Rizanda Machmoed
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Faktor Risiko Asma Pada Murid Sekolah Dasar Usia 6-7 Tahun di Kota Padang

Jurnal Kesehatan Andalas Vol 1, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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Abstract

Abstrak Latar belakang : Asma merupakan penyakit kronik yang sering dijumpai pada anak. Dilaporkan bahwa prevalens asma meningkat pada anak maupun dewasa. Usia 6-7 tahun merupakan periode dimana prevalens asma dan angka kunjungan ke rumah sakit karena asma lebih tinggi. Terjadinya asma dianggap sebagai interaksi yang kompleks antara faktor genetik dan faktor lingkungan. Faktor genetik sudah dibuktikan dari penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya, tetapi karakteristik faktor risiko lingkungan pada asma belum jelas. Apabila melihat derajat peningkatan kejadian asma, tidak mungkin hanya faktor genetik yang berperan, tetapi peran faktor lingkungan justru yang lebih besar. Tujuan : Untuk mengetahui prevalens dan faktor risiko asma pada anak SD usia 6-7 tahun di Kota Padang.Metoda : Suatu penelitian cross sectional di 20 SD di Kota Padang pada bulan Juni – November 2009 dengan jumlah sampel 879 orang. Terhadap setiap subjek dilakukan penelitian yaitu pembagian kuisioner ISAAC (international study of asthma and allergies in childhood) untuk orang tua. Analisis data dilakukan dengan uji chi-square untuk variabel katagorik dan analisis multivariat dengan regresi logistik. Data dianalisis menggunakan peranti lunak komputer.Hasil : Prevalens asma pada murid SD usia 6-7 tahun di Kota Padang berdasarkan kuisioner ISAAC sebesar 8%. Faktor yang paling dominan berpengaruh terhadap kejadian asma adalah atopi ayah atau ibu, diikuti faktor berat badan lahir dan kebiasaan merokok pada ibu serta pemberian obat parasetamol. Sedangkan pemberian ASI dan kontak dengan unggas merupakan faktor protektif terhadap kejadian asma. Kata kunci: faktor risiko, asma, sekolah dasar Abstract Background: Background Asthma is a common chronic disease in children. It had been reported that the prevalence of asthma in children and adults was increasing. The age of 6-7 years is the period where the prevalence and the number of visits to the hospital because of asthma are higher. The occurrence of asthma is considered as a complex interaction between genetic factors and environmental factors. Genetic factors have been proved to be the risk factor for asthma, but not for the characteristic of environmental that factors that were still unclear. If seeing the increased incidence of asthma, genetic factors might not play a role solely, but the environmental factors might play moreObjective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the risk factors of asthma in elementary school children aged 6-7 years in Padang.Methods This research is cross sectional study in 20 elementary schools in Padang during June until November 2009, total sample of 879 students. To each respondent the ISAAC (international study of asthma and allergies in childhood) questionnaire was given to be fulfilled. Data were analyzed using computer software. Results The prevalence of asthma in elementary school students aged 6-7 years in Padang based on ISAAC questionnaire was 8%. The most dominant factor influencing the incidence of asthma is atopic in father or mother, followed by factors of birth weight and maternal smoking habits and drug administration of paracetamol, while breastfeeding and poultry contact were protective factors. Keywords:risk factors, asthma, elementary school

Tuberculosis score chart signs and symptoms in children with positive tuberculin skin tests

Paediatrica Indonesiana Vol 52 No 2 (2012): March 2012
Publisher : Indonesian Pediatric Society

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Abstract

Background The Indonesian Pediatrics Respirology WorkingGroup (IPRWG) developed the tuberculosis (TB) scorechart to assist in diagnosing TB in community health centers(Puskesmas).Objectives To document signs and symptoms of the IPRWG TBscore chart, to analyze various combinations of these signs andsymptoms, and to compare these combinations in children withTB to those without TB, based on a TB score chart.Methods We performed a cross-sectional study from July toOctober 2008, in Padang, Bukittinggi and Pasaman. We recruitedchildren with known positive tuberculin skin tests (TST) from a2006 tuberculin survey. Questionnaires on signs and symptoms(IPRWG TB score chart) were completed and chest radiographswere obtained for all children. Subjects fulfilling a total score ofsix or more were considered to have a diagnosis of TB.Results We diagnosed TB in 78/285 (27.3%) subjects. A scorevalue of3 for the category of household contact (HHC) positivesmears was added in 21/78 subjects. However, the highest risk forTB disease was found in those diagnosed with no clear history ofHHC (58.9%; OR 192, 95% CI 22 to 1679). The highest riskfactors for TB were suggestive chest X-ray (34.6%; OR 9.2, 95%CI 3.6 to 23 .4) and fever lasting > 2 weeks (17.9%; OR 8, 95%CI 2.2 to 29.1), respectively. Of 46 children with TB diagnosisbut without HHC, the combination of undernourishment, lymphnode enlargement and suggestive chest X-ray was highest (28.2%).Individual or dual combination signs and symptoms were alsofound in children without TB diagnosis.Conclusion Various combinations of signs and symptoms couldlead to fulfillment of scoring for TB diagnosis. [Paediatr lndones.2012;5 2: 78-85].