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Analisis Komparatif Kinerja Puskesmas Denpasar Selatan dan Denpasar Timur Dengan Menggunakan Metode Balaced Scorecard Mahardika, Ketut; Supadmi, Ni Luh
E-Jurnal Akuntansi Universitas Udayana VOL. 8, NO. 1, JULI 2014
Publisher : E-Jurnal Akuntansi Universitas Udayana

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Abstract

Health centers are the top of public health services in Indonesia. With the health centers, each people can get health care easily and affordable. In the past, health center performance is more often focused on customer satisfaction or patient. This study is a descriptive comparative study aimed to determine and compare the performance of health centers in south and east Denpasar using the balanced scorecard method. The health centers in south and east Denpasar chosen as the study site because the health centers in the two districts are already implementing a quality management system in accordance with Health Department standards and there is a health center that operates 24 hours in each. The study used primary data obtained from the answers given by the respondents and using secondary data from health centers financial data. Variables examined include the performance of the financial perspective, customer perspective, internal business processes, and learning and growth perspective.
PERANG ANTARA KERAJAAN BULELENG DENGAN BELANDA PADA TAHUN 1846-1849 Mahardika, Ketut; Amsia, Tontowi; Wakidi, Wakidi
PESAGI (Jurnal Pendidikan dan Penelitian Sejarah) Vol 2, No 2 (2014): PESAGI (Jurnal Pendidikan dan Penelitian Sejarah)
Publisher : FKIP UNIVERSITAS LAMPUNG

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Abstract

The problems of the study are: how the occurrence of the Buleleng Bali war with the Netherlands in 1846-1849. The purpose of the study was to find out the occurrence of war between the kingdoms of Buleleng with the Netherlands in 1846-1849. The method uses in the study is the historical method. Data collection techniques are literature technique and documentation technique, data analysis that used is qualitative. Before the war between Buleleng and the Netherland held mediation but not found a solution. In June 28, 1846 the first attack was done but there was no counter for buleleng because the far less modern weapons of the Buleleng kingdom. The second attack cause of the expropriation of the Dutch ship in the Lirang beach,  Buleleng is not received because the Dutch established Fort. Rumusan masalah dalam penelitian adalah: bagaimanakah terjadinya perang kerajaan Buleleng Bali dengan Belanda pada tahun 1846 – 1849. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui terjadinya perang antara kerajaan Buleleng dengan Belanda pada tahun 1846 – 1849. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah metode historis. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik kepustakaan dan teknik dokumentasi, analisis data yang digunakan adalah kualitatif. Sebelum terjadinya perang antara Buleleng dengan Belanda diadakan mediasi tetapi tidak ditemukan penyelesaian. 28 Juni 1846 penyerangan pertama dilakukan tetapi tidak adanya perlawanan dari Buleleng dikarenakan senjata yang kalah jauh modern. Penyerangan kedua dikarenakan terjadinya perampasan kapal Belanda di pantai Lirang, Buleleng tidak terima karena Belanda mendirikan benteng. Kata kunci : belanda, kerajaan buleleng, perang
GROWTH AND BLOOD PROFILE OF CORAL TROUT GROUPER Plectropomus leopardus SEEDS IN DIFFERENT SALINITIES Setiawati, Ketut Maha; Mahardika, Ketut; Alit, A. A. Ketut; Kusumawati, Daniar; Mastuti, Indah
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 9, No 2 (2017): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Bogor Agricultural University

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Abstract

The information about the optimum and tolerable salinity to support in the success of coral trout grouper’s seed culture is still limited until now. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of different salinity on growth, survival, feed conversion (FCR) and the profile of blood (hematocrit and hemoglobin) of coral trout grouper seed. The seed with total length 6.0 ± 0.5 cm and body weight 3.2±0.3 g were used as tested animals. Five different salinity treatments, namely: 10±1 ppt (A), 16±1 ppt (B), 22±1 ppt (C), 28±1 ppt (D), and the sea water (34 ppt) as a control (E) were undertaken in this study, with three replications for each treatment. Salinity values were reach by adding freshwater into the tested seawater. Water changing system in this study was performed in recirculation process, with 25% of water replacement every 7 days. The result of this study showed that the survival rate values were 100% for all treatments, indicating that coral trout grouper seed can be cultured in the range of salinity between 10 to 34 ppt.  The highest total length and body weight were recorded from treatment C (22 ppt), as well as noted to gain the lowest FCR. Correspondingly, the seed in treatment C also founded to have in the greatest amount of hematocrit and hemoglobin. Optimum salinity for rearing of coral trout grouper seeds  with  total length 6 cm was 22 ppt.  Keywords: salinity, growth, survival rate, feed conversion, blood profile
ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY ON ENLARGED CELLS OF RED SEA BREAM, Pagrus major INFECTED BY THE RED SEA BREAM IRIDOVIRUS (RSIV, GENUS Megalocytivirus, FAMILY Iridoviridae) Mahardika, Ketut
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2009): (June 2009)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Most histopathologycal studies of the red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) disease in red sea bream have been performed by studying enlarged cells as well as necrotized cells in the spleen and other organs. These enlarged cells have been named as inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs). However, few information is available about detail of ultrastructural features of IBCs produced in the target organs of RSIV-infected fish. In the present study, details of ultrastructural features of IBCs that were produced in the spleen tissue of naturally RSIV-infected red sea bream were investigated under electron microscope. Under electron microscope, RSIV-infected red sea bream had the presence of two types of IBCs: typical IBCs allowing virus assembly within viral assembly site (VAS), and atypical IBCs which degenerate organelles without virus assembly. Other infected-cells were observed as necrotized cells forming intracytoplasmic VAS with large numbers of virions, but without the formation of the distinct inclusion body. Morphogenesis steps on RSIV-infected red sea bream were observed as filamentous-filed virions, partially-filled virions and complete virions with 145-150 nm in size. These findings confirmed that RSIV-infected red sea bream were characterized by formation of typical and atypical IBCs as well as necrotized cells.
HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON INTERNAL ORGANS DEVELOPMENT OF MANGROVE SNAPPER, Lutjanus argentimaculatus LARVAE Mahardika, Ketut; Mastuti, Indah; Melianawati, Regina; Zafran, Zafran
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 7, No 2 (2012): (December 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Mangrove snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus is one of highly economic value of marine fish commodity. Culture of this species has been developed a few years ago. Basic data on biological aspect is still limited whereas those kinds of information are needed. Histological study to determine development of internal organs of the larvae of mangrove snapper was conducted. Amount of 15-20 larvae each from 1 day after DAH hatching (1 DAH) up to 30 days after hatching (30 DAH) were collected, fixed in Bouin’s solution for 4-6 hours and then transferred into 70% alcohol. The samples were then embedded in paraffin wax and the sections were stained with haematoxylineosin (H&E). Results showed that the eye retina of the mangrove snapper larvae well developed on 3 DAH, whereas their digestive tract was on 5 DAH. Under this condition, the larvae started feeding as showed by present of natural food tissues in the intestine. Development of digestive tract and other internal organs reached their complete form like in adult fish after 20 DAH.
DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV) INFECTED HUMPBACK GROUPER Cromileptes altivelis Mastuti, Indah; Mahardika, Ketut
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 7, No 1 (2012): (June 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Characteristic of Megalocytivirus infection has been known to produce formation of inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs) on internals organs of fish predominantly on spleen and kidney. Megalocytivirus that infected grouper is known as Grouper Sleepy Disease Iridovirus (GSDIV). This study was conducted to answer the effect of entry sites of GSDIV on distribution of enlarged cells formed on the internal organs of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis. Enlarged cells were observed histologically under the light microscope on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, intestine, muscle and brain. Entry sites were designated to intramuscularly injection, intraperitoneally injection, dipped gill and inoculum added feed. Enlarged cells were formed on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, gill, heart, stomach, muscle, except on intestine and brain. All the entry sites resulted in formation of enlarged cells on spleen, head kidney, trunk kidney, liver, heart. Spleen and head kidney were the most frequent observed organ. These results suggested that distribution of enlarged cells were not affected by the entry site of GSDIV.
EFFECTIVITY OF INACTIVE GSDIV (GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS) VACCINE IN GROUPER FISH (Cromileptes altivelis and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) AGAINST GSDIV INFECTION Mahardika, Ketut; Mastuti, Indah; Haryanti, Haryanti
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 8, No 2 (2013): (December 2013)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV) has been known as viral agent causing mass mortality and significant economic losses in Indonesian aquaculture industry. The aim of this research was to know the effectivity of formalin-inactivated GSDIV vaccine to prevent GSDIV infection in humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis) and tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). The vaccine was derived from GF cells infected-GSDIV which activated using formalin. Used vaccine was contained titer virus of 102,80-105,80 TCID50/ mL. Result of vaccination test indicated that a vaccinated grouper fish with formalininactive GSDIV vaccine should decreased mortality rate of 5%–85.4% in humpback grouper and tiger grouper that infected with GSDIV. Histopathologically, infected fish from vaccinated and control groups showed formation of enlarged cells as well as necrotized cells especially in spleen and kidney tissues. On the other hand, surviving fish from both vaccinated and control groups did not contained formation of enlarged cells in spleen, kidney, liver, and stomach.
EXPERIMENTAL INFECTIONS OF MILKY HEMOLYMPH DISEASE IN SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus homarus Sudewi, Sudewi; Widiastuti, Zeny; Slamet, Bejo; Mahardika, Ketut
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 13, No 1 (2018): (June, 2018)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Milky hemolymph disease of spiny lobster (MHD-SL) is categorized as the most destructive disease in farming spiny lobster. Therefore, it is required to investigate the routes of milky disease infection in spiny lobster as a basic knowledge in order to prevent milky disease transmission. The aim of the present study was to perform an experimental infection of milky disease in spiny lobster Panulirus homarus. Experimental infection of milky disease was carried out by several modes of infection which were injection, immersion and per os exposure. Injection of each 0.2 mL undiluted and diluted hemolymph from the diseased lobster resulted in a cumulative mortality of 100% at 15 days post-infection (dpi), and 75% at 16 dpi, respectively. Experimental infection through water immersion caused in a cumulative mortality of 50% at 7 dpi. In contrast, no mortality was observed in per os exposure as well as in control groups. Results of this experimental study provided evidence for horizontal transmission of MHD-SL among P. homarus. Histopathological analysis exhibited that there were masses of Rickettsia-like bacteria (RLB) in the connective tissues of the gill, hepatopancreas, gonad, midgut, and muscle tissues of the affected lobsters. Mass of RLB was not only found in the moribund lobsters but also in the surviving lobsters with milky hemolymph appearance.
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF DIFFERENT CELLS TO RED SEA BREAM IRIDOVIRUS (RSIV) Mahardika, Ketut; Mastuti, Indah
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 7, No 1 (2012): (June 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

RSIV is an isolate virus in the genus Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae) that has been reported to be pathogen in more than 31 marine fish species in East Asia. The aim of study was to know the susceptibility of several cultured cells to RSIV. RSIV inoculum was inoculated onto cultured cells and then incubated in 25oC. Routine observation of cytopatic effect (CPE) was carried out for 7 days and harvested cells were prepared for virus titration and electron microscopy (EM). The result showed that RSIV grew and propagated in GF (grunt fin), KF-1 (koi fin) and BF-2 (barfin flounder) which caused cytophatic effect as cel ls enlargement. However, RSIV did not propagated on EPC (epithelioma papulosum cyprini), FHM (feathed minnow) and EK-1 (eel kidney) cells. The virus titer were 105.3 TCID50/mL in GF cells, 103.8 and 4.3 TCID50/mL in KF-1, 103.6 and 3.8 TCID50/mL in BF-2, and 7 102.1 TCID50/mL in EPC, FHM and EK-1. The EM observation revealed formation of enlarged cells containing hexagonal virus particles with 140-160 nm in diameter. These results indicated that GF was cultured cell to be optimal for replication of isolate RSIV derived from Ise bay, Mie, Japan.
QUANTITATIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF ENLARGED CELLS DERIVED FROM HUMPBACK GROUPER, Cromileptes altivelis INFECTED WITH GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV) Mastuti, Indah; Asih, Yasmina Nirmala; Mahardika, Ketut
Indonesian Aquaculture Journal Vol 5, No 2 (2010): (December 2010)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

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Abstract

Pathognomonic sign of grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV) was proposed to be the formation of enlarged cells and necrotic cells, in which under electron microscope, it is revealed to be the inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs) and necrotic cells containing GSDIV viral particles. Spleen and kidney tissues are the major sites for formation of enlarged cells. This paper described the result of histopatological analysis of enlarged cells found in the spleen and kidney of moribund fish after GSDIV challenge. A pathogenicity test was conducted on fish stocked in two tanks for infected groups and the other two tanks for uninfected control groups (15 fish per tank). The infected groups were injected intramuscularly with 0.1 ml of the viral inoculum. The uninfected groups were injected with the same amount of EMEM-2. The GSDIV-infected humpback grouper began to die after 6 days post infection and all died after 7 dpi, excluding one fish which had survived until the end of experimental infection periods (93% to 100% mortality). All of the diseased fish showed massive formation of enlarged cells in their spleen, head kidney and trunk kidney. The largest number of enlarged cells was observed on head kidneys and subsequently followed by spleens, trunk kidney (2.0-200.3/field of view). This result suggested that the number of enlarged cells in the affected organs was not the direct factor that led to the mortality of fish.