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Exercise Physiology in Athletic Animals

Media Veteriner Vol 6, No 1 (1999): Media Veteriner
Publisher : Media Veteriner

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Abstract

Throughout the developing world, working animals are still vital important power bases of the small farmers´ systems of production and transportation. With economic development, there is a growing interest in the animals for pleasure purposes, not only for aesthetic value but also for sport requiring speed and stamina for racing and other physical performances. An understanding of the physiology of exercise of animals is therefore needed including practical application such as to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and information on training for improvement in health related fitness and performance. Under the existing local condition, success have been reached to record heart rate of animals telemetrically over extended periods, and to measure longterm body energy expenditures of large animals (buffalo) involving energy balance approaches and ill vivo body composition measurements by the water displacement method. These measurements enable the development of a modest practical fitness guideline for exercising swamp/ water buffalo, e.g. V02 = (0.1 X + 3.4) ml/min/kg BW for walking, and V02 =(0.2 X + 3.4) ml/min/kg BW for trot at 100-250 m/min speed. This value at a given speed offers a measure of running economy. The value of the oxygen pulse as an index of fitness is presented, above 0.05 is regarded athletic, while lower than 0.05 is the opposite. For the female buffalo the value is 0.066 at rest but decreases with exercise of pulling a load due to moving the body with a slower speed. Male buffalo has a higher oxygen pulse, 0.094 at rest and increases with exercise. Training seems to improve the oxygen pulse. These data enable the calculation of the heart´s stroke volume and the O2 debt, which are other parameters of fitness. The field of exercise physiology of athletic animals in Indonesia should be explored. The acquisition of a treadmill, blood gas analysis and ergocardiorespirometry equipment for large athletic animals would be an advantage.

PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS SELULASE PADA TANAH HUTAN MANGROVE PANTAI SUWUNG BALI DENGAN PENGAYAAN SUBTRAT SELULOSA JANUR KELAPA (Cocos nucifera)

Journal of Chemistry Vol. 7, No. 1 Januari 2013
Publisher : Journal of Chemistry

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the effect of coconut (Cocos nucifera) leaf enrichment to soil of mangrove forest of Bali Suwung coastal on the cellulase activity. The measurement of cellulase activity was conducted by CMC method (Carboxymethyl Cellulose Assay) on soil sample with and without enrichment of coconut leaf substrate in incubation time of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. The results showed that the enrichment increased cellulase activity. In addition, cellulase activited the soil samples, increase with incubation times.  

THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED PURPLE SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas L) IN THE RATION ON THE ANTIOXIDANT PROFILE AND MEAT CHOLESTEROL OF BALI DUCK

E-Journal Of Animal Science Udayana University Volume 2, No 1, 2013
Publisher : E-Journal Of Animal Science Udayana University

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Abstract

An experiment was carried out to the study the effect of fermented purple sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L) in the ration on the profile antioxidant and meat cholesterol of bali duck. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD), consisted seven treatments and four replicates each was used in this experiment. The seven treatments were ration without purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) (treatment A), ration containing 10, 20, and 30% un fermented purple sweet potato (treatment B, C, and D), ration containing 10, 20, and 30% fermented purple sweet potato (treatment E, F, and G). Each treatment consisted of four replicates with four ducks in each replicates with homogenous age and weight. The variables observed including profile antioxidant, antioxidant capacity, malondialdehida (MDA), and superoxida dismutase (SOD); lipid profile : total clolesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride. Feeds offered were iso nitrogenous and iso calory and were given ad lidThe result showed that using fermented purple sweet potato in the ration improved antioxidant profile that was increased of antioxidant capacity such as superoxida dismutase (SOD) were significantly (P<0,05), and malondialdehida (MDA) decreased was sinificantly (P<0,05) than those given control diet..Ducks meat offered control diet contained total cholesterol and LDL 107,66 mg/100 g and 45,55 mg/100g respectively, When offered diet containing un fermented purple sweet potatoes decreased the content of cholesterol and LDL significantly (P<0.05) compared to control.Result of the experiment suggested that the effect of fermented purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) in the ration improved the antioxidant profile and consentration of the meat cholesterol of bali duck.

PENGARUH MINYAK JELANTAH DAN WAKTU INKUBASI TERHADAP AKTIVITAS LIPASE PADA TANAH HUTAN MANGROVE PANTAI TABLOLONG KUPANG

CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 2, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)

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Abstract

ABSTRAK: Penambahan minyak pada tanah umumnya dapat menginduksi ekspresi lipase mikroorganisme lipolitik dalam tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan minyak jelantah dan waktu inkubasi serta interaksi antara keduanya terhadap aktivitas lipase pada tanah hutan mangrove Pantai Tablolong Kabupaten Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT). Penelitian ini termasuk dalam True Experiment dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) pola faktorial yang terdiri atas 2 faktor. Faktor pertama adalah waktu inkubasi (tanpa dan dengan inkubasi selama 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5 hari); dan faktor kedua adalah pengaruh minyak jelantah (tanpa dan dengan penambahan minyak jelantah 1,96; 3,84; dan 5,65% [v/v]). Penentuan aktivitas lipase dilakukan dengan metode titrimetri dan data yang dihasilkan diolah menggunakan metode anova 2 (dua) arah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan minyak jelantah dan waktu inkubasi dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase pada tanah hutan mangrove. Minyak jelantah dapat digunakan sebagai penginduksi lipase mikroorganisme lipolitik dalam tanah hutan mangrove, tetapi tidak dapat digunakan lebih tinggi dari 3,84% (v/v). Aktivitas lipase tertinggi diperoleh 1,233 U/mL pada waktu inkubasi selama lima hari. Hasil analisis data menunjukkan tidak ada interaksi antara waktu inkubasi dan penambahan minyak jelantah terhadap aktivitas lipase pada tanah hutan mangrove.ABSTRACT: Addition of oil on soil can usually induce lipase expression of lipolitic microorganism on the soil. The aim of this research was to know the effect of cooking oil waste addition and incubation period varies on the activity of lipase from mangrove forest soil of Tablolong Beach, Kupang, Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT). This research was in True Experiment with completion random design of factorial model that contains 2 factors. The first factor was incubation period (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days); and the second factor was the addition of cooking oil waste (0; 1.96; 3.84; and 5.65% [v/v]). The activities of lipase were determined by titrimetric method. Data of this study was analyzed by using anova two factors. The results of this research showed that the addition of cooking oil waste and incubation period could increase the lipase activity on the mangrove forest soil. The cooking oil waste could be used as inducer of lipase from lipolitic microorganism on mangrove forest soil, but it could not be used more than 3.84% (v/v). The highest lipase activity was 1.233 U/mL on incubation period for five days. The result of data analysis showed no interaction between incubation period and addition of cooking oil waste on lipase activity from mangrove forest soil. 

AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER ISOLAT TOKSIK DARI EKSTRAK METANOL SPONS GENUS Haliclona Grant, 1836 TERHADAP SEL HELA

CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 3, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)

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Abstract

ABSTRAK: Telah dilakukan uji aktivitas antikanker isolat toksik dari ekstrak metanol spons genus Haliclona Grant, 1836 terhadap sel HeLa. Uji untuk mengetahui toksisitas spons genus Haliclona Grant, 1836 dilakukan dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) menggunakan larva Artemia salina Leach terhadap ekstrak etanol dan metanol spons tersebut. Hasil uji menunjukkan ekstrak metanol bersifat lebih toksik dengan nilai LC50 32,36 ppm. Hasil partisi ekstrak metanol menghasilkan ekstrak n-heksana, kloroform dan air. Ekstrak kloroform memiliki toksisitas paling tinggi dengan LC50 64,57 ppm. Ekstrak kloroform dipisahkan dengan kromatografi kolom silika gel menggunakan eluen etil asetat : n-heksana (2 : 8), diperoleh 5 fraksi (F1 – F5). Fraksi satu (F1) memberikan nilai toksisitas paling tinggi dengan LC50 70,79 ppm dan berdasarkan uji fitokimia diduga mengandung senyawa golongan steroid. Isolat toksik (F1) selanjutnya diuji secara in vitro terhadap sel HeLa, namun memiliki daya hambat yang sangat rendah dalam membunuh sel HeLa dengan nilai IC50 sebesar 2187,5 ppm.ABSTRACT: A research to test the anticancer activity toxic isolate of the methanol extract genus sponge of Haliclona Grant, 1836 to HeLa cells was conducted. Preliminary test to determine the toxicity of the ethanol and methanol crude extract genus sponge of Haliclona Grant, 1836 was conducted using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The results showed that the methanol extract was more toxic with the LC50 value of 32,36 ppm. Partitions of the methanol extract using n-hexane, chloroform and water were conducted and it was found that the chloroform extract was the most toxic against Artemia salina L. larvae with LC50 of 64,57 ppm. The chloroform extract was separated by column chromatography using ethyl acetate : n-hexane (2 : 8) as eluent and 5 fractions (F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5) were obtained. First fraction (F1) was the most toxic with LC50 of 70,79 ppm. Based on the phytochemical tests the toxic compounds were suspected to be a steroid. Furthermore, the toxic isolates (F1) was tested in vitro against HeLa cells, but it was not able to inhibit the growth and kill HeLa cells with IC50 value of 2187,5 ppm.

TOKSISITAS ISOLAT DARI EKSTRAK METANOL SPONS Clathria (Thalysias) sp TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry) Vol 3, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : CAKRA KIMIA (Indonesian E-Journal of Applied Chemistry)

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Abstract

ABSTRAK : Telah dilakukan uji toksisitas dari ekstrak metanol spons Clathria (Thalysias) sp dengan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) menggunakan larva Artemia salina L. Ekstrak metanol spons Clathria (Thalysias) sp dipartisi dengan pelarut n-heksana, kloroform dan air. Partisi dari 19,31 gram ekstrak metanol menghasilkan ekstrak n-heksan sebanyak 1,93 gram, ekstrak kloroform sebanyak 2,48 gram, dan ekstrak air sebanyak 12,17 gram. Hasil uji toksisitas menunjukkan ekstrak kloroform memiliki toksisitas paling tinggi dengan LC50 64,57 ppm. Selanjutnya Ekstrak kloroform dipisahkan dengan kromatografi kolom silika gel menggunakan eluen n-heksana : etil asetat (8:2), diperoleh 4 fraksi yaitu  FA, FB, FC, dan FD. Fraksi B (FB) memberikan nilai toksisitas paling tinggi dengan nilai LC50 72,44 ppm. Identifikasi isolat FB dilakukan dengan uji fitokimia yang menunjukkan adanya senyawa steroid.ABSTRACT : Toxicity tests have been conducted of the methanol extract of the sponge Clathria (Thalysias) sp with methods Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) using larvae of Artemia salina L. Methanol extract of the sponge Clathria (Thalysias) sp was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and water. Partitioning of 19.31 grams of methanol extract with n-hexane yielded as much as 1.93 grams, 2.48 grams of total chloroform extract, and as much as 12.17 grams of water extract. The toxicity test showed that chloroform extract had the highest toxicity with LC50 of 64.57 ppm. Furthermore chloroform extract was separated by silica gel column chromatography using n-hexane eluent: ethyl acetate (8: 2), obtained 4 fractions which were FA, FB, FC, and FD. Fraction B (FB) provides the highest value of toxicity LC50 value of 72.44 ppm. Identification of isolates FB conducted by phytochemical test that indicates that the presence of steroid compounds. 

Pemberian Gamal Tambahan dalam Ransum Meningkatkan Neraca Nitrogen dan Populasi Mikrob Proteolitik Rumen Sapi Bali (ENHANCEMENT PROVISION OF GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM IN DIET INCREASE NITROGEN BALANCE AND POPULATION OF RUMEN PROTEOLITIK MICROORGANISM OF BALI CATT

Jurnal Veteriner Vol 16, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Jurnal Veteriner

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Abstract

This research aimed to study the effect of different forage composition in diet on nitrogen balance andmicrobial population of Bali cattle. Randomized Block Design consisted of four feed treatments with 3block of weight live as replicates were used in this study. Body weight of male bali cattle used rangedbetween 181-265 kg. These four treatments based on dry matter were: A (45% elephant grass + 0% ricestraw + 15% glyricidia + 10% calliandra + 30% concentrate); B (30% elephant grass +10% rice straw + 20%glyricidia + 10% calliandra+ 30% concentrate) ; C (15% elephant grass +20% rice straw + 25% glyricidia+10% calliandra + 30% concentrate) and D (0%elephant grass + 30% rice straw + 30% glyricidia + 10%calliandra+ 30% concentrate) . Variables measured were nitrogen balance and rumen microbial population.The collected data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The result showed that nitrogen intake in cattlefed with diet C was significantly (P<0.05) higher than these in other treatments and nitrogen retention(P<0.05) was significantly higher as compared to those fed with diet A. Amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterialpopulations were not significantly different (P>0.05) among all treatments, but the population of proteolyticbacteria was found the lowest (P<0.05) in cattle fed with diet A. It can be concluded that increasedglyricidia and rice straw in the diet could increased nitrogen intake, nitrogen retention and proteolyticbacterial population.

ANALISIS VEGETASI MANGROVE UNTUK STRATEGI PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM BERKELANJUTAN DI TAMAN NASIONAL BALI BARAT

Ecotrophic: Journal of Environmental Science Vol 8, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Udayana University

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Abstract

This research was conducted in the coastal areas of Bali Barat National Park in March-June 2012. The goal is to determine the composition and structure of mangrove vegetation in Bali Barat National Park, the extent of damage and the level of criticality of mangroves in the area of ?? Bali Barat National Park and to determine management strategies for sustainable mangrove ecosystems in Bali Barat National Park. This study employed observation method with Line Transect sampling techniques and Sample Plots (Transect Line Plot) which is perpendicular to the shoreline landward. Data were analyzed using analysis of vegetation. Results showed mangrove vegetation in Bali Barat National Park consists 5 families major mangrove with 13 mangrove species and 5 families with 5 species of minor mangrove. In Gilimanuk Bay Important Value Index (IVI) for the highest phase of seedling was Excoecaria agallocha by 78.00%, sapling phase C. tagal amounted to 91.61% and the phase of the tree was Sonneratia alba by 103.76%. Shannon Diversity Index (H’) of mangrove vegetation in Gilimanuk Bay between 0.3630 to 0.7419 with a low category. In Terima Bay the highest IVI phase of seedling was Ceriops decandra by 78.33%, sapling phase C. decandra by 162.41% and the phase of tree was E. agallocha amounted to 85.06%. H’ mangrove vegetation in Terima Bay between 0.0000 to 0.7889 with a low category. In Banyuwedang Bay the highest IVI phase of seedling was E. agallocha by 63.08%, sapling phase was Ceriops tagal amounted to 86.28% and the phase of tree was E.agallocha of 79.98%. H’ mangrove vegetation in Banyuwedang Bay between 0.0000 to 0.7889 with a low category. In Menjangan Island the highest IVI phase of seedling was C. tagal by 63.69%, sapling phase C. tagal amounted to 66.66% and the phase of tree was E. agallocha by 109.08%. H’ Menjangan Island mangrove vegetation ranged from 0.3991 to 0.8217 with a low category. The level of damage based on Mangrove Damage Criteria according to Minister of Environment Decree No. 201 of 2004 seedlings and saplings phase, the density of each species included in the very dense criteria (good) and phase trees included in the rare criteria (damaged). The critical level of mangrove vegetation based on the formulation of the Directorate General of Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry, Ministry of Forestry in 2005, mangrove vegetation in the Bali Barat National Park can be classified Not Damaged. Bali Barat National Park mangrove aquatic environment is conducive to support the stability and development of mangrove vegetation in the future as a result of physical and chemical parameter measurements mangrove aquatic environment is still below of standard.

EFEKTIVITAS SISTEM BIOFILTER AEROB DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR AMONIA PADA AIR LIMBAH

Ecotrophic: Journal of Environmental Science Vol 8, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Udayana University

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Abstract

The increasingpopulationand activity of the Balinese people can increase the amount of waste as a byproduct of community activities. The presence of the metabolites in wastewater as ammonia is toxic to aquatic organisms. Application aerobic biofilter system can be used as an attempt to reduce levels of ammonia. In the aerobic biofilter, contact between the gravel media with microorganisms that form biofilmsare able to accelerate the degradation of organic matter and nitrification processes. The aims of this research are to determine the best consortium of activated sludge to reduce ammonia levels by aerobic biofilter system and to determine the effectivity of aerobic biofilter system. The first stage of this research were seeding of activated sludge from three sources are Wastewater Treatment Plan (WWTP) of Suwung Denpasar, WWTP of Wangaya Hospital and WWTP of Bali Tourism Development Corporation (BTDC) Nusa Dua Bali, for six days. This research was done by measuring Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS) value that showed the growth rate of biomass in activated sludge. The second stage wereapplication of activated sludges and control in aerobic biofilter to reduce ammonia levels, for five days. This study used a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and three repetitions. The results showed that the best activated sludge obtained from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar indicated by the highest biomass growth (VSS value) of 2396.6 mg/L and was able to reduce ammonia up to 0.78 mg/ L. The effectivity of aerobic biofilter system with activated sludge from WWTP of Suwung Denpasar achieve effectivity of treatment process up to 92.20 % and have been able to pass the effectivity of quality standards (90%) during five days of processing. The effectivity levels was the highest compared to control and activated sludgetreatments.

ANALISIS DAMPAK DEBU USAHA PENGGILINGAN PADI TERHADAP KAPASITAS VITAL PARU TENAGA KERJA DI KECAMATAN ABIANSEMAL KABUPATEN BADUNG TAHUN 2011

Ecotrophic: Journal of Environmental Science Vol 7, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Udayana University

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Abstract

The grain grinding business unit is needed by the farmer to process the harvest but also in particular, it creates air pollution from its dusty materials. The worker or operator has a potential risk of being contaminated by the dusty materials and lungs vital capacity reduction. This research is aimed to analyze the effects of the grain grinding polluting dust to wards the lungs vital capacity of workers at Abiansemal in Badung District. This research is sort of an analytical observation with cross sectional design. The number of chosen samples is 32 workers with a total sampling method among 16 grain grinding business units. The data resources is a primary data which obtained using questionnaire, the measurement and observation include: the workers characteristic (working term, age, and height), dust value, breath frequency and lungs vital capacity. The data is analyzed using regression statistic. The result of the research indicates that the amount of dust at the grain grinding business unit is around 10,0079-11,6151 mg/m3, working term is one to 44 years, age 22-62, and height 155-175 cm, the condition of the grinding room is 93,75% does not meet the ventilation standard, 100% is not provided with dust control tool, 97,75% does not provide mask and 93,75% is situated in a housing are. The conclusion of the research is that dust level, working term and height in particular has a significant correlation with lungs vital capacity (p < 0,05) but age does not have a significant correlation with the workers lungs vital capacity (p> 0,05). The higher level of dust makes the higher lungs vital capacity reduction, the longer working term makes the lower lungs vital capacity and the taller of workers height .indicates the higher workers lungs vital capacity. The impact of dusty materials of grain grinding business unit towards the workers is the decreasing of workers lungs vital capacity by the disorder of lungs restriction function ( 65,62%). It is suggested to the business owner to conduct technical controls. Workers are strongly recommended to put on mask, have sufficient nutrition supplies and workers with the age over 40 years should not work in j:his area. For the health department of Badung District should implement any efforts of K3, and for other relevant departments which take a part in giving recommendation must consider a requirement to make it outside the housing area.