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15
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Analytical Method Validation of Selected Organochlorine Pesticides in Fortified Rice Using Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector

Journal of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol 2, No 1 (2014): J. Food Pharm. Sci (January-April)
Publisher : Gadjah Mada University

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Abstract

Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) has been validated for simultaneous determination of selected organochlorine pesticides namely heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, dan p,p’-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p’-DDT) using aldrin as standard internal. Some parameters for analytical method validation were evaluated, i.e. linearity, precision, sensitivity expressed with limit of detection and limit of quantification, and recovery. GC-ECD was linear for determination of these pesticides with r values ≥ 0.99. The values of LOD obtained were 2.50, 2.97, 1.61, and 2.54 ng/mL for heptachlor, endosulphan, dieldrin, and p,p’-DDT, respectively. Furthermore, the relative standard deviation (RSD) values obtained for the assessment of analytical precision were lower than those required by Horwitz. Finally, the used GC-ECD method was accurate for determination of these organochlorine psticides in fortified rice samples which were indicated by the acceptable recovery percentages.

UJI EFEKTIVITAS PENGAWET ALAMI KULIT KAYU MANIS SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR VITAMIN-C MANISAN BUAH PEPAYA (Effectiveness Test of Natural Preservatives of Cinamomum Bark on Decreasing Vitamin-C of Papaja Candied)

Jurnal Bahan Alam Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2006)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

The  aims  of  this  study  were  to  find  out  the effectiveness  natural  preservative  i.e.  cinnamon ethanol  extract  and  to  know  decrease  of  vitamin  C  content  in  papaya  candied  products  added with preservative. Papaya  candied  products  were  processed  in  various  methods,  i.e.  without  preservative,  added with  cinnamon  ethanol  extract  0.1%,  0.2%,  0.3%,  and  added  with  sodium  benzoate  0.1%  as  a control.  The  microbe  number  was  analyzed  by  using  pour  plate  method  and  the  mold  using surface method at 0, 7 and 14 days storage. The vitamin C content was obtained in fresh papaya and products at 14 days storage by using 2,6 dichlorophenol indophenol titration method. The  result  showed  that  sodium  benzoate  0.1%  more  effective  as  a  preservative  than  cinnamon ethanol extract up to 0.3%. Preservatives added into papaya-candied products influenced vitamin C content. Higher concentration of cinnamon ethanol extract added higher decrease of vitamin C content.

Bioassay on n-Hexane Extract of Leaves Cassia alata against Candida albicans

Jurnal Natural Volume 14, Number 1, Year 2014
Publisher : Jurnal Natural

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Abstract

The study of biological activity from n-hexane extract of leaves’ Cassia alata had been done against Candida albicans as bioindicator. Dried leaves of C. alata (850 g) were macerated into n-hexane to obtain a dark green crude extract (31.79 g). The n-hexane crude extract was then subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) and eluted with n-hexane and ethyl acetate to give 4 sub-fractions, namely fraction A (7.7251 g), fraction B (1.9419 g), fraction C (1.3565 g) and fraction D (1.4737 g) respectively. Based on phytochemical analysis, both n-hexane crude extract and chromatographic sub-fractions contained steroids as their secondary metabolite constituent. The antifungal activity was tested against C. albicans using the agar-disc diffusion method with three different concentrations (10, 30 and 50%). Fraction D showed medium antifungal activity at 10.6, 11.3 and 12.6 of diameter-inhibition zones (mm) respectively.

Safety Evaluation of Chicken Satay In Yogyakarta Indonesia Based on Benzo[A]Pyrene Content

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 3, No 3 (2012)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Chicken  satay  is  one  of  Indonesian  food  which  is  very  popular  and  processed  by direct  flame  over  the  meat.  But,  almost  every  types  of  food  which  are  prepared  by  direct flame  will  produce  chemical  compounds  that  contributes  to  the  incidence  of  cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a group of compound which can cause cancer and is  resulted  from  the  incomplete  combustion  of  fossil  fuels  or  pyrolysis  of  organic  material containing  carbon  and  hydrogen  atoms.  One  PAH  compound  having  mutagenic  and  highly carcinogenic  effect  is  benzo[a]pyrene  which  is  the  highest  content  found  in  foods  that  are burned directly on the flame. This study aims to establish levels of benzo[a]pyrene contained in  chicken  satay  in  Yogyakarta,  Indonesia  and  to  evaluate  how  it  meets  with  the maximumbenzo[a]pyrene  limit  in  the  burned  food  based  on  National  Agency  of  Drug  and Food  Control  which  is  equal  to  5  ppb  (5  mg/kg).  Analysis  were  performed  by  Gas Chromatography  method  using  helium  as  carrier  gas  and  CPCB-Sil8  as  stationary  phase. After  the  sample  was  prepared  and  analysed  by  GC,  it  is  known  that  the  amount  of benzo[a]pyrene in chicken satay found in Yogyakarta are ranging from 2.5 to 393.32 ppb. The result are quite high and far  above the safety limit determined by  National Agency of Drug and Food Control.Therefore, the result of the research needs to be socialized to the public so that people can be more aware about the danger of food they consume.Keywords: chicken  satay,  benzo[a]pyrene  (BaP),  policyclic  aromatic  hidrocarbon  (PAH), carsinogen, Yogyakarta

PHYTOSTEROL CONTENT IN BENGKOANG (Pachyrhizus erosus)

Pharmacon Vol 13, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Pharmacon

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Abstract

Bengkoang has long been used by ancestors as a raw material for cosmetics. In Indonesia, it is usually eaten raw, sometimes with salt, lemon juice and powdered chili. However, scientific evidences that support the use of bengkoang have not been widely published. Phytosterols from the bengkoang root have been isolated and identified based on their NMR spectrum data and mass spectrum. The result of the structure elucidation informed that ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol are major components of phytosterol in bengkoang root. Phytosterol content was about 0.02% of dry weight bengkoang or 2.76 % in petroleum ether extract of bengkoang, with a ratio of ß-sitosterol and stigmasterol (65:35). Therefore, bengkoang can be further exploited as a raw material of phytosterol supplement.

KAJIAN GLISEMIK INDEKS DAN MAKRONUTRIEN DARI UMBI-UMBIAN DALAM UPAYA PENCARIAN SUMBER PANGAN

Pharmacon Vol 13, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : Pharmacon

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Abstract

Dewasa ini, di Indonesia eksplorasi untuk mencari bahan pangan alternatif pengganti beras masih terus dilakukan. Kandungan makronutrien dan kajian glisemik indeks dari umbi ganyong (Canna edulis Kerr.), walur (Amorphophallus variabilis), porang (Amorphophallus Oncophyllus Prain), suweg (Amorphophallus campanulatus Bl ) dan uwi (Dioscorea alata L.) telah dilakukan pada penelitian ini dan bertujuan untuk memberikan dasar ilmiah pemilihan pangan alternatif, terutama bagi penderita diabetes mellitus dan obesitas. Pengukuran kandungan makronutrien meliputi kandungan karbohidrat mereduksi dan tidak mereduksi, protein dan serat dilakukan mengacu pada metode AOAC (1990), sedangkan glisemik indeks ditetapkan secara in vivo menggunakan hewan percobaan tikus jantan galur Wistar. Glisemik indeks sampel umbi-umbian seluruhnya lebih rendah dari glisemik indeks beras (72,8). Harga glisemik indeks sangat dipengaruhi oleh kandungan serat, sedangkan pengaruh kandungan karbohidrat terhadap harga glisemik indeks tidak dapat diamati. Walur dan porang memiliki kandungan serat yang besar, yaitu masing-masing 15,09% dan 11,27%, sedangkan harga glisemik indeks masing-masing sekitar 20,6 dan 16,9. Kata kunci: glisemik indeks, makronutrien, karbohidrat, serat, protein 

ANALISIS AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KANDUNGAN ANTOSIANIN TOTAL EKSTRAK DAN LIPOSOM KELOPAK BUNGA ROSELLA (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.)

Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 16, No 3 (2011)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Formulasi bentuk liposom merupakan salah satu cara yang diaplikasikan untuk mengatasi keterbatasan stabilitas antosianin dalam ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) yang mudah rusak oleh faktor lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan dan kandungan total antosianin ekstrak dan bentuk liposom kelopak bunga rosella. Pembuatan ekstrak dilakukan dengan maserasi bertingkat dengan metanol:asam format (97:3) sebagai cairan penyari yang paling baik dari segi rendemen (26,40% b/b) dan aktivitas antioksidan (uji hambatan DPPH) yang dihasilkan (19,991% + 0,001) bila dibandingkan terhadap hasil maserasi menggunakan kombinasi pelarut etanol, metanol, dan akuades. Liposom dibuat dari ekstrak metanol kelopak bunga rosella dengan metode fase terbalik. Hasil uji stabilitas dengan penyimpanan selama 30 hari pada suhu rendah (0-50C) dalam wadah jenuh nitrogen menujukkan penurunan 11,25% aktivitas antioksidan (uji DPPH) bentuk ekstrak, sedangkan bentuk liposom hanya mengalami penurunan sebesar 0,93%. Demikian pula pada stabilitas kandungan antosianin total, dimana ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella mengalami penurunan sebesar 39,12% sedangkan bentuk liposom hanya mengalami penuruanan 0,72%. Lebih lanjut, hasil uji iritasi menunjukkan bentuk liposom memiliki iritasi yang lebih rendah dibandingkan bentuk ekstrak kelopak bunga rosella. Oleh karena itu, disimpulkan bahwa antosianin terenkapsulasi liposom lebih stabil, efektif, dan aman bila dibandingkan dengan bentuk ekstrak metanol kelopak bunga rosella.

SKRINING IN SILICO SENYAWA AKTIF BENGKOANG (Pachyrrhizus erosus) SEBAGAI ANTITIROSINASE PADA Aspergillus oryzae (STUDI KOMPUTASIONAL DENGAN HOMOLOGY MODELING DAN MOLECULAR DOCKING)

Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 20, No 1 (2015)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Bengkoang has been widely used in the cosmetics industry as a whitening agent. Based on research by Lukitaningsih (2009), bengkoang contains 6 active compounds that  acts as a inhibitors of the Aspergillus oryzae (TyrAo) tyrosinase enzyme. However, the interaction between the active compounds in bengkoang and the enzyme tyrosinase has not been known yet. Interaction between bengkoangs active compounds and TyrAo enzyme can be identified by computational studies (in silico). The interaction is conducted using homology modeling and molecular docking. Homology modeling performed to design a three-dimensional (3D) model of Aspergillus oryzae tyrosinase enzyme (TyrAo) using a template form of known 3D structure of TyrAb enzyme (PDBID: 2Y9X). TyrAo model used as target macromolecules in molecular docking method. Molecular docking method is a method to describe ligand (active compounds) position on the active receptor (TyrAo model). Based on the docking results, it is known that residues interacting on the active site of tyrosinase enzyme were Thr275 and His294 residues. The Thr275 made a hydrogen bonding, while the His294 residue made a hydrophobic interaction on the aromatic ring. Experiments in silico and in vitro have been done; the results exhibited a good correlation of them with R2 value of -0.8366. This correlation indicates that the activity of the active compounds in Bengkoang was similar with the results of them in silico and in vitro studies.

INDEK GLIKEMIK UWI, GADUNG DAN TALAS YANG DIBERIKAN PADA TIKUS

Majalah Obat Tradisional Vol 18, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Indonesia kaya akan umbi lokal yang semakin hari semakin dilupakan oleh generasi sekarang sebagai sumber bahan pangan yang sehat. Seiring dengan makin meningkatnya penyakit degeneratif terkait tingginya asupan glukosa, perlu digali kembali kekayaan lokal umbi-umbian dan pembuktian kandungan karbohidrat sehat di dalamnya yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pangan di masa depan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui indek glikemik (IG)  umbi-umbian yang diberikan secara oral pada tikus. Umbi yang diteliti antara lain, Uwi (Dioscorea alata), Gadung (Dioscorea hispida) dan Talas (Colocasia esculenta). Tikus dikelompokkan menjadi 9 kelompok masing-masing terdiri 4 ekor. Umbi diberikan dalam bentuk serbuk yang disuspensikan ke dalam Na CMC 0,1%  dengan dosis 2,5 g/kg berat badan (BB), kontrol positif berupa glukosa pemberian oral dosis 2,5 g/kg BB. Dilakukan pengambilan sampel darah hewan uji pada jam ke 0 (sebelum pemberian senyawa uji atau kontrol), 0,5; 1 dan jam ke-2 setelah pemberian senyawa uji.  Serum darah selanjutnya ditetapkan kadar glukosanya menggunakan GOD-PAP kit. Data berupa kadar glukosa darah hewan uji versus waktu dianalisis menjadi Area Under Curve (AUC) kadar glukosa versus waktu (0-2 jam). Perhitungan IG dilakukan dengan membandingkan AUC (0-2jam) senyawa uji terhadap AUC (0-2jam) glukosa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ketiga umbi yang diteliti memiliki nilai IG rendah (14-22). Umbi lokal dapat dikembangkan sebagai sumber karbohidrat yang sehat.

ANALYSIS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON IN SOME MEAT PRODUCTS

INDONESIAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY Vol 12 No 3, 2001
Publisher : Faculty of Pharmacy Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Skip Utara, 55281, Indonesia

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Abstract

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic compounds, composed two or more fused aromatic (benzene) rings, occurred in the environment due to incomplete combustion of organic matters such as forest fires, volcanic eruption, burning of fossil fuels and incorrect process of meat cooking (grilling, smoking, roasting). Healt concerns are focussed on the metabolite transformation of PAHs, which may have mutagenic, carcinogenic and terratogenic activity. Due to their hydophobicity, it is probable the compounds enter human food chain and accumulated in human lipid tissues. Therefore, environment pollution by PAHs must be considered. PAHs gain entry to human body through several routes including respiration, absorpsion through skin surface ang through food consumption that have been polluted with PAHs. In this study concentrations of PAHs (pyrene, perilene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluorantrene and benzo(a)pyrene) in traditional smoked meat, liquid smoked meat and roasted meat are determined. Determination of PAHs used gas chromatograph with OV 17 2% as a stationary phase, nitrogen as carrier gas and flame ionization detector. The results showed that PAHs concentrations in traditional smoked meat were higher than liquid smoked meat (41.19 ppb and 1.03 – 9.26 ppb). In the roasted meat, lipid concentration and roasting time influence PAHs concentration level.Keywords : polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, smoked meat, liquid smoke