Tonny Loho
Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta

Published : 5 Documents
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Efectivity Test of Antiseptic Solution 1% Triclosan Against Staphylococcum aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Loho, Tonny; Utami, Lidya
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 57 No. 6 June 2007
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Washing hands using antiseptic solution is an important step in preventing the spread of infection in healthcare facilities. Triclosan is one of the widely used antiseptics because of its effectivity against a wide range of Gram positive and negative bacteria. It is also well tolerated by the skin and hardly induced allergic reaction. In this study we assessed the in vitro effectivity of 1% triclosan hand wash solution from BSN Medical Indonesia against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Triclosan solution was mixed with several concentration of bacteria and inoculated in Muller Hinton agar. After 24 hours incubation, the growth of these bacteria on agar were assessed. Triclosan 1% is effective against S. aureus, E. faecalis, dan E. coli, but it is not effective against P.aeruginosa. Triclosan use in hygienic hand wash and surgical hand wash must be reconsidered, because P. aeruginosa is one of main etiology of nosocomial infections. Besides, triclosan has a potency of inducing antibiotic resistance and its residue can contaminate the environment by producing toxic substances and spreading resistance to environmental bacteria.Keywords: Antiseptic, in vitro effectiveness, pathogenic bacteria
Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori Infection Loho, Tonny
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 9, ISSUE 1, April 2008
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Abstract

Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped Gram negative bacterium, has 4-6 flagella, live in microaerophillic condition, has urease, oxidase and catalase enzymes. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection                                       is etiologically involved in dyspepsia, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. Transmissions of H. pylori is by fecal-oral and oral-oral.4 Diagnostic tests for H. pylori infection can be divided into 2 categories, invasive and non invasive methods. Invasive methods to diagnose H. pylori infection are performed by endoscopy and biopsy. Gastric biopsies are then tested with culture, histologic assessment, urease test and PCR test. Non-invasive methods to diagnose H. pylori infections consist of urea breath test (UBT), 15NH + excretion test, serologic detection of IgG and IgA in the blood, fecal antigen detection and fecal PCR detection. All these tests have its own advantages and limitations. But non-invasive tests have several advantages compared to invasive tests as cheaper, more convenient and easier to perform. To apply these tests accurately, it is very important to understand the principle of the test, how to perform the test, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and to recognize all the sources of error which can happen with each test and accurate interpretation. Keywords: Helicobacter pylori infection, diagnostic tests, invasive methods, non-invasive methods
Faktor Risiko Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus pada Pasien Infeksi Kulit dan Jaringan Lunak di Ruang Rawat Inap Putra, Mochamad Iqbal Hassarief; Suwarto, Suhendro; Loho, Tonny; Abdullah, Murdani
Jurnal Penyakit Dalam Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Jurnal Penyakit Dalam Indonesia

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Abstract

Pendahuluan. Infeksi kulit dan jaringan lunak (IKJL) oleh MRSA di ruang rawat inap merupakan masalah nosokomial yangmeningkat prevalensinya setiap tahun. Hal tersebut akan meningkatkan angka mortalitas, biaya dan lama rawat bila tidakdikelola dengan baik. Faktor-faktor risiko terjadinya infeksi MRSA pada pasien IKJL di ruang rawat inap penting untuk diketahuiagar dapat dilakukan upaya-upaya pencegahan dan pengendalian terhadap faktor-faktor risiko tersebut sehingga padagilirannya diharapkan kejadian MRSA pada pasien IKJL dapat dicegah atau dikendalikan. Tujuan: Mengetahui proporsiIKJL oleh MRSA dan mempelajari faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan risiko terinfeksi MRSA pada penderita IKJL diruang rawat inap Rumah Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo (RSCM).Metode. Penelitian ini menggunakan studi kasus kontrol. Data dikumpulkan dari catatan rekam medis pasien rawat inapRSCM yang memiliki IKJL. Kelompok kasus adalah subjek dengan IKJL oleh MRSA, kelompok kontrol adalah subjek denganIKJL oleh non-MRSA. Analisis bivariat dilakukan pada 9 variabel bebas yaitu pemakaian antibiotik sebelum kultur, infeksi HIV,IVDU, penggunaan kortikosteroid, prosedur medis invasif, DM, keganasan, riwayat hospitalisasi dan ruang rawat. Semuavariabel yang mempunyai nilai p<0,25 pada analisis bivariat dimasukkan ke dalam analisis multivariat dengan regresilogistik.Hasil. Selama periode penelitian, proporsi MRSA pada pasien IKJL yang dilakukan kultur di ruang rawat inap adalah 47% (IK95% 42%- 52%). Terdapat 171 pasien yang memenuhi kriteria, 71 pasien terinfeksi MRSA (kasus) dan 100 pasien terinfeksi non-MRSA (kontrol). Berdasarkan hasil analisis multivariat terdapat tiga variabel yang memiliki kemaknaan secara statistik, yaitukeganasan (OR 6,139; IK 95% antara 1,81-20,86; p=0,004), antibiotik quinolone (OR 4,592; IK 95% antara 2,06-10,23; p<0,001), dan prosedur medis invasif (OR 2,871; IK 95% antara 1,31-6,32; p=0,009).Simpulan.Keganasan, penggunaan antibiotik quinolone dan prosedur medis invasif merupakan faktor risiko IKJL oleh MRSA di ruang rawat inap.
Diagnostic Tests for Helicobacter pylori Infection Loho, Tonny
The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 9, ISSUE 1, April 2008
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | DOI: 10.24871/91200816-23

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped Gram negative bacterium, has 4-6 flagella, live in microaerophillic condition, has urease, oxidase and catalase enzymes. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection                                       is etiologically involved in dyspepsia, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. Transmissions of H. pylori is by fecal-oral and oral-oral.4 Diagnostic tests for H. pylori infection can be divided into 2 categories, invasive and non invasive methods. Invasive methods to diagnose H. pylori infection are performed by endoscopy and biopsy. Gastric biopsies are then tested with culture, histologic assessment, urease test and PCR test. Non-invasive methods to diagnose H. pylori infections consist of urea breath test (UBT), 15NH + excretion test, serologic detection of IgG and IgA in the blood, fecal antigen detection and fecal PCR detection. All these tests have its own advantages and limitations. But non-invasive tests have several advantages compared to invasive tests as cheaper, more convenient and easier to perform. To apply these tests accurately, it is very important to understand the principle of the test, how to perform the test, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and to recognize all the sources of error which can happen with each test and accurate interpretation. Keywords: Helicobacter pylori infection, diagnostic tests, invasive methods, non-invasive methods
Faktor Risiko Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus pada Pasien Infeksi Kulit dan Jaringan Lunak di Ruang Rawat Inap Putra, Mochamad Iqbal Hassarief; Suwarto, Suhendro; Loho, Tonny; Abdullah, Murdani
Jurnal Penyakit Dalam Indonesia Vol 1, No 1 (2014)
Publisher : Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia-RSCM

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (351.163 KB) | DOI: 10.7454/jpdi.v1i1.32

Abstract

Pendahuluan. Infeksi kulit dan jaringan lunak (IKJL) oleh MRSA di ruang rawat inap merupakan masalah nosokomial yangmeningkat prevalensinya setiap tahun. Hal tersebut akan meningkatkan angka mortalitas, biaya dan lama rawat bila tidakdikelola dengan baik. Faktor-faktor risiko terjadinya infeksi MRSA pada pasien IKJL di ruang rawat inap penting untuk diketahuiagar dapat dilakukan upaya-upaya pencegahan dan pengendalian terhadap faktor-faktor risiko tersebut sehingga padagilirannya diharapkan kejadian MRSA pada pasien IKJL dapat dicegah atau dikendalikan. Tujuan: Mengetahui proporsiIKJL oleh MRSA dan mempelajari faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan risiko terinfeksi MRSA pada penderita IKJL diruang rawat inap Rumah Sakit Cipto Mangunkusumo (RSCM).Metode. Penelitian ini menggunakan studi kasus kontrol. Data dikumpulkan dari catatan rekam medis pasien rawat inapRSCM yang memiliki IKJL. Kelompok kasus adalah subjek dengan IKJL oleh MRSA, kelompok kontrol adalah subjek denganIKJL oleh non-MRSA. Analisis bivariat dilakukan pada 9 variabel bebas yaitu pemakaian antibiotik sebelum kultur, infeksi HIV,IVDU, penggunaan kortikosteroid, prosedur medis invasif, DM, keganasan, riwayat hospitalisasi dan ruang rawat. Semuavariabel yang mempunyai nilai p<0,25 pada analisis bivariat dimasukkan ke dalam analisis multivariat dengan regresilogistik.Hasil. Selama periode penelitian, proporsi MRSA pada pasien IKJL yang dilakukan kultur di ruang rawat inap adalah 47% (IK95% 42%- 52%). Terdapat 171 pasien yang memenuhi kriteria, 71 pasien terinfeksi MRSA (kasus) dan 100 pasien terinfeksi non-MRSA (kontrol). Berdasarkan hasil analisis multivariat terdapat tiga variabel yang memiliki kemaknaan secara statistik, yaitukeganasan (OR 6,139; IK 95% antara 1,81-20,86; p=0,004), antibiotik quinolone (OR 4,592; IK 95% antara 2,06-10,23; p<0,001), dan prosedur medis invasif (OR 2,871; IK 95% antara 1,31-6,32; p=0,009).Simpulan.Keganasan, penggunaan antibiotik quinolone dan prosedur medis invasif merupakan faktor risiko IKJL oleh MRSA di ruang rawat inap.