Darwinsyah Lubis
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Effectiveness of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture to improve digestion of fibrous feeds Lubis, Darwinsyah; Wina, E; Haryanto, B; Suhargiantatmo, T
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 7, No 2 (2002): JUNE 2002
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (199.957 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i2.280

Abstract

Studies regarding the use of living microorganisms as supplement have been done in the last two decades to improve digestion process in the rumen. Many factors affect the use of the supplement, such as ration composition and physiological status of the animals. Materials used in this experiment are Aspergillus oryzae (AO) derived from ‘tauco’ (salty fermented soybean) and soybean sauce processing factories located in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi districts (15 sources), and also AO culture collections of the Indonesian Res. Inst. for Anim. Prod. (2 strains) and one strain from Indonesian Res. Inst. for Vet. Sci. in Bogor. The fungus was first isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA), incubated at room temp. (26-300C) for 5 days for purification. The AO from PDA then inoculated into cooked rice enriched with mineral mix, oven-dried (40-450C), then ground and kept in refrigerator as a stock culture for further use. To produce more AO (scaling-up), the culture is inoculated in two basal media, i.e. soybean meal and ‘onggok’ (tapioca processing waste) enriched with mineral mix, dried and ground, then kept in refrigerator as A. oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC). Ground-dried King grass was used for in vitro digestion trials using sheep rumen fluid, which was not supplemented (control) or supplemented with the AOFC (10% w/w) from various sources. Three best AOFC (by origin) were chosen and used for further digestion study. The study was run using 2 (media) x 3 (AOFC origin) factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design and Duncan’s MRT was applied to test differences among treatment means. Preliminary results indicated of the AOFC-SP66, -F172, and -CT4 used, the best AOFC was SP66, as it increased (P<0.05) fiber (NDF) digestion (10.5% better than the control). Total VFA productions were similar, but acetate content in the rumen fluid was lowered (P<0.05), while propionate and butyrate levels were alleviated (P<0.05) by the AOFC-SP66. Ammonia content was not affected by addition of AOFC. No differences were detected on digestion parameters between the two media used for AO cultivation, therefore, it is suggested to use ‘onggok’ for producing AOFC in large scale. VFAs composition pattern suggests that AOFC was more suitably used for meat rather than for milk production. Key words: Fungus, King grass, digestibility, rumen fluid
Feeding Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Culture (AOFC) to Growing Sheep: 1. The Effect of AOFC on Rumen Fermentation Lubis, Darwinsyah; Wina, Elizabeth; Haryanto, Budi; Suhargiyantatmo, T
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 7, No 3 (2002): SEPTEMBER 2002
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (176.335 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i3.289

Abstract

Cultures of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, have been of interest to animal nutritionists to increase feed efficiency. Many experiments have been done and showed positive results on rumen fermentation and productivity of ruminants. This paper reports the results of an in vivo study on feeding Aspergillus oryzae, fermentation culture (AOFC) to growing sheep. ‘Onggok’ (tapioca processing waste) was used as media for AO cultivation after being enriched with a mineral mixture. Commercial concentrate (GT-03) was fed to 15 growing sheep supplemented with 0% (C0), 5% (C1), and 10% (C2) AOFC (w/w). Chopped fresh King grass was used as a basal diet. The 3 treatments were randomly allotted to the sheep according to randomized block design with 5 replications. The study was carried out for 14 weeks. Digestion trial was conducted in the last 10 days of experiment. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for nutrients. Rumen fluid was sampled at the mid experimental period. Analyses were done on rumen pH, ammonia content, (VFA) volatile fatly acids concentration, and also total digestive tract digestibility of dry and organic matter, crude protein, and total fiber (NDF). Differences in treatment means were analyzed by Duncan’s MRT. Feeding AOFC resulted in increased (P<0.05) digestibility of crude protein from 59.6% in control sheep to 65.5% in sheep fed concentrate with 10% AOFC supplementation. The same pattern also occurred for NDF, but no effect was found on dry and organic matter. Higher fiber digestibility with AOFC supplementation was in line with an increase (P<0.05) in cellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen. VFA produced also increased (P<0.05), as well as individual acids content, primarily acetate and propionate. No differences (P<0.05) were detected in rumen pH and ammonia content. It appears that AOFC is more suitable for the purpose of meat production.   Key words: A. oryzae, sheep, digestibility, rumen, in vivo
Crop-Livestock Integration in a Competitive, Sustainable and Democratize Agribusiness Development Diwyanto, Kusuma; Prawiradiputra, Bambang R; Lubis, Darwinsyah
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (337.267 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v12i1.771

Abstract

The concept of integrated crop and livestock in Indonesian farming systems has actually been practiced by farmers since they familiar with farming, but they practiced  the systems by traditional way, without any consideration of cost-benefit as well as environmental impact. The research on crops-livestock systems has been conducted systematically since early 1980’s. The study considered many aspects in sustainability such as environmentally tolerable, socially acceptable, economically feasible and politically desirable. In late 1990’s the crops-livestock systems came to a very important step with intensifying the integration between rice and cattle, in this case through optimization of the manure. The added value of organic fertilizer could reach till 40%. In dairy cattle such a technology was able to benefit Rp 11.000 per cattle per day. In this case, with LEISA (low external input sustainable agriculture) approach, any 8 − 10 liter of milk produced by  a head of cattle needed feed equal to as much as 3 −4 liter of milk only. With LEISA approach the crops-livestock systems has empirically proved the ability of providing job by using the local input efficiently. In improving efficiency, the use of local resources such as local feed and local cattle need to be optimized. To develop the technology that support the concept of crop-livestock systems, the Government could help the farmers through extension so that the farmers willing to use organic fertilizer, especially manure of the cattle. The rice field in the northern part of West Java is a huge potency to produce rice straw as cattle feed. Based on the fact, the beef cattle can be developed in this area so that the manure available to fertilize the rice fields. If the crop-livestock systems is successfully developed in the area, the improve of rice production and productivity is happened, and in turn, the farmers welfare will also increase.   Key words: Farming systems, crops, livestock, organic fertilizer, local resources, crop by product
Growth rate of sheep fed high fat ration Lubis, Darwinsyah; Wina, E.M; Rubiono, Bambang E
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 3, No 3 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (160.195 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i3.108

Abstract

Incorporating high amount of fats into the ration for ruminants will affect the rumen microbes adversely and will reducefiber digestion potential. To correct such negative effects, the free fatty acids used for feed should be bond with Ca++, so it canpassing through the rumen savely (rumen by-pass fat). To test the Ca-fat utilization biologically, 20 growing male Garut shee pwere used and fed with 4 type of isocaloric-isoprotein concentrate feed which were allotted based on a randomized block desig nwith 5 replications. The concentrate (C)-A was a positive control diet, while C-B was substituted with 10% free fatty acids (negative control), C-C was substituted with 10% Ca-fat, and C-D with 15% Ca-fat. The concentrate feed was fed at 500 g/d, while forage (King grass) was 4 kg/d. Results of the experiment showed that the negative effect of free fatty acids can be corrected if it was given in the form of Ca-fat. Growth rate curve indicating a good growing pattern, with average daily gain was 100.18, 87.68, 112.86, and 115.00 g/d (P<0.05) for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D treatments, respectively. Total dry matter intake for the respective 4 treatments were 875.9, 855.2, 866.7, and 847.4 g/d (P>0.05). Carcass production was relatively good, where for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D were 14.84, 14.68, 16.34, and 15.72 kg (P<0.05) respectively, with final live weights of 34.00, 31.74, 34.58, and 34.30 kg (P<0.05). It can be concluded that Ca-fat (rumen by-pass fat) can be used as an energy source component for growing sheep diet, and give the best result at 10% substitution rate in concentrate feed.   Key words : Rumen by-pass fat, growth rate, carcass, sheep
Effectiveness of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture to improve digestion of fibrous feeds Lubis, Darwinsyah; Wina, E; Haryanto, B; Suhargiantatmo, T
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 7, No 2 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (199.957 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i2.280

Abstract

Studies regarding the use of living microorganisms as supplement have been done in the last two decades to improve digestion process in the rumen. Many factors affect the use of the supplement, such as ration composition and physiological status of the animals. Materials used in this experiment are Aspergillus oryzae (AO) derived from ‘tauco’ (salty fermented soybean) and soybean sauce processing factories located in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi districts (15 sources), and also AO culture collections of the Indonesian Res. Inst. for Anim. Prod. (2 strains) and one strain from Indonesian Res. Inst. for Vet. Sci. in Bogor. The fungus was first isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA), incubated at room temp. (26-300C) for 5 days for purification. The AO from PDA then inoculated into cooked rice enriched with mineral mix, oven-dried (40-450C), then ground and kept in refrigerator as a stock culture for further use. To produce more AO (scaling-up), the culture is inoculated in two basal media, i.e. soybean meal and ‘onggok’ (tapioca processing waste) enriched with mineral mix, dried and ground, then kept in refrigerator as A. oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC). Ground-dried King grass was used for in vitro digestion trials using sheep rumen fluid, which was not supplemented (control) or supplemented with the AOFC (10% w/w) from various sources. Three best AOFC (by origin) were chosen and used for further digestion study. The study was run using 2 (media) x 3 (AOFC origin) factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design and Duncan’s MRT was applied to test differences among treatment means. Preliminary results indicated of the AOFC-SP66, -F172, and -CT4 used, the best AOFC was SP66, as it increased (P<0.05) fiber (NDF) digestion (10.5% better than the control). Total VFA productions were similar, but acetate content in the rumen fluid was lowered (P<0.05), while propionate and butyrate levels were alleviated (P<0.05) by the AOFC-SP66. Ammonia content was not affected by addition of AOFC. No differences were detected on digestion parameters between the two media used for AO cultivation, therefore, it is suggested to use ‘onggok’ for producing AOFC in large scale. VFAs composition pattern suggests that AOFC was more suitably used for meat rather than for milk production. Key words: Fungus, King grass, digestibility, rumen fluid
Feeding Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Culture (AOFC) to Growing Sheep: 1. The Effect of AOFC on Rumen Fermentation Lubis, Darwinsyah; Wina, Elizabeth; Haryanto, Budi; Suhargiyantatmo, T
Indonesian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 7, No 3 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (176.335 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i3.289

Abstract

Cultures of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, have been of interest to animal nutritionists to increase feed efficiency. Many experiments have been done and showed positive results on rumen fermentation and productivity of ruminants. This paper reports the results of an in vivo study on feeding Aspergillus oryzae, fermentation culture (AOFC) to growing sheep. ‘Onggok’ (tapioca processing waste) was used as media for AO cultivation after being enriched with a mineral mixture. Commercial concentrate (GT-03) was fed to 15 growing sheep supplemented with 0% (C0), 5% (C1), and 10% (C2) AOFC (w/w). Chopped fresh King grass was used as a basal diet. The 3 treatments were randomly allotted to the sheep according to randomized block design with 5 replications. The study was carried out for 14 weeks. Digestion trial was conducted in the last 10 days of experiment. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for nutrients. Rumen fluid was sampled at the mid experimental period. Analyses were done on rumen pH, ammonia content, (VFA) volatile fatly acids concentration, and also total digestive tract digestibility of dry and organic matter, crude protein, and total fiber (NDF). Differences in treatment means were analyzed by Duncan’s MRT. Feeding AOFC resulted in increased (P<0.05) digestibility of crude protein from 59.6% in control sheep to 65.5% in sheep fed concentrate with 10% AOFC supplementation. The same pattern also occurred for NDF, but no effect was found on dry and organic matter. Higher fiber digestibility with AOFC supplementation was in line with an increase (P<0.05) in cellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen. VFA produced also increased (P<0.05), as well as individual acids content, primarily acetate and propionate. No differences (P<0.05) were detected in rumen pH and ammonia content. It appears that AOFC is more suitable for the purpose of meat production.   Key words: A. oryzae, sheep, digestibility, rumen, in vivo
Feeding Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Culture (AOFC) to Growing Sheep: 1. The Effect of AOFC on Rumen Fermentation Lubis, Darwinsyah; Wina, Elizabeth; Haryanto, Budi; Suhargiyantatmo, T
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 7, No 3 (2002): SEPTEMBER 2002
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (176.335 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i3.289

Abstract

Cultures of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, have been of interest to animal nutritionists to increase feed efficiency. Many experiments have been done and showed positive results on rumen fermentation and productivity of ruminants. This paper reports the results of an in vivo study on feeding Aspergillus oryzae, fermentation culture (AOFC) to growing sheep. ‘Onggok’ (tapioca processing waste) was used as media for AO cultivation after being enriched with a mineral mixture. Commercial concentrate (GT-03) was fed to 15 growing sheep supplemented with 0% (C0), 5% (C1), and 10% (C2) AOFC (w/w). Chopped fresh King grass was used as a basal diet. The 3 treatments were randomly allotted to the sheep according to randomized block design with 5 replications. The study was carried out for 14 weeks. Digestion trial was conducted in the last 10 days of experiment. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for nutrients. Rumen fluid was sampled at the mid experimental period. Analyses were done on rumen pH, ammonia content, (VFA) volatile fatly acids concentration, and also total digestive tract digestibility of dry and organic matter, crude protein, and total fiber (NDF). Differences in treatment means were analyzed by Duncan’s MRT. Feeding AOFC resulted in increased (P<0.05) digestibility of crude protein from 59.6% in control sheep to 65.5% in sheep fed concentrate with 10% AOFC supplementation. The same pattern also occurred for NDF, but no effect was found on dry and organic matter. Higher fiber digestibility with AOFC supplementation was in line with an increase (P<0.05) in cellulolytic bacteria population in the rumen. VFA produced also increased (P<0.05), as well as individual acids content, primarily acetate and propionate. No differences (P<0.05) were detected in rumen pH and ammonia content. It appears that AOFC is more suitable for the purpose of meat production.   Key words: A. oryzae, sheep, digestibility, rumen, in vivo
Effectiveness of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture to improve digestion of fibrous feeds Lubis, Darwinsyah; Wina, E; Haryanto, B; Suhargiantatmo, T
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 7, No 2 (2002): JUNE 2002
Publisher : Indonesian Animal Sciences Society

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (199.957 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v7i2.280

Abstract

Studies regarding the use of living microorganisms as supplement have been done in the last two decades to improve digestion process in the rumen. Many factors affect the use of the supplement, such as ration composition and physiological status of the animals. Materials used in this experiment are Aspergillus oryzae (AO) derived from ‘tauco’ (salty fermented soybean) and soybean sauce processing factories located in Bogor, Cianjur, and Sukabumi districts (15 sources), and also AO culture collections of the Indonesian Res. Inst. for Anim. Prod. (2 strains) and one strain from Indonesian Res. Inst. for Vet. Sci. in Bogor. The fungus was first isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA), incubated at room temp. (26-300C) for 5 days for purification. The AO from PDA then inoculated into cooked rice enriched with mineral mix, oven-dried (40-450C), then ground and kept in refrigerator as a stock culture for further use. To produce more AO (scaling-up), the culture is inoculated in two basal media, i.e. soybean meal and ‘onggok’ (tapioca processing waste) enriched with mineral mix, dried and ground, then kept in refrigerator as A. oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC). Ground-dried King grass was used for in vitro digestion trials using sheep rumen fluid, which was not supplemented (control) or supplemented with the AOFC (10% w/w) from various sources. Three best AOFC (by origin) were chosen and used for further digestion study. The study was run using 2 (media) x 3 (AOFC origin) factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design and Duncan’s MRT was applied to test differences among treatment means. Preliminary results indicated of the AOFC-SP66, -F172, and -CT4 used, the best AOFC was SP66, as it increased (P<0.05) fiber (NDF) digestion (10.5% better than the control). Total VFA productions were similar, but acetate content in the rumen fluid was lowered (P<0.05), while propionate and butyrate levels were alleviated (P<0.05) by the AOFC-SP66. Ammonia content was not affected by addition of AOFC. No differences were detected on digestion parameters between the two media used for AO cultivation, therefore, it is suggested to use ‘onggok’ for producing AOFC in large scale. VFAs composition pattern suggests that AOFC was more suitably used for meat rather than for milk production. Key words: Fungus, King grass, digestibility, rumen fluid
Crop-Livestock Integration in a Competitive, Sustainable and Democratize Agribusiness Development Diwyanto, Kusuma; Prawiradiputra, Bambang R; Lubis, Darwinsyah
WARTAZOA. Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences Vol 12, No 1 (2002)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (337.267 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/wartazoa.v12i1.771

Abstract

The concept of integrated crop and livestock in Indonesian farming systems has actually been practiced by farmers since they familiar with farming, but they practiced  the systems by traditional way, without any consideration of cost-benefit as well as environmental impact. The research on crops-livestock systems has been conducted systematically since early 1980’s. The study considered many aspects in sustainability such as environmentally tolerable, socially acceptable, economically feasible and politically desirable. In late 1990’s the crops-livestock systems came to a very important step with intensifying the integration between rice and cattle, in this case through optimization of the manure. The added value of organic fertilizer could reach till 40%. In dairy cattle such a technology was able to benefit Rp 11.000 per cattle per day. In this case, with LEISA (low external input sustainable agriculture) approach, any 8 − 10 liter of milk produced by  a head of cattle needed feed equal to as much as 3 −4 liter of milk only. With LEISA approach the crops-livestock systems has empirically proved the ability of providing job by using the local input efficiently. In improving efficiency, the use of local resources such as local feed and local cattle need to be optimized. To develop the technology that support the concept of crop-livestock systems, the Government could help the farmers through extension so that the farmers willing to use organic fertilizer, especially manure of the cattle. The rice field in the northern part of West Java is a huge potency to produce rice straw as cattle feed. Based on the fact, the beef cattle can be developed in this area so that the manure available to fertilize the rice fields. If the crop-livestock systems is successfully developed in the area, the improve of rice production and productivity is happened, and in turn, the farmers welfare will also increase.   Key words: Farming systems, crops, livestock, organic fertilizer, local resources, crop by product
Growth rate of sheep fed high fat ration Lubis, Darwinsyah; Wina, E.M; Rubiono, Bambang E
Jurnal Ilmu Ternak dan Veteriner Vol 3, No 3 (1998)
Publisher : Indonesian Center for Animal Research and Development (ICARD)

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (160.195 KB) | DOI: 10.14334/jitv.v3i3.108

Abstract

Incorporating high amount of fats into the ration for ruminants will affect the rumen microbes adversely and will reducefiber digestion potential. To correct such negative effects, the free fatty acids used for feed should be bond with Ca++, so it canpassing through the rumen savely (rumen by-pass fat). To test the Ca-fat utilization biologically, 20 growing male Garut shee pwere used and fed with 4 type of isocaloric-isoprotein concentrate feed which were allotted based on a randomized block desig nwith 5 replications. The concentrate (C)-A was a positive control diet, while C-B was substituted with 10% free fatty acids (negative control), C-C was substituted with 10% Ca-fat, and C-D with 15% Ca-fat. The concentrate feed was fed at 500 g/d, while forage (King grass) was 4 kg/d. Results of the experiment showed that the negative effect of free fatty acids can be corrected if it was given in the form of Ca-fat. Growth rate curve indicating a good growing pattern, with average daily gain was 100.18, 87.68, 112.86, and 115.00 g/d (P&lt;0.05) for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D treatments, respectively. Total dry matter intake for the respective 4 treatments were 875.9, 855.2, 866.7, and 847.4 g/d (P&gt;0.05). Carcass production was relatively good, where for C-A, C-B, C-C, and C-D were 14.84, 14.68, 16.34, and 15.72 kg (P&lt;0.05) respectively, with final live weights of 34.00, 31.74, 34.58, and 34.30 kg (P&lt;0.05). It can be concluded that Ca-fat (rumen by-pass fat) can be used as an energy source component for growing sheep diet, and give the best result at 10% substitution rate in concentrate feed.   Key words : Rumen by-pass fat, growth rate, carcass, sheep