Melva Louisa
Deputy Editor of Medical Journal of Indonesia Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

Published : 19 Documents
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The Efficacy of Piper crocatum Extract in Reducing the Symptoms of Physiological Fluor Albus Zubier, Farida; Bramono, Kusmarinah; Widaty, Sandra; Nilasari, Hanny; Louisa, Melva; Rosana, Yeva
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 60 No. 1 January 2010
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Leukorrhea or increased vaginal discharge is a common complaint female adolescences. Piper crocatum extract or red betel vine extract is known to have antiseptic and antibacterial effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the antiseptic effect of Piper crocatum extract soap in the reduction of symptoms of physiologic leukorrhea in the external genitalia area. This was an open, comparative, 2 parallel groups, clinical trial. Thirty five out of 52 screened subjects met the selection criteria and finished the clinical trial. In the evaluation of Candida sp, Streptococcus sp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis on the product-smeared or control-smeared perineum, it was found that the colony of Candida sp. and Streptococcus epidermidis is less on the productsmeared perineum than in the control-smeared perineum. Streptococcus sp. was not found in both product-smeared or control-smeared perineum. Piper crocatum extract soap reduced the total score (skin redness, unpleasant odor, score of vaginal discharge, edema and squammation) from 1,40 to 0,20 after one week. From the analysis of the subjects’ diary card it was found that Piper crocatum extract soap reduced the score of vaginal discharge from 0,65 (Day 1) to 0,24 (Day 8). There is no adverse event recorded except for one event of squammation.Keywords: red betel vine extract, leucorrhea, Candida sp., Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus sp
Quit Smoking Program Sadikin, Zunilda Djanun; Louisa, Melva
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 58 No. 4 April 2008
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Smoking is one of the major risk factors for some killing diseases such as CAD and cancer. However many people are involved with this intractable bad habit. Helping people get rid of smoking, therefore, should be included in the preventive medicine activities. This is true for Indonesia because Indonesia is the 5th country in the world with the biggest number of smokers. Understanding of how people being trapped in the habit, the impact of smoking to health, and the health technology available to stop smoking habit should be mastered by primary care physicians because they are expected to serve leadership in the combat against tobacco. Quit smoking program is an integration of cognitive therapy, behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy aimed at cessation of the habit. The pharmacotherapy especially needed by the heavy smokers because the nicotine withdrawal syndrome is the factor responsible for the failure of the program. The knowledge on addiction process that happened in the smokers has brought up nicotine replecement therapy to the smoking cessation program. Varenicline, currently available in Indonesian market, is a partial agonist at nicotine receptor that can be used as pharmacotherapy in the quit smoking program.Keywords: primary care physician, quit smoking program, NRT, nicotine withdrawal syndrome, varenicline
A closer look at hypoxia inducible factor Louisa, Melva
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 21, No 3 (2012): August
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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[No Abstract Available]
Incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian patients: Analysis of clinical trials Louisa, Melva; Takeuchi, Madoka; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Nafrialdi, Nafrialdi; Setiabudy, Rianto
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 19, No 3 (2010): August
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Aim To review the effi cacy and safety data on incretin-based therapies currently available (exenatide, liraglutide, sitagliptin, vildagliptin) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian population.Methods We conducted Medline search of all relevant randomized clinical trials of incretin-based therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian populations. Data pertinent to the efficacy and safety of GLP-1 mimetics and DPP-4 inhibitors were extracted and used.Results We found 14 randomized controlled trials of incretin based-therapy which included 3567 type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asian population (Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Indian). It was shown that incretin-based therapies improved HbA1c at higher extent (up to -1.42% in exenatide 10 mcg bid, -1.85% for liraglutide 0.9 mg qd, -1.4% for sitagliptin 100 mg and -1.4% for vildagliptin 50 mg bid) compared to the effects observed in studies with Caucasian population, with comparable safety profile.Conclusion The efficacy of incretin-based therapies in Asian patients improved glycemic parameters in a higher magnitude on some glycemic parameters compared with those in Caucasian population. These results indicate that incretin-based therapies may be more effective in Asian population than in Caucasian. (Med J Indones 2010; 19: 205-12)Key words: exenatide, incretin, liraglutide, sitagliptin, type-2 diabetes, vildagliptin
Influence of primaquine and ritonavir interaction on CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cell culture Iskandarmudasyah, Adam; Louisa, Melva; Arleni, Arleni; Jusman, Sri W.A.; Suyatna, Franciscus D.
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 21, No 1 (2012): February
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Background: Concomitant treatment with antimalaria and antiretroviral drug is a new challenge in the management of malaria and HIV co-infection. Primaquine is a substrate and also an inhibitor of CYP3A4, while ritonavir is a substrate, an inhibitor, and also an inducer for CYP3A4. The objective of this study is to measure the CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cell culture induced by primaquine and ritonavir co-treatment.Methods: For the initial study HepG2 cells were treated with 30, 40, 50 uM of primaquine; 2, 10, 20 uM ritonavir; DMSO ≤0.1 % for negative control; or 20 uM rifampicin for positive control. While for the co-treatment study the cells were treated with 40 uM primaquine+10 uM ritonavir; DMSO ≤0.1 %; or 20 uM rifampicin for 72 hours. The cells were harvested using trypsin–EDTA and total RNA was extracted using the Tripure isolation reagent. After determining the quantity of RNA spectrophotometrically, CYP3A4 mRNA expression was quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results: The expression of CYP3A4 mRNA was up-regulated (1.22 fold over control) in HepG2 cells co-treated with primaquine and ritonavir. These data suggest that the induction effect of ritonavir was more dominant than the inhibitory effect of primaquine.Conclusion: Concomitant administration of primaquine and ritonavir result in up-regulation of CYP3A4 mRNA expression in vitro. (Med J Indones 2012;21:3-7)Keywords: CYP450 induction, CYP3A4, drug interaction, primaquine, ritonavir
Primaquine decreased plasma concentration of ritonavir: single- and repeated-dose study in Sprague Dawley rats Louisa, Melva; Soetikno, Vivian; Nafrialdi, Nafrialdi; Setiabudy, Rianto; Suyatna, Frans D.
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 20, No 3 (2011): August
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Background: The present study was aimed to explore the effects of ritonavir and primaquine combination given as a singledose or repeated-dose compared to ritonavir alone on ritonavir plasma concentration in the rats.Methods: In single-dose study, 30 male Spraque Dawley rats were randomly allocated to receive ritonavir 20 mg/kg BW or ritonavir 20 mg/kg BW + primaquine 1.2 mg/kg BW or ritonavir 20 mg/kg BW + ketokonazole 10 mg/kg BW. Ketokonazole was used as positive control of ritonavir metabolism inhibitor. In the repeated-dose study, thirty Spraque Dawley male rats were randomly allocated to receive ritonavir 20 mg/kg BW/day or ritonavir 20 mg/kg BW/day + primaquine 1.2 mg/kg BW/day or ritonavir 20 mg/kg BW/day + rifampicin 100 mg/kg BW/day. Rifampicin was used as a positive control of ritonavir metabolism inducer.Results: In the single-dose study, ketokonazole increased the area under the plasma concentration (AUC) of ritonavir (↑114.8%, p< 0.05), while primaquine tended to decrease the AUC of ritonavir (↓ 32.6%, p> 0.05). Repeated-dose study showed that rifampicin decreases the AUC of ritonavir (↓ 42.8%, p< 0.001), and primaquine decreased the AUC of ritonavir plasma concentration (↓ 46.6%, p< 0.001).Conclusion: Concomitant administration of primaquine and ritonavir decreases the AUC of ritonavir. This effect may result in the insufficient concentration of ritonavir as anti-HIV, which may lead to treatment failure with ritonavir. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:190-4)Keywords: drug interaction, metabolism, primaquine, ritonavir
The effect of lycopene on the total cytochrome P450, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 Louisa, Melva; Suyatna, Frans D.; Setiawati, Arini; Jusman, Sri W.A.
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 18, No 4 (2009): October-December
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Aim: Some carotenoids such as canthaxantin, astaxanthin and beta apo-8’-carotenal were reported to have modulatoryeffect on the cytochrome P450. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lycopene, a nonprovitamin A carotenoid, on microsomal cytochrome P450, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1.Methods: Total cytochrome P450 levels, CYP1A2 and CYP2E1-catalyzed reactions (acetanilide 4-hydroxylation and p-nitrophenol hydroxylation) were studied in the liver microsomes of male Sprague Dawley rats. Microsomes were prepared using differential centrifugation combined with calcium aggregation method. Lycopene was orally administered in the dosages of 0, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kgBW/day for 14 days in a repeated fashion. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test.Results: Total cytochrome P450 level and acetanilide 4-hydroxylase activity were unaffected by any of the treatments. The CYP2E1 probe enzyme (p-nitrophenol hydroxylase) was significantly reduced by repeated administration of 100mg/ kgBW/day lycopene (7.88 + 2.04 vs 12.26 + 2.77 n mol/min/mg prot).Conclusion: The present results suggest that lycopene does not affect the total cytochrome P450 or CYP1A2 activity but it inhibits the activity of CYP2E1 (p-nitrophenol hydroxylase) in the rat. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 233-8)Keywords: lycopene, cytochrome P450, CYP1A2, CYP2E1
Medicinal plants: source of new lead compounds in therapeutics Louisa, Melva
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 22, No 3 (2013): August
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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[no abstract available]
The preventive effect of Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract administered simultaneously to excess iron on markers of iron overload in Spraque-Dawley rats Fajri, Purnama; Estuningtyas, Ari; Louisa, Melva; Freisleben, Hans-Joachim
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 26, No 4 (2017): December
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Background: Recently, there is no agent available for the prevention of iron overload (IO) in thalassemia patients. Previous studies showed that Mangifera foetida L. leaf extracts reduced the levels of iron in IO in vitro and in vivo models. The present study aimed to determine the efficacy of Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract in the prevention of IO induced in rats.Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: control (untreated), IO, 3 treatment groups with leaf extract equivalent to 50, 100, and 200 mg of mangiferin per kg BW. Fe-dextran (15 mg) was administered intraperitoneally twice a week for 4 weeks to all groups except control (IO, DSM50, DSM100, and DSM200). Urine and blood samples were taken before and after treatments. After 4 weeks of treatment, rats were terminated, and samples of spleen, liver, and heart were taken. Ferritin and mangiferin levels and SOD activities were determined in plasma. Iron levels were measured in plasma, urine, and spleen.Results: Experimental IO increased plasma Fe content 4.23 times and plasma ferritin levels 6.9 times vs normal. Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract DSM50 resulted in the highest blood levels of 212 ng mangiferin per mL and moderately, although not significant, prevented increased plasma ferritin levels and IO in organs and protected against oxidative stress.Conclusion: Aqueous Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract may be useful to prevent IO and oxidative stress in thalassemia patients.
Studi Observasional Pasca-Pemasaran Formula Isolat Protein Kedelai pada Bayi dengan Gejala Sugestif Alergi Terhadap Protein Susu Sapi Munasir, Zakiudin; Muktiarti, Dina; Endaryanto, Anang; Kumarawati, Ketut Dewi; Setiabudiawan, Budi; Sumadiono, Sumadiono; Hudyono, Johannes; Louisa, Melva; Setiawati, Arini
Sari Pediatri Vol 15, No 4 (2013)
Publisher : Badan Penerbit Ikatan Dokter Anak Indonesia (BP-IDAI)

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Latar belakang. Fomula berbasis isolat protein kedelai banyak digunakan untuk anak-anak dengan alergi susu sapi di Indonesia. Namun, diperlukan penelitian untuk mendapatkan gambaran penerimaan orangtua dan toleransi saluran cerna pada penggunaan formula isolat protein kedelai.Tujuan. Pertama, menentukan penerimaan orangtua terhadap pemberian suatu isolat protein kedelai pada bayi yang diduga mengalami alergi terhadap protein susu sapi. Kedua, mengetahui toleransi saluran cerna pada pemberian susu formula tersebut.Metode. Suatu studi pasca-pemasaran, prospektif, multisenter yang dilakukan di Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Solo, dan Denpasar sejak September 2011 sampai April 2012. Subyek berusia antara 6 bulan hingga 1 tahun dengan gejala dugaan alergi terhadap protein susu sapi yang diberikan formula isolat protein kedelai dan diamati selama 4 minggu. Luaran yang diharapkan adalah penerimaan orangtua terhadap pemberian formula isolat protein kedelai dan toleransi saluran cerna terhadap pemberian isolat protein kedelai.Hasil. Diteliti 534 subyek yang dapat dianalisis selama periode penelitian. Mayoritas orangtua (84%) merasa puas dengan formula isolat protein kedelai, 83% orangtua berencana untuk melanjutkan pemberian susu formula karena berkurang (31,5%) dan hilangnya gejala yang diduga akibat alergi susu sapi (32,4%). Gejala klinis yang diduga akibat alergi terhadap protein susu sapi menurun pada setiap kunjungan berikutnya. Tidak ada efek samping serius yang dilaporkan selama periode penelitian.Kesimpulan. Penelitian ini menemukan tingkat penerimaan orangtua dan toleransi saluran cerna yang baik terhadap pemberian formula isolat protein kedelai kepada bayi dengan gejala sugestif alergi terhadap protein susu sapi. Formula isolat protein kedelai cukup aman dijadikan sebagai formula alternatif pengganti pada anak dengan alergi susu sapi.