EDWI MAHAJOENO
Jurusan Biologi,Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas sebelas Maret

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Variation of morphology, isozymic and vitamin C content of dragon fruit varieties RAHMAWATI, BANATI; MAHAJOENO, EDWI
Nusantara Bioscience Vol 1, No 3 (2009): Nusantara Bioscience
Publisher : “Bioscience Community”, School of Graduates, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

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Rahmawati B, Mahajoeno E. 2009. Variation of morphology, isozymic and vitamin C content of dragon fruit varieties.Nusantara Bioscience 1: 131-137. The aims of the research was to study the variation of morphology, the band pattern of isozyme, andvitamin C content of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) varieties such as super red, red and white from Pasuruan (East Java), Sukoharjo andKlaten (Central Java), and Bantul districts (Yogyakarta). Morphological character were carried include fruit, stem, and flowers of eachvariety of dragon fruit. The isozymic pattern was analyzed using NTSYS 2.02i. The data matrix was counted based on the DICEcoefficient. The clustering was done by applying UPGMA which counted through SHAN. Vitamin C content measured by titrationmethod then analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the higher vitamin C content was found from super red of Pasuruan (6.00)and then followed by red color (5.376) and super red (5.113) both from Bantul. The morphological variation on the stem and petalcolors, and fruits were also shown by the isozymic data of three varieties of dragon fruits collected from four separated locations.Esterase (EST) showed 18 bands and forming four (4) groups based on 75% genetic similarity index. The specific band occurred on Rf0.633 of red varieties of dragon fruit from Bantul and on Rf 0.755 from Pasuruan. The specific band also occurs on Rf 0.347 of whitevariety from Bantul and on Rf 0.510 and on Rf 0.633 from Klaten. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) enzyme shows 12 bandsand also forming four groups with a little difference for member in the fourth group. The specific band occurs on Rf 0.321 of red colorfruit from Pasuruan. The specific band also occurs on the white from Pasuruan on Rf 0.446 and on Rf 0.482. The variation of dragonfruits were also supported by isozymic data indicated that the morphological character were in accordance with the genetics data.
Exposure copper heavy metal (Cu) on freshwater mussel (Anodonta woodiana) and its relation to Cu and protein content in the body shell INTAN KURNIA, AHMAD; PURWANTO, EDI; MAHAJOENO, EDWI
Nusantara Bioscience Vol 2, No 1 (2010): Nusantara Bioscience
Publisher : “Bioscience Community”, School of Graduates, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

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Kurnia AI, Purwanto E, Mahajoeno E. 2010. Exposure copper heavy metal (Cu) on freshwater mussel (Anodonta woodiana)and its relation to Cu and protein content in the body shell. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 48-53. To determine the relationship of Cuexposure in water to the freshwater mussel exposure experiment is conducted with water containing Cu. Which measured the influenceof Cu and protein content in the body shell. This study used the freshwater mussel species, Anodonta woodiana. Oysters were exposedfor four weeks in the water with Cu concentration of 0.02 ppm, 0.04 ppm, 0.06 ppm and 0.00 ppm control. Cu content and proteincontent in the body shells are checked every week. Cu analysis was done by AAS method and the protein content using Kjeldahlmethod. Cu analysis showed elevated levels of Cu in mussel body after exposure. The pattern of increase in Cu content was not thesame, where the pattern of the largest increases occurred after the fourth week. The statistical test showed no significant effect betweenthe treatment with Cu accumulation in the body shell. Protein analysis showed an increase of protein content after exposure of thesecond week and decreased after the third and fourth weeks. The pattern of changes in protein content varied among the varioustreatments. The statistical test showed no significant effect between treatment with the protein changes in the body shell. Correlation testof the relationship between concentration of Cu in mussel body protein level showed a positive correlation between them with a fairlygood level of relationship (correlation coefficient r = 0.836).Key words: Anodonta woodiana, exposure, Cu, protein.
Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) BUNTARAN, WAWAN; PARAMA ASTIRIN, OKID; MAHAJOENO, EDWI
Nusantara Bioscience Vol 2, No 2 (2010): Nusantara Bioscience
Publisher : “Bioscience Community”, School of Graduates, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta

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Buntaran W, Astirin PA, Mahajoeno M. 2009. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of driedcandy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). Nusantara Bioscience 2: 55-61. The aims of the research were to study the effects of sugarsyrup concentration on dried candy tomato characteristics and to determine the proper sugar solution concentration that gives the bestcharacteristics of dry candy tomatoes. The research used Randomized Block Design Method with four treatments and six timesrepetitions. The treatment that be used was immersing the tomato in sugar solution, with concentration of A (40%), B (50%), C (60%),and D (70%) group in 18 hours. The variables measured were water content, ash, vitamin C and organoleptic tests include flavor, color,flavor and texture test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test (Analysis of Variance) followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple RangeTest). The result showed that sugar solution concentration had different effect on water content, ash content, vitamin C content, texture,and organoleptic test for colour, taste, and flavor of the dry candy tomato. The best characteristics of dry tomato candy was obtained onA (40%) group, with water content of 24.20%, ash content of 0.62%, and vitamin C content of 31.15 mg/100 g. Standar quality ofwater content for dry fruit candy was maximal 25% (SII No.0718-2003) and maximal allowed ash content for food materials was 1.0%(SII 0272.90). Vitamin C content was not much decreased compared with ripe tomato i.e. 30-40 mg/100. Organoleptic tets resultindicated that A (40%) group get the highest score, i.e. 3,98 for taste, 3,89 for flavor, and 3,98 for colour.Key words: sugar, candy/candied, tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum.
PRODUKSI BIOGAS DARI LIMBAH MAKANAN MELALUI PENINGKATAN SUHU BIODIGESTER ANEAROB Purnomo, Agus; Mahajoeno, Edwi
Prosiding Seminar Biologi Vol 7, No 1 (2010): Seminar Nasional VII Pendidikan Biologi
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

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ABSTRAK Isu lingkungan seperti pencemaran udara, pemanasan global, dan zero waste telah mendorong peningkatan perhatian pada sumber-sumber energi terbarukan. Harga bahan bakar minyak (fosil) yang semakin mahal menjadi salah satu alasan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan energi, salah satu diantaranya berupa biogas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui produksi biogas dari limbah makanan dengan peningkatan suhu dalam biodigester anaerob.Penelitian dilaksanakan di Sub Laboratorium Biologi, UPT Lab. Pusat MIPA Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta, dari bulan Mei sampai dengan September 2009. Biodigester  digunakan jerigen plastik bervolume 5 liter dengan volume kerja 4 liter (sumber inokulum : substrat,  20% : 80%). Perlakuan percobaan diberikan dalam bentuk penambahan suhu biodigester dari berbagai sumber inokulum: inokulum kotoran sapi dan kotoran ayam pada suhu tinggi (50ºC) dan suhu ruang (31ºC) dengan substrat utama limbah makanan. Parameter diamati meliputi pH, suhu, COD, BOD, TS, VS, dan produksi biogas. Data hasil pengamatan di analisis dengan sidik ragam GLM univariate dan uji lanjut DMRT.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi biogas dari substrat limbah makanan terbaik diperoleh dengan sumber inokulum kotoran ayam yaitu 0,91 (l/hari) biogas pada suhu tinggi (500C) dengan efisiensi reduksi organik BOD 80,9% / COD 85,2%, dan efisiensi reduksi organik TS 80% / VS 78,2%. Kata kunci : biogas, suhu biodigester anaerob, kotoran ayam.
STUDI VARIASI MORFOLOGI DAN POLA PITA ISOZIM PADA VARIETAS BUAH NAGA (Hylocereus sp) Rahmawati, Banati; Suranto, Suranto; Mahajoeno, Edwi
Prosiding Seminar Biologi Vol 7, No 1 (2010): Seminar Nasional VII Pendidikan Biologi
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

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ABSTRAKBuah naga mempunyai banyak manfaat untuk kesehatan dan manfaatlainnya yang belum banyak diketahui oleh masyarakat sehingga perlu dilakukanpendataan.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk Menguji keragaman variasi morfologi, danpola pita isozim pada buah naga berdaging super merah, merah, dan putih dariKabupaten Pasuruan, Sukoharjo, Klaten, dan Bantul.Analisis data morfologi tanaman diuaraikan secara deskriptif. Data polapita isozim dianalisis menggunakan program Numerical Taxonomy andMultivariate Analys System versi 2.02i (NTSYS). Data matrik dihitungberdasarkan koofisien DICE. Klusterisasi (pengelompokan) dilakukan denganUPGMA ( Unweighted Pair Group With Arithmatic Mean) yang dihitung melaluiSHAN.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Variasi morfologi terjadi pada warnabatang, warna kelopak bunga dan rasa daging buah yang ditunjukkan juga padapola pita isozim ketiga varietas pada keempat lokasi pengamatan. Enzim esterasemengekspresikan 18 pita yang membentuk empat kelompok berdasarkan jarakkemiripan 75%. Pita spesifik muncul pada Rf 0.633 pada varietas buah nagaberdaging merah Bantul dan pada Rf 0.755 dari Pasuruan. Pita spesifik jugadimiliki untuk buah naga putih pada Rf 0.347 dari Bantul serta Klaten pada Rf0.510 dan Rf 0.633. Untuk enzim GOT mengekspresikan 12 pita dan jugamemperlihatkan empat kelompok dengan sedikit berbeda untuk keanggotaannyadikelompok empat. Pita spesifik muncul pada Rf 0.321 pada varietas buah nagaberdaging merah dari Pasuruan. Pita spesifik juga muncul pada buah nagaberdaging putih dari Pasuruan pada Rf 0. 446 dan Rf 0.482. Terjadinya variasipada buah naga yang di uji dan di dukung oleh data isozim walaupun hanya 2macam enzim ini memberikan bukti bahwa data genetik mendukung karaktermorfologi.Kata kunci: Buah naga (Hylocereus sp), Morfologi, Isozim, Vitamin C.
PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM CITRUS FRUIT (Citrus sp) WASTE BY ACID HYDROLYSIS AND FERMENTATION USING Saccharomyces cerevisiae Andini, Citra; Mahajoeno, Edwi; Setyaningsih, Ratna
Prosiding Seminar Biologi Vol 10, No 2 (2013): Seminar Nasional X Pendidikan Biologi
Publisher : Prodi Pendidikan Biologi FKIP UNS

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One of the promising biofuel is bioethanol which can be produced from agricultural waste cellulosic biomass such as citrus fruit waste. Bioethanol can be derived from citrus fruit waste that is rarely used. Cellulosecontained in citrus fruit  waste can be converted into ethanol through a process of chemical and biological. Sulfuric acid ( H2SO4) can be used in hydrolysis of cellulose material in citrus fruit waste to producesugars and batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cereviseae can be used to convert sugars into bioethanol.The purpose of this research were to determine the highest reducing sugar from acid hydrolisis with different acid concentration levels of 0, 3, 7, and 10% and to know the highest levels of bioethanol and optimum incubation time. Extracts made from citrus fruit waste without peel. Citrus fruits were hydrolyse using a variation of 1 M H2SO4 acid concentration of 0, 3, 7, and 10 % to produce reducing sugars. Reducing sugars were analyzed using the Nelson Somogyi method.The optimum reducing sugar is used for fermentation by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a variation of the long incubation days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and bioethanol purified by distillation method. Acid hydrolysis resulted reduction sugar 3,5%, at an optimum concentration of 3% is used for fermentation by yeast S. cerevisiae. The highest level of fermentation time of 6 days produced bioethanol having the content 9,75% .  Kata Kunci : Bioethanol, Citrus Acid Waste, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Fermentation .
BIODELIGNIFICATION OF COCONUT WOOD SAWDUST USING PLEURATUS SAPIDUS Sulaiman, Wahid; Sugiyarto, Sugiyarto; Mahajoeno, Edwi
PROSIDING SEMINAR NASIONAL & INTERNASIONAL 2018: SEMINAR NASIONAL PENDIDIKAN SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI
Publisher : Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang

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Coconut wood sawdust is one of the common wastes found in Indonesia and has great potential to be utilized as alternative biomass energy raw materials or cellulose-based biotechnology products. Biodelignification is the process to release cellulose, hemicellulose bond with ligninusing microbes such as fungi, bacteria or enzymes. Pleuratus sapidus one of white rot fungi species who have ability on lignin degradation by produces ligniselulolytic enzymes and proven to be effective and efficient to degrade lignin. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum incubation time of Pleuratus sapidus between 15, 30, 45 days and the best inoculum concentration between 2.5 ml/ 10 g substrate, 5 ml/ 10 g substrate, 7.5 ml/ 10 g substrate in delignification of coconut wood sawdust. Chesson Data method is used to calculate the lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in coconut wood sawdust and to detemine percentage of degradation, Data analyzed using SPSS Two Way Anova. Conclusion of the research, the best concentration of inoculum was 5 ml/ 10 gr substrate, with the ability to degrade lignin in coconut wood sawdust as 6.33 % with an optimum incubation time of 45 days.  Keyword : Biodelignfication, Coconut wood sawdust, Ligniselulose, Pleuratus sapidus, White rot fungi.