragam. Pada alat alat seperti Alat Pemasta, Alat Pengempa, Alat Grinding/Kounching dan Alat pengayak kapasitas kerja alat hanya 600 – 1200gr/jam. Sedangkan pada peralatan lainnya, kapasitas kerja alat bervariasi antara 28 – 150 kg/jam. Dengan demikian maka akan terjadi ”Bottle Neck” (penyumbatan) pada alat-alat produksi dengan kapasitas kecil. Penyumbatan ini akan mengakibatkan bertumpuknya bahan baku pada fase tertentu dalam alur produksi sehingga waktu operasional alat bertambah dan mengakibatkan biaya produksi tidak ekonomis lagi. Untuk itu maka seluruh perlatan pengolahan kakao harus mempunyai kapasitas kerja yang seragam. Bagi peralatan dengan kapasitas kecil, maka jumlah alat harus ditambah atau alat diganti dengan kapasitas kerja yang lebih besar. Sebagai acuan kapasitas kerja yang digunakan adalah alat pengering dengan kapasitas kerja 1.5ton/hari atau 62.5kg/jam.
Design and Performance Test of Rubber Grinding Machine Novita, Sri Aulia; Hendra, Hendra; Jamaluddin, Jamaluddin; Makky, Muhammad; Fahmi, Khandra
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Terapan Pertanian Vol 3 No 2 (2019): Journal of Applied Agricultural Science and Technology
Publisher : Payakumbuh State Polytechnic of Agriculture

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.32530/jaast.v3i2.112


The quality of rubber processed materials, that is produced by the farmer is generally low and can be seen from their colour,  pollutants levels, foul odour and the very cheap price. To improve the quality of the rubber should be done both in terms of its treatment and processing equipment. The main objective of this research is to enhance and improve the quality of farmer's rubber processed materials by using natural coagulant which liquid smoke to agglomerate the rubber, and designing of rubber grinding machine. The component of rubber grinding machine including hopper, regulating entry materials, three rollers, pulleys and belt, outlet, gears, engine, regulating the thickness and chassis. In this research, the thickness rubber after grinding is 3-5 mm accordance with Indonesian National Standard rubber. Processed material rubber produced is white and no pollutants. The coagulant used was liquid smoke with a concentration of 10 -20%, where this addition affects the agglomeration speed of rubber and smelled slightly of smoke. The average rate of Feed is 48.58 kg / h, a capacity of the machine is 37.40 kg/hr and cost of operation is Rp. 650 / kg.