Rizanda Machmud
Bagian Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Ilmu Kedokteran Komunitas FK Universitas Andalas

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Effect of Spontaneous Delivery and Elective Caesarean Section on Number of Bifidobacterium Colony in Newborns Irwanto, Engga L.; Yusrawati, Yusrawati; Jurnalis, Yusri D.; Rasyid, Roslaily; Machmud, Rizanda
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Vol. 35. No 2. April 2011
Publisher : Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

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AbstractObjective: To know the effect of vaginal delivery and elective caesarean section in total colony of bifidobacterium in newborn’s faeces.Method: All the research subject who has fulfilled the inclusion criteria, the newborn’s faeces taken on the 3rd to 4th day after delivery. One cc of faeces diluted into 9 cc thioglycolate in a sterile tube and sent to the Microbiology Laboratory of Hospital of Dr. M. Djamil Padang for the examination of colony of bifidobacterium. Data was processed and analized statistically.Result: The sample was taken from 41 research subject of vaginal delivery and 41 research subject of elective caesarean section. The average of total colony of bifidobacterium in newborn’s faeces with vaginal delivery is 23,588,220 CFU/gram and the average of total colony of bifidobacterium in newborn’s faeces with elective caesarean section is 4,151,829.3 CFU/gram.Conclusion: Total colony of bifidobacterium in newborn’s faeces with vaginal delivery is higher than elective caesarean section, and proved statistically significant (p < 0.05).[Indones J Obstet Gynecol 2011; 35-2: 49-52]Keywords: bifidobacterium, vaginal delivery, caesarean section
Kematian Neonatal dan Bayi Lahir Mati serta Hubungannya dengan Kepercayaan dan Perilaku Masyarakat Machmud, Rizanda; Yunarti, Yunarti
Majalah Kedokteran Bandung Vol 1, No 42 (2010)
Publisher : Majalah Kedokteran Bandung

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Kabupaten Cirebon memiliki angka kematian ibu dan bayi yang tinggi. Berbagai upaya sudah dilakukan untuk menurunkan angka tersebut, namun belum berhasil. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali informasi yang lebih mendalam tentang keterkaitan kematian bayi lahir mati dan neonatal dengan latar belakang perilaku sertakepercayaan masyarakat tentang kehamilan, persalinan, dan perawatan bayi baru lahir di desa pesisir dan pedalaman. Pendekatan penelitian menggunakan paradigma gabungan antara kualitatif dan kuantitatif (mixed paradigm) dengan menggali informasi secara mendalam mengenai faktor predisposing, faktor enabling, dan faktor reinforcing kepercayaan serta perilaku masyarakat. Penelitian dilakukan di desa Weru Lor (pedalaman) dan Suranenggala (pesisir) di kabupaten Cirebon, Jawa Barat pada tahun 2006. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya stigma-stigma yang melatarbelakangi perilaku tidak rasional dalam hubungannya dengan kematian bayi lahir mati dan neonatal. Tidak terdapat perbedaan kepercayaan antara desa pedalaman dan desa pesisir. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah perlunya kompetensi petugas kesehatan dalam penyebarluasan informasi rasional sehingga mampu menghilangkan stigma-stigma yang tumbuh dalam masyarakat.Relationship Between Neonatal Mortality and Still Birth with Believeand Behavior of Health SocietyCirebon´s district is one of highest infant mortality and maternal mortality rate. So many efforts have been done to reduce this rate but, it´s no effect yet. The etiology of these problems isn´t known. The aim of research was to discover deeper information about relationship between neonatal mortality and social behavior background and believe ofhealth society in pregnancy, delivery and antenatal care in mainland and coastal district. A qualitative and quantitative methods were used to exploring deeper information about predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors in health believe and behavior in society. Location of the study were in mainland (Weru Lor) and costal village (Suranenggala) in Cirebon-West Java in 2006. This research answered the reseach question, why neonatal death are happened and why health behavior in society seems irrational. There were stigmas in society that affectinfant mortality rate. The result of research showed there were existence of stigmas which was irrational background in its relation with infant and neonatal mortality. There were no difference of local culture, knowledge, and believe among mainland and coastal countryside. Conclusion of this research is the importance of provider of health competence in dissemination of rational information so that can eliminate stigmas which grow in society.
Perbandingan Profil Penderita Tuberkulosis Paru antara Perokok dan Non Perokok di Poliklinik Paru RSUP. Dr. M. Djamil Padang Zulda, Cantika Dinia; Machmud, Rizanda; Medison, Irvan
Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 6, No 1 (2017)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Tuberkulosis (TB) merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang penting di dunia, terutama di negara berkembang seperti Indonesia. Salah satu faktor risiko yang dapat menurunkan daya tahan tubuh terhadap bakteri Mycobacterium tuberculosis adalah faktor merokok. Menurut Public Health Agency of Canada terdapat hubungan yang erat antara merokok dengan TB. Tujuan penelitian ini bertujuan adalah menentukan perbandingan profil penderita TB paru antara perokok dan non perokok di Poliklinik Paru RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang. Desain yang digunakan adalah cross sectional komparatif terhadap 44 penderita TB perokok dan 44 penderita TB non perokok. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara dan rekam medis. Hasil uji statistik menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna antara penderita TB paru perokok dan non perokok berdasarkan hasil pemeriksaan BTA awal (p=0,012) dan gejala hemoptisis (p=0,002). Uji statistik pada rata-rata usia (p=0,109), kejadian TB relaps (p=0,244) dan adanya komplikasi (p=0,395) menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan yang bermakna antara penderita TB perokok dan non perokok.
Analisis Penerapan Upaya Pencapaian Standar Sasaran Keselamatan Pasien Bagi Profesional Pemberi Asuhan Dalam Peningkatan Mutu Pelayanan di Rawat Inap RSUP Dr. M. Djamil Padang Tahun 2017 Faluzi, Anna; Machmud, Rizanda; Arif, Yulastri
Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 7 (2018): Supplement 4
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Hasil survey pelaksanaan patien safety di RSUP.DR.M.Djamil Padang selalu terjadi peningkatan insiden setiap tahunnya, angka kepatuhan petugas, yaitu 74% (standar 100%). Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis upaya pencapaian standar sasaran keselamatan pasien bagi para profesional pemberi asuhan dalam peningkatan mutu pelayanan di Rawat Inap RSUP Dr.M.Djamil Padang Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif melalui wawancara mendalam dan Focus Group Discusion. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara 17 orang informan yaitu, direktur medik, komite KPRS, pengelola perawatan, kepala ruangan, dokter, perawat, apoteker, ahli gizi. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa kekurangan SDM keperawatan dan farmasi. Pengadaan sarana yang belum tercukupi seperti handraill, bel, wastafel, tissu. Budaya keselamatan pasien, budaya pelaporan IKP, serta kepatuhan profesional pemberi asuhan dalam implementasi SKP belum optimal, rata-rata capaian 89%. Output belum sesuai target 100%, masih terdapat KTD dan KNC. Kesimpulannya, penerapan sasaran keselamatan pasien bagi profesional pemberi asuhan di rawat inap belum maksimal. Disarankan, pimpinan rumah sakit beserta jajarannya melakukan perbaikan mutu melalui penambahan tenaga, melengkapi sarana, optimalisasi pelaporan insiden, optimalisasi kegiatan monev, meningkatkan pelatihan staf.
Pengaruh Kemiskinan Keluarga pada Kejadian Pneumonia Balita di Indonesia Machmud, Rizanda
Kesmas The National Journal of Public Health Vol. 4 No. 1 August 2009
Publisher : Kesmas The National Journal of Public Health

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Pneumonia is an acute respiratory tract infection disease that becomes a major cause of death among under five years old children. In Indonesia, in 2000, pneumonia specific cause of death rate among under five children is predicted to be 4.9/ 1000. The socio-economic factor has significant contribution to respiratory tract infection. The objective of this study is to know the socioeconomic factor that affect pneumonia among under five children. The study uses cross sectional study design using secondary data of Benefit Evaluation Study (BES) II conducted by Centre for Health Research, University of Indonesia in collaboration with Intensification of Infectious Diseases Eradication Project, MOH-RI. The study sample is selected based on multilevel statistical framework from 7170 under five children in 10900 households within 27 districts in seven provinces. Analysis method used in this study is multilevel logistic regression. This study shows that the low level of socioeconomic status affect significantly the pneumonia occurrence among under five children. The risk of pneumonia among lower socioeconomic household is higher than that of the high socioeconomic household. It was found that the association was found for poor environmental factor including in-house hygienic condition after controlled by nutritional status. The pneumonia occurrence among under five children is more influenced by environmental factors than individual factors (compositional effect). It is suggested to prioritize intervention on environmental factors to eradicate respiratory tract infection. Key words: Pneumonia, socio-economic, under five years old children
Pengaruh Kemiskinan Keluarga pada Kejadian Pneumonia Balita di Indonesia Machmud, Rizanda
Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional Vol. 4 No. 1 Agustus 2009
Publisher : Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (211.542 KB) | DOI: 10.21109/kesmas.v4i1.199

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Pneumonia merupakan penyakit infeksi saluran pernapasan akut yang menjadi kausa utama kematian balita. Di Indonesia, pada akhir tahun 2000, angka kematian balita akibat pneumonia diperkirakan 4,9/1000 balita. Faktor sosio-ekonomi berkontribusi besar terhadap penyakit saluran pernapasan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui faktor sosio-ekonomi yang paling berpengaruh terhadap pneumonia pada balita. Penelitian dengan dengan disain krossek-sional ini menggunakan sumber data sekunder Benefit Evaluation Study (BES) II oleh Pusat Penelitian Kesehatan Universitas Indonesia bekerja sama dengan Proyek Intensifikasi Pemberantasan Penyakit Menular, Departemen Kesehatan. Sampel diambil berdasarkan multilevel statistical frameworkdari 7.170 ba-lita pada 10.900 rumah tangga di 27 kabupaten di tujuh provinsi. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah multilevel logistic regression. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan bahwa sosio-ekonomi rumah tangga berperan secara bermakna terhadap kejadian pneumonia balita. Rumah tangga miskin berisiko lebih besaruntuk terkena pneumonia. Pada keluarga miskin, risiko pneumonia yang lebih besar disebabkan oleh faktor kontekstual lingkungan yang buruk berupa pen-cemaran di dalam rumah yang dikontrol faktor komposisi status gizi (95% CI OR 4.05- 4.78). Kebijakan intervensi program P2ISPA disarankan lebih mengu-tamakan intervensi pada faktor kontekstual lingkungan buruk pencemaran dalam rumah tangga miskin. Kata kunci: Pneumonia, sosio-ekonomi, balitaAbstractPneumonia is an acute respiratory tract infection disease that becomes a major cause of death among under five years old children. In Indonesia, in 2000, pneumonia specific cause of death rate among under five children is predicted to be 4.9/ 1000. The socio-economic factor has significant contribution to res-piratory tract infection. The objective of this study is to know the socioeconomic factor that affect pneumonia among under five children. The study uses cross sectional study design using secondary data of Benefit Evaluation Study (BES) II conducted by Centre for Health Research, University of Indonesia in collaboration with Intensification of Infectious Diseases Eradication Project, MOH-RI. The study sample is selected based on multilevel statistical framework from7170 under five children in 10900 households within 27 districts in seven provinces. Analysis method used in this study is multilevel logistic regression. This study shows that the low level of socioeconomic status affect significantly the pneumonia occurrence among under five children. The risk of pneumonia among lower socioeconomic household is higher than that of the high socioeconomic household. It was found that the association was found for poor environmental factor including in-house hygienic condition after controlled by nutritional status. The pneumonia occurrence among under five children is more influenced by environmental factors than individual factors (compositional effect). It is suggested to prioritize intervention on environmental factors to eradicate respira-tory tract infection.Keywords: Pneumonia, socio-economic, under five years old children
Hubungan Pola Makan dengan Kejadian Depresi pada Penderita Dispepsia Fungsional Andre, Yuriko; Machmud, Rizanda; Murni, Arina Widya
Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 2, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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AbstrakKetidakteraturan makan seperti kebiasaan makan yang buruk, tergesa-gesa, dan jadwal yang tidak teratur dapat menyebabkan dispepsia. Penderita depresi harus ditangani dengan sungguh-sungguh karena dikhawatirkan penderita depresi sangat tidak memperhatikan kesehatan dirinya seperti tidak mematuhi pola makan atau pola makannya menjadi tidak teratur. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan pola makan dengan kejadian depresi pada penderita dispepsia fungsional. Penelitian bersifat analitik dengan desain cross sectional. Subjek penelitian adalah 40 orang penderita dispepsia fungsional. Penelitian dilakukan di kota Padang dengan menggunakan data pasien dispepsia fungsional bulan Januari-Desember 2011. Pengumpulan data dilakukan pada periode Juni-November 2012 dan pengolahan data dilakukan dengan uji korelasi menggunakan sistem komputerisasi. Hasil penelitian didapatkan nilai peluang Odd Ratio (OR) dengan Confidence Interval (CI) 95% pada penderita depresi berpeluang sebesar 4.500 kali lebih besar memiliki pola makan tidak teratur dibandingkan dengan tidak depresi serta menunjukkan derajat hubungan yang cukup kuat dengan tarif signifikansi (p) 0.025 (p < 0.05). Terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara pola makan dengan kejadian depresi pada penderita dispepsia fungsional.Kata kunci: pola makan, depresi, dispepsia fungsionalAbstractIrregularity of meals as poor eating habits, unhurried, and irregular schedules may cause dyspepsia. Patients with depression should be treated seriously because it was feared people with depression do not pay attention to their own health so as not to comply with the diet or eating patterns become irregular. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of diet to the incidence of depression in patients with functional dyspepsia. The research is analytic cross sectional design. The subjects were 40 people of functional dyspepsia patients. The study was conducted in the Padang City with functional dyspepsia patients using data from January to December 2011. Data collection was conducted during the period of June to November 2012 and the data processing used correlation test by computerized system. The result was the probability odds ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) in patients with depression were 4,500 times more likely to have irregular diet compared with non-depressed ones and showed a strong degree of correlation with the significance of correlation (p) 0.025 (p <0.05). There is a significant relationship between the diet and the incidence of depression in patients with functional dyspepsia.Keywords:diet, depression, functional dyspepsia
Analisis Sistim Manajemen Dokumentasi Keperawatan pada Poliklinik Gigi Rumah Sakit di Bukittinggi Rosmalia, Dewi; Machmud, Rizanda; Mangkuto, Haryadi
Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 4, No 3 (2015)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Abstrak Dokumentasi keperawatan merupakan bukti tertulis pelayanan yang diberikan kepada pasien oleh tenaga keperawatan yang bertujuan untuk menghindari kesalahan, tumpang tindih dan ketidak lengkapan informasi. Dalam asuhan keperawatan agar terbinanya koordinasi yang baik dan dinamis antar tenaga keperawatan serta meningkatkan efisiensi, efektifitas dan menjamin kualitas asuhan keperawatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah  menganalisis sistim manajemen dokumentasi keperawatan pada poliklinik gigi rumah sakit berdasarkan standar pelayanan keperawatan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode analisis kualitatif, sumber data berasal dari observasi, dokumen dan wawancaramendalam. Informan penelitian berjumlah 10 (sepuluh) orang yang terdiri dari direktur rumah sakit, ketua PPGI Kota Bukittinggi, kepala ruangan poliklinik gigi/ kepala instalasi dan perawat gigi di pol iklinik gigi rumah sakit di Bukittinggi. Validasi data dilakukan dengan triangulasi, selanjutnya dilakukan analisis data, reduksi data, interpretasi dankomunikasikan makna temuan melalui laporan tertulis. Hasil penelitian didapatkan dokumentasi keperawatan pada poliklinik gigi belum terlaksana dengan optimal, hal ini mempengaruhi proses pendokumentasian, tidak tersedianya kartu khusus pencatatan pemeriksaan dan perawatan gigi juga sangat mempengaruhi sistim dokumentasi keperawatan pada poliklinik gigi. Kesimpulan penelitian ini ialahsistim penyelenggaraan dokumentasi keperawatanpada poliklinik gigi belum terlaksana dengan optimal karena belum tersedianya kartu pencatatan pemeriksaan dan perawatan gigi pada poliklinik gigi rumah sakit, belum adanya SOP dokumentasi keperawatan dan jika ada tidak pernah disosialisasikan. Kata kunci: dokumentasi, poliklinik gigi, manajemenAbstract Nursing documentation is written proof of service to patients by nursing staff that aims to avoid errors, and incompleteness of information overlapping in nursing so good and dynamic coordination between nursing staff and improve the efficiency, effectiveness and ensure the quality of nursing care. The objective of this study was to analyze nursing documentation management system in a hospital dental clinic based nursing care standards. The study was conducted with qualitative analysis methods, data sources derived from observations, documents and in-depth interviews. Informants numbered 10 ( ten ) members consisting of the hospital director, chief dental nurses union Indonesia ( PPGI ) of Bukittinggi, the head of the room / installation and head nurse at the dental clinic dental hospital in Bukittinggi. Data validation is done by triangulation, then performed the data analysis, data reduction, data display and conclusion. The results showed nursing documentation in the dental clinic has not done optimally, this affects the process of documenting, recording card unavailability of dental examinations and treatment also greatly affect the nursing documentation system in the dental clinic. In conclusion, the implementation of a nursing documentation system at a dental clinic is not performing optimally due to the unavailability of recording card dental examinations and treatment at the hospital dental clinic, lack of standard operating procedures (SOP) nursing documentation. Keywords: documentation, dental clinic, management
Differences in Maternal Leptin Serum Levels between Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia Yusrawati, Yusrawati; Habibah, Ratna Lestari; Machmud, Rizanda
The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 7, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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BACKGROUND: Maternal circulating leptin, placental leptin gene expression and protein levels are increased in preeclampsia as compared with those in normal pregnancy. Increased serum leptin levels in preeclampsia which correspond with increased gestational age can be used independently or with other parameters as a marker for the severity of preeclampsia. The advantages of this examination in identifying preeclampsia severity are its simplicity, fast result, low cost and applicability.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in delivery room, polyclinic of Dr. M. Djamil Hospital, and Biomedical Laboratories of Medical Faculty of Andalas University from December 2013 to April 2014. The samples were collected from 68 women with singleton pregnancy in their third trimester (>28 weeks) presenting to the polyclinic and the delivery room of Dr. M. Djamil hospital. Differences in maternal serum leptin between preeclampsia and normal pregnancy were determined using t-test and Wilcoxon test for data with and without normal distribution, respectively, where p<0.05 indicating a significant results.RESULTS: The mean maternal serum leptin levels in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia were 1588.7964 ± 8.01074 ng/mL and 1608.1725 ± 6.69579 ng/mL, respectively. Thus, there is a statistically significant difference in mean maternal serum leptin levels between the normal pregnancy and preeclampsia (p<0.05).CONCLUSION: There are significant differences in maternal serum leptin levels between women with normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.KEYWORDS: leptin, preeclampsia, pregnancy
Kolonisasi Kuman dan Kejadian Omfalitis pada Tiga Regimen Perawatan Tali Pusat pada Bayi Baru Lahir Yefri, Riza; Mayetti, Mayetti; Machmud, Rizanda
Sari Pediatri Vol 11, No 5 (2010)
Publisher : Badan Penerbit Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia (BP-IDAI)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.14238/sp11.5.2010.341-7

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Latar belakang. Infeksi merupakan penyebab terbanyak kematian bayi baru lahir dan salah satunya disebabkanoleh infeksi tali pusat (omfalitis). Untuk mencegah timbulnya omfalitis bermacam antiseptik atauantimikroba sudah digunakan secara luas. Rekomendasi pemilihan regimen perawatan harus didasarkanpola kolonisasi kuman di institusi tersebut. Badan Kesehatan dunia WHO dan AAP merekomendasikanperawatan tali pusat cara kering tanpa antiseptik ataupun antimikroba.Tujuan. Mengetahui pola kolonisasi kuman, kejadian omfalitis, dan lama puput tali pusat pada regimenperawatan dengan alkohol 70%, povidon iodin 10%, dan cara kering di RS Dr. M. Djamil Padang.Metode. Penelitian klinis eksperimental di Ruang Rawat Kebidanan dan Rawat Gabung RS dr. M. Djamilselama April hingga Agustus 2009. Bayi yang memenuhi kriteria penelitian dirandomisasi untuk mendapatkansatu metode perawatan tali pusat dengan alkohol 70%, povidon iodin 10%, atau cara kering. Swabumbilikal untuk biakan kuman dilakukan di rumah sakit saat bayi berusia 48-72 jam. Bayi diamati sampaitali pusat puput. Analisis data dengan uji chi-square dan Fischer exact.Hasil. Jumlah bayi yang diteliti 147, masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari 49 bayi. Hasil biakan ditemukanpertumbuhan kuman 97,3%, di antaranya 47,5% ditumbuhi lebih 1 kuman (polimikroba). Klebsiella speciesdan Staphylococcus aureus merupakan kuman dominan pada ketiga regimen. Kuman Gram negatif lebihbanyak dari Gram positif. Ditemukan satu kasus omfalitis pada cara kering. Lama puput tali pusat lebihcepat pada cara kering.Kesimpulan. Tidak terdapat perbedaan kolonisasi kuman pada ketiga regimen perawatan tali pusat. Kejadianomfalitis ditemukan satu kasus pada cara kering. Lama puput tali pusat lebih cepat pada cara kering.