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Uji Ketahanan in Vitro Klon-klon Kentang Hasil Persilangan Kentang Kultivar Atlantic dan Granola terhadap Penyakit Layu Bakteri (Ralstonia solanacearum) dan Busuk Lunak (Erwinia carotovora) Maharijaya, Awang; Mahmud, Muhammad; Purwito, Agus
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 36, No 2 (2008): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

Several bacterial pathogens can cause diseases of potato. Ralstonia solanacearum and Erwinia carotovora are those of the worlds most important diseases of potato, especially in tropical climates. This experiment was aimed to obtain putative potato cultivars having good tolerance to bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum and soft rot caused by E. carotovora. Two adopted potato cultivars in Indonesia, cv. Atlantic (2n=4X=48) and cv. Granola (2n=4X=48), were used as parents.  The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Design.  Test for tolerance was perfomed in vitro using BF15 as susceptible control and Solanum stenotonum as tolerance control. The result showed that there was high diversity of tolerance level to both R. solanacearum and E. carotovora.  Some clones showed good tolerance level as compared to cv. Atlantic and cv. Granola, but none showed that as compared to S. stenotonum.   Key words:  in vitro testing,  potato, R. solanacearum, E. carotovora  
Perbanyakan Ruskus (Ruscus hypophyllum L.) secara In Vitro Purwito, Agus; Muklisa, Prima; Maharijaya, Awang
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 33, No 2 (2005): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

These experiments were aimed to obtain optimum medium for micropropagation of Ruscus. There were two experiments consist of in vitro shoots proliferation, shoot elongation and rooting.  The experiment of shoot proliferation performed by inducing adventitious shoots from explant in the Murashige and Skoog (1962)(MS) basal medium supplemented with combination of plant growth regulators BAP (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 mg/l) and IAA (0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/l). The elongation and rooting of plantlets were induced in the different concentration of the MS basal medium (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 strength) combined with IBA (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 mg/l).  Both experiments were arranged as completely randomized design with 15 replications. Adventitious shoots were produced in all medium supplemented with BAP with or without IAA. However MS medium supplemented with BAP 1 mg/l or 2 mg/l combined with IAA 0.2 mg/l were the best.  The number of adventitious shoots in these medium were 9.2 and 9.4 shoots after 8 weeks cultured respectively.  Increasing concentration of BAP more than 4 mg/l decreased number and size of adventitious shoots.  The plantlets produced in the proliferation medium were then transferring to the next treatments for elongation and rooting.  The best medium for elongation and rooting were medium with half strength of MS with or without IBA. Acclimatization conducted by transferring the rooted plantlets on the medium containing sterilized soil and rice husk charcoal (1:1).  After 4 weeks acclimatization, 60-100 percent of plantlets were survived and growth, depend on treatments.   Key words: Acclimatization, adventitious shoot, micropropagation, rooting, Ruscus hypophyllum L.
Seleksi Toleransi Kekeringan In Vitro terhadap Enam Belas Aksesi Tanaman Terung (Solanum melongena L. ) dengan Polietilena Glikol (PEG) Sinaga, Erna; Sri Rahayu, Megayani; Maharijaya, Awang
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 6, No 1 (2015): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia dan Departemen Agronomi dan Hortiluktura

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Abstract

ABSTRACTThe objectives of this study were to study the effect of several concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the in vitro growth of eggplant, to find the appropriate PEG concentration for in vitro selection to drought  tolerance  of eggplant  and the drought tolerant eggplant accessions. The experiment  was conducted  at  the  Laboratory  of  Tissue  Culture,  Department  of  Agronomy and Horticulture,  Bogor  Agricultural  University.  The  experiment  was arranged  in  a  completely randomized design with two factor. The first factor was concentration of PEG (0, 5, 10,  and  15%) while the second factor was eggplant accessions (Kania F1, 001, 007, 013, 016, 030, 034, 035, 055, 057, 069,  071,  072,  078,  085,  and  090).  The  results  showed  that  the addition  of PEG  to  in  vitro media significantly affected the survival percentage, the percentage of callus, developed the bud and the number of leaves of eggplant. Addition of PEG 10 and 15% in media can be used as the drought tolerance selective agent of eggplant in vitro. Kania F1, 001, 007, 016, 034, 035, 055, 057, 069, 071, 072, 078, 085, and 090 were eggplant accessions which might be tolerant to drought.Keywords: in vitro selection, solanaceae, tissue culture, tolerant, drought ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk  mempelajari pengaruh beberapa konsentrasi polietilena glikol (PEG)  terhadap  pertumbuhan  tanaman  terung  in  vitro, mendapatkan  konsentrasi  PEG  yang  dapat digunakan  untuk seleksi tanaman terung secara in vitro  dan nomor terung toleran terhadap cekamankekeringan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di laboratorium Kultur Jaringan,  Departemen Agronomi dan Hortikultura,  Institut  Pertanian  Bogor.  Penelitian  ini  disusun dalam  rancangan  acak  lengkap  dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah konsentrasi PEG  terdiri atas  0, 5, 10, dan 15%.  Faktor kedua adalah nomor terung terdiri atas enam belas nomor (Kania F1, 001, 007, 013, 016, 030, 034, 035, 055, 057, 069,  071,  072,  078,  085,  dan  090).  Hasil  penelitian menunjukkan  bahwa  penambahan  PEG  pada media  in  vitro  memberikan pengaruh  nyata  dan  sangat  nyata  terhadap  persentase  hidup eksplan, persentase  eksplan  berkalus,  pertambahan  tinggi  tunas,  dan jumlah  daun  tanaman  terung.  Media PEG 10 dan 15% merupakan media yang dapat digunakan untuk seleksi kekeringan tanaman terung in vitro. Nomor terung Kania F1, 001, 007, 016, 034, 035, 055, 057, 069, 071, 072, 078, 085, dan 090 merupakan nomor-nomor terung yang toleran terhadap cekaman kekeringan.Kata kunci: kultur jaringan, seleksi in vitro, solanaceae, toleran kekeringan
PLANT GROWTH OF EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena L.) IN VITRO IN DROUGHT STRESS POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL (PEG) Siaga, Erna; Maharijaya, Awang; Rahayu, Megayani Sri
BIOVALENTIA: Biological Research Journal Vol 2, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University

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Abstract

Drought stress is one of the important issues related to the global warming that demand for the development of drought tolerant crops. Eggplant is one of the agricultural commodities which can be developed in dry land so plant growth of eggplant need to be learned. The objectives of this study were to study the effect of several concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the in vitro growth of eggplant, and to find the drought tolerant eggplant accessions in dry land. The experiment  was conducted at the Laboratory of Tissue Culture, Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Bogor Agricultural University. The experiment was laid on a completely randomized design with one factor. The factor was eggplant accessions. The results showed that PEG in vitro media significantly affected the survival percentage, the percentage of callus, developed the bud and the number of leaves of eggplant. Callus in eggplant explants as a way of avoiding drought stress.
Genetic Diversity Analysis Using Resistance Gene Analog-Based Markers to Support Morphological Characterization of Shallots Herlina, Lina; Reflinur, Reflinur; Nugroho, Kristianto; Terryana, Rerenstradika T.; Sobir, Sobir; Maharijaya, Awang; Wiyono, Suryo
Jurnal AgroBiogen Vol 14, No 2 (2018): December
Publisher : Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian

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Shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown in Indonesia. The limited knowledge available on the genetic diversity and the threat of plant disease have been major problems to maintain high shallot production in Indonesia. Development of molecular markers linked to disease resistance is required for molecular breeding activity in this crop. This study aimed to assess the genetic diversity at conserved domain of resistance gene analog (RGA) in a set of 36 Indonesian shallot genotypes to complement morphological characterization. Twelve morphological and fifteen molecular markers traits were investigated in an attempt to characterize and to discriminate the Indonesian shallots genotypes. Characterization at orphological level indicated that phenotypic variance was highest for total bulb weight (TWB, cv = 99.39%) and the least for the plant height (PH, cv = 28.16%). The correlation analysis between traits showed that TWB and number of bulb (NB), TWB and bulb weight per plant (WB), NB and WB, and WB and PH were positively correlated. Molecular analysis revealed a total of 1,512 alleles with an average of 1.946 alleles per locus. The Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) values ranged from 0.253 to 0.676 and six out of 15 RGA markers were highly informative with PIC values ≥0.50. Based on cluster analysis, the 36 Indonesian shallot genotypes were clearly discriminated into six major groups. These results revealed that the RGA-based markers could support the morphological characterization in evaluating the genetic diversity of shallots. 
Keragaman Genetik Karakteristik Buah antar 17 Genotipe Melon (Cucucmis melo L.) Nurul Huda, Amalia; Bayuardi Suwarno, Willy; Maharijaya, Awang
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 8, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia dan Departemen Agronomi dan Hortiluktura

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ABSTRACTBreeding of melon requires the availability of genetic diversity and extensive evaluations of the genetic materials. Evaluations on fruit quality and yield potential are among the important steps in melon breeding. This research was aimed at studying the genetic diversity of 17 melon genotypes based on fruit traits and identifying the potential genotypes to be used as genetic materials in melon breeding programs. The research was conducted from August to October 2015 at the IPB Experimental Station Tajur II, South Bogor, 250 m above sea level. The experiment was arranged in a single factor of randomized complete block design with four replicates. Results of the research showed that genotype effects were significant for all observed traits except for days to hermaphrodite flowering. Traits having broad sense heritability estimates greater than 50% were days to male flowering, days to harvest, fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh thickness, fruit rind thickness, fruit weight, and sugar contant. P21 and P19 genotypes were potential for fruit weight and sugar content, while P2 was potential for fruit weight and P12 for sugar content only. Fruit weight showed significant positive correlations with fruit length, fruit diameter, flesh thickness, and fruit rind thickness. Clustering based on morphological traits generally separated reticulatus and inodorus genotypes into different groups.Key words: correlation, heritability, simultaneous selectionABSTRAKPemuliaan tanaman melon memerlukan ketersediaan keragaman genetik dan evaluasi yang ekstesif pada materi genetik yang digunakan. Evaluasi karakteristik, kualitas buah, dan potensi hasil merupakan tahapan penting dalam pemuliaan tanaman melon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari keragaman genetik dari 17 genotipe melon berdasarkan karakteristik kualitas buah dan mengidentifikasi genotipe potensial untuk dijadikan materi genetik dalam program pemuliaan. Percobaan dilakukan pada bulan Agustus hingga Oktober 2015 di Kebun Percobaan IPB Tajur II, Bogor Selatan (250 mdpl) menggunakan 17 genotipe melon. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan rancangan kelompok lengkap teracak (RKLT) faktor tunggal dengan empat ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa genotipe berpengaruh nyata terhadap semua karakter yang diamati kecuali umur berbunga hermaprodit. Karakter yang memiliki nilai heritabilitas arti luas lebih besar dari 50% adalah umur berbunga jantan, umur panen, panjang buah, diameter buah, tebal daging, tebal kulit, bobot, dan kadar gula. Genotipe yang memiliki potensi untuk sifat bobot buah dan kadar gula tinggi adalah P21 dan P19, sedangkan P2 dan P12 masing-masing memiliki potensi yang baik untuk bobot buah dan kadar gula saja. Karakter bobot buah memiliki korelasi positif dan nyata dengan panjang buah, diameter buah, tebal daging buah, dan tebal kulit buah. Pengelompokan berdasarkan karakter morfologi secara umum dapat memisahkan genotipe-genotipe melon reticulatus dan inodorus ke dalam grup yang berbeda.Kata kunci: korelasi, heritabilitas, seleksi simultan
Pewarisan Sifat Ketahanan Cabai terhadap Infestasi Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Daryanto, Ady; Syukur, Muhamad; Maharijaya, Awang; Hidayat, Purnama
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 8, No 1 (2017): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Perhimpunan Hortikultura Indonesia dan Departemen Agronomi dan Hortiluktura

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ABSTRACTAphis gossypii Glover is one of the major pests of chili pepper and can cause damage up to 65% when the population is not controlled. The objective of this research was to elucidate the genetic control of resistance inheritance character of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) to A. gossypii. Set a population of six generations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1, BCP2 was established from a cross between IPB C20 (resistant parent) with IPB C313 (susceptible parent). Choice test based experiments was applied with two aphids per leaf on a five-week-old seedlings. The results showed that based on number of individual aphids per plant, segregation of resistance and susceptibility characters in the F2 fitted to the normal distribution, indicated that resistance controlled by polygenic genes. Subsequently based of scaling test analysis, resistance characteristics based on the number of aphids per plant categorized overdominan against resistant parent and controlled by many genes. Genes effect for controlling resistance to A. gossypii infestation was recessive. Broad-sense heritability was relatively large for the infestation of aphids per plant, aphids per leaf, and winged aphids while the narrow sense heritability relatively very low on the infestation aphids per plant and per leaf, indicated by the dominant variance was greater than additive variance.Keywords: action genes, Capsicum annuum, dominant varience, heritabilityABSTRAKKutudaun Aphis gossypii Glover adalah salah satu hama pengganggu penting dalam produksi tanaman cabai. Saat populasi kutudaun tidak terkendali dapat menyebabkan kerusakan tanaman cabai hingga 65%. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mempelajari kendali genetik pewarisan sifat ketahanan cabai (Capsicum annuum L.) terhadap infestasi A. gossypii. Set populasi enam generasi (P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1, BCP2) dibentuk dari persilangan tetua P1 (IPB C20) dengan nilai infestasi rendah dan tetua P2 (IPB C313) yang bernilai infestasi tinggi. Metode skrining yang digunakan adalah choice test. Jumlah kutudaun yang diinfestasikan adalah dua ekor per daun pada bibit berumur lima minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakter ketahanan cabai terhadap infestasi kutudaun berdasarkan jumlah A. gossypii per tanaman ialah tetua rentan overdominan terhadap tetua tahan dan dikendalikan oleh banyak gen. Gen-gen pengendali ketahanan terhadap infestasi A. gossypii adalah resesif. Nilai heritabilitas arti luas tergolong besar untuk infestasi kutudaun per tanaman, kutudaun per daun, dan kutudaun bersayap, sedangkan heritabilitas arti sempit tergolong sangat rendah pada infestasi kutudaun per tanaman dan per daun yang ditunjukkan oleh proposi ragam dominan lebih besar dibandingkan ragam aditif.Kata kunci: aksi gen, Capsicum annuum, heritabilitas, ragam dominan
Diallel Analysis of Chili Pepper Resistance to Melon Aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) Infestation in Seedling Phase Daryanto, Ady; Syukur, Muhamad; Maharijaya, Awang; Hidayat, Purnama
Agrotech Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2018): Agrotech Journal (ATJ)
Publisher : Universitas Sembilanbelas November Kolaka

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Aphis gossypii Glover is one of important insect pest in Indonesia. Genetic analysis of resistance to A. gossypii is required in plant breeding program to obtain host-plant resistance cultivar. Diallel analysis was used to estimate genetic parameters for chili pepper resistance to A. gossypii infestation in early generation. The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters of chili pepper resistance to A. gossypii infestation with diallel crossing design. The F1 and parent plants were arranged in randomized competed block design with three replication. Resistance lines was measured using choice test laboratory screening techniques. Two aphids were infested per plant and stopped 12 days after first infestation. Different lines respond was detected as shown by significant numbers of aphid per leaf, total aphid per plant, and total winged aphid per plant. There were no maternal effect and resistance were controlled by recessive and polygenic genes. Gene effects for resistance to aphid’s infestation were additive and dominance. Dominance effect larger than additive effects. Broad-sense heritability values were high but narrow-sense heritability values were very low
Keragaan Karakter Pembungaan Kuantitatif dan Profil Metabolomik Bawang Merah (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) yang Diinduksi dengan Perlakuan Vernalisasi ,, Marlin; Maharijaya, Awang; ,, Sobir; Purwito, Agus
Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia Vol 9, No 3 (2018): Jurnal Hortikultura Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesian Society for Horticulture / Department of Agronomy and Horticulture

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Abstract

ABSTRACTFlowering initiation is regulated by the internal and external condition of plant. Vernalization is considered to induce flower initiation on shallots (Allium cepa var. aggregatum). This research objective was to analyze the flowering quantitatif characters and metabolomic profile of shallot duringvernalization on bulb development. Vernalization was carried out at 8 0C for 6 weeks treatment were four bulb growth stage i.e non-vernalized bulbs (S0), vernalization on embryonic stage (S1), vernalized bulbs on 1 cm of shoot stage (S2) and vernalized bulbs on 2 cm of shoot stage (S3). Vernalization treatment in early stage increased the number of tillers, number of umbel, diameter of umbel and percentage of flowering compared to another stage. The early stage of bulbs growth was the effective stage in receiving vernalization treatment. The bigger number and diameter of umbel lead to the higher percentage of flowering in shallot plant. The number and diameter of umbel can be used as character of selection for the percentage flowering character in shallot. Metabolomic analysis has identified of 104 specific metabolites from different vernalization treatments and clustered shallot into three groups. The early stadium of bulbs development (embryo stadia and stadia 1 cm buds) contains specific metabolomes (phytol and 2-propanone) as the indicator of reproductive phase.Keywords: correlation, flower induction, hierarchical cluster analysis, metabolomicABSTRAKProses pembungaan pada bawang merah (Allium cepa var. aggregatum) sangat dipengaruhi faktor internal dan eksternal tanaman. Induksi pembungaan dengan perlakuan vernalisasi dilakukan untuk mendorong inisiasi pembentukan bunga bawang merah. Penelitian bertujuan untukmenganalisis karakter kuantitatif pembungaan dan profil metabolomik bawang merah yang diberikan perlakuan vernalisasi pada stadia perkembangan umbi. Vernalisasi dilakukan pada suhu 8 0C selama6 minggu terdiri atas empat taraf, yaitu umbi tanpa vernalisasi (S0), vernalisasi pada stadia embrio (S1), vernalisasi pada stadia tumbuh tunas 1 cm (S2), dan vernalisasi pada stadia tumbuh tunas 2 cm (S3). Perlakuan vernalisasi pada stadia awal pertumbuhan umbi mampu meningkatkan karakter jumlah anakan, jumlah umbel, diameter umbel, dan persen berbunga bawang merah dibandingkan vernalisasi pada stadia lainnya. Stadia awal pertumbuhan umbi merupakan stadia terbaik dalam menerima perlakuan vernalisasi. Semakin besar jumlah umbel dan diameter umbel semakin meningkatkan persen berbunga bawang merah. Karakter jumlah umbel dan diameter umbel dapat digunakan sebagaikarakter seleksi untuk peubah persen berbunga bawang merah. Analisis metabolomik berhasil mengidentifikasi 104 metabolit spesifik dan mengelompokkan bawang merah menjadi 3 kelompok stadia. Vernalisasi pada stadia awal perkembangan umbi (stadia embrio dan tunas 1 cm) menunjukkan adanya perubahan fase reproduktif, yang dicirikan dengan adanya senyawa phytol dan 2-propanone.Kata kunci: metabolomik, analisis pengelompokan hierarkis, induksi pembungaan, korelasi
Keragaman Genetik 19 Genotipe Cabai Rawit Merah (Capsicum frutescens) serta Ketahanannya terhadap Kutu Daun (Aphis gossypii) Riti, Estriana; Syukur, Muhamad; Maharijaya, Awang; Hidayat, dan Purnama
Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy) Vol 46, No 3 (2018): Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia
Publisher : Indonesia Society of Agronomy

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Abstract

The information on birds eye chili (Capsicum frutescens L.) resistance to melon aphids (Aphis gossypii) is rarely reported. Objectives of this research were to evaluate genetic variability of 19 genotypes bird chili and identify the potential genotypes resistant to A. gossypii. This research consisted of two experiments. The first experiment was conducted in April-December 2015 at Leuwikopo Experimental Field, Faculty of Agriculture IPB. Genetic materials used were 19 genotypes of bird chili from Plant Breeding Laboratory IPB which were planted from seedling stage until harvesting stage. The second experiment was conducted in May 2017-May 2018 at Faculty of Agriculture, IPB Darmaga Campus. Material used were 19 genotypes of bird chili at seedling stage, and melon aphids which were collected from Leuwikopo Experimental Field IPB. Melon aphid infestation method used no-choice test. The results showed the genetic variability of bird chili had more than 0.30 coefficient of dissimilarity. Genetic variability for canopy width, anther length, fruit weight, and fruit length were classified to broad, but total fruit weight per plant was classified to narrow. There were six genotypes clasified resistant to melon aphid, i.e., C332, C343, C333, C334, C290, C346. The potential genotypes for breeding program of bird chili resistant to melon aphid were C343 and C334.Keywords: Aphis gossypii, Capsicum frutescens, cluster, resistant variety