Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) is one of the most promising tropical fruits for export. The major constraint toincrease fruit production of the spesies is the long juvenile period. Seedless, sweet and juicy variety of mangosteen had beenfound in Malinau. In vitro propagation technique offers possibility to produce sufficient number of seedlings any time. Thisresearch was aimed at obtaining the appropriate media formula to enhance shoot proliferation. This research consisted ofshoot induction and multiplication and shoot elongation. The materials were the fresh mangosteen seeds from the Malinaumangosteen trees. The explant used in the trial was seeds which were divided into four slices. The use of 8 to 16 mg BA L-1combined with 0.2 mg thidiazuron L-1 resulted in the best shoot induction of 52 shoot buds per explant at the 6th week afterplanting with the mean height of 0.3 cm. Upon subculturing in to the similar media, the number of shoot tends to increase.For multiplication, low concentration of BA (2 to 4 mg L-1) and thidiazuron 0.05 mg L-1 were applied to increase the numbersof shoots. The total shoot number obtained in the media with 0.05 thidiazuron without BA was 11.25 and in the media with 2mg BA L-1 + 0.05 mg thidiazuron L-1 was 8.7 shoot explant-1. The result showed that the best media for shoot elongation wasMS + 1 mg BA L-1 + 2 mg kinetin L-1. The length of the shoots were in the range of 0.5-0.8 cm.Keywords: BA, Garcinia mangostana, in vitro culture, shoot multiplication, thidiazuron
The drought stress tolerant and high yielding rice is needed in upland rice system. The changing global climate makes dry season longer, resulting in the reduction of rice production. There should be an effort to introduce new variety of high-yielding and drought tolerant rice. In this attempt, research was conducted to improve the genetic of Indica rice, particularly Gajahmungkur, Towuti and IR 64 varieties in order to find the somaclones with the characteristics above. As an approach, gamma-ray mutative induction was applied to be followed by selection in PEG. The regenerated shoot from the irradiated callus was then selected and acclimatisized in the greenhouse to obtain eighty three somaclones from the three varieties. PEG (molecular weight 6000) was applied to obtain the drought-tolerant somaclone. PEG was a selective agent used by which populations could be selected in a short time. Treatment with 20% PEG (equals to osmotic potential 1.2 Mpa) on the rice produced 16 somaclones from Gajahmungkur, 12 from Towuti and 18 from IR 64 putatively drought tolerant. Key words : Oryza sativa, drought tolerance, PEG
Kedelai merupakan salah satu sumber protein dan lemak nabati yang penting. Perubahan iklim global berpengaruh terhadap produktivitas kedelai, sehingga diperlukan kultivar-kultivar baru yang mempunyai sifatunggul tertentu agar produktivitas kedelai dapat ditingkatkan. Teknik in vitro dengan mutasi dan keragaman somaklonal merupakan meoda alternatif untuk memperoleh varietas baru apabila material genetik sebagai bahan seleksi tidak tersedia. Induksi mutasi dapat dilakukanpada populasi sel embriogenik dengan menggunakan iradiasi sinar gamma atau senyawa kimia, antara lain Ethyl Methan Sulfonate (EMS). Kedua metoda tersebut telah banyak digunakan untuk meningkatkan keragaman genetik tanaman dan telah dihasilkan galur-galurbaru dengan sifat unggul. Salah satu masalah penting yang harus dikuasai dalam penerapan teknologi tersebut adalah meregenerasikan sel somatik hasil mutasi dan keragaman somaklonal agar dapat ditumbuhkan menjadi planlet (tunas in vitro). Beberapa faktor yangmempengaruhi regenerasi tanaman adalah jenis bahan tanaman, genotipe, komposisi media, dll. Perlakuan keragaman somaklonal dan mutasi yang diberikan dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada sel sehingga diperlukan modifikasi pada metoda regenerasi yang sudah diketahui agar populasi sel yang hidup setelah perlakuan mutasi dapat tumbuh menjadi tunastunas mutan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mendapatkan planlet mutan hasil perlakuan mutasi dengan iradiasi gamma dan EMS. Varietas kedelai yang digunakan adalah Wilis, Burangrang, Baluran dan aksesi No. B 3592. Eksplan yang digunakan adalah embriozigotik muda berasal dari polong yang berumur 12-20 hari setelah penyerbukan. Induksi kalusembriogenik dilakukan dengan menggunakan media MS + vitamin Gamborg (B5) dengan penambahan 2,4-D 20 mg/l dan sukrosa 3%. Kalus yang didapatkan diberi perlakuan mutasi menggunakan sinar gamma pada dosis 400 rad atau direndam dalam larutan EMS (0.1 %, 0.3%, dan 0.5 %) selama 1, 2 dan 3 jam. Selanjutnya kalus dipindahkan pada media untuk menginduksi pembentukan benih somatik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan kalus dipengaruhi oleh genotipe tanaman. Pembentukan kalus tertinggi dihasilkan dari Baluran (93.40%) dan terendah Burangrang (75.90%). Perlakuan iradiasigamma menurunkan pembentukan struktur torpedo, dimana struktur torpedo tertinggi diperoleh dari Burangrang (25.4-26.3/eksplan). Aksesi B 3592 mempunyai kemampuan membentuk struktur torpedo paling tinggi pada semua perlakuan EMS yang digunakan. Perendaman kalus dalam larutan EMS 0.5% selama 1, 2, dan 3 jam menurunkan regenerasinya membentuk struktur torpedo pada semua genotipe. Perlakuan EMSmenyebabkan kerusakan sel yang lebih besar dibandingkan dengan iradiasi sinar gamma, ditunjukkan dengan persentase pembentukan struktur torpedo setelah perlakuan EMS (0-15/eksplan) lebih kecil dibanding dengan iradiasi sinar gamma (10.3-26.3/eksplan).Kata kunci : Glycine max, iradiasi sinar gamma, Ethyl Methan Sulfonate, embriogenesis somatik Â ABSTRACTThe Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Ethyl Methan Sulfonate on Somatic Embryo Formation of Soybean (Glycine max L.). Soybean is a source of protein and vegetable oil. Global climate change affect the productivity of soybean, so that new cultivars that have superior characteristic can be produced. In vitro techniques through somaclonal variation andmutation is one alternative for obtaining new varieties when genetic material as the material selection is not available. Mutation induction can be performed on embryogenic cell populations using gamma irradiation or chemical compounds, such as Ethyl Methane Sulfonate (EMS). Both of these methods have been widely used to increase the geneticdiversity of plants and have produced new clones with superior characteristic. The main component that must be controlled in the implementation of these technologies is somatic cells regeneration after mutation treatment in order to get in vitro shoots. Regenerationmethods which are successfully applied to certain varieties, often is not successfully for other varieties of the same species. Some factors that influence it, are such as explants source, genotype, medium composition, genotype, medium composition, etc. Somaclonal variation and mutation treatment can cause cell damage that is sometimes necessary need modifications of the regeneration method that has been produced before. The aim of the experiment was to get cell population and planlet mutation with gamma iradiadion and Ethyl Methan Sulfonate (EMS). Young embryozygotic was used as explant came from young pod that was harvested at 12-20 days after fertilization of Wilis, Burangrang and Baluran varieties and accession No B 3592. Embryogenic callus induction was done by using MS media with vitamin B5 added with 20 mg/l of 2,4-D and 3% sucrose. The callus were irradiated by gamma rays 400 rad or dilutein EMS solution with 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% concentration for 1, 2, and 3 hours. After mutation treatment, the callus were sub culture for seed somatic induction. The results showed that callus formation was influenced by plant genotype. All genotipe were able produced callus, where the highest percentage callus production was Baluran (93.40 %) and the lowest of that was Burangrang (75.90 %). Gamma irradiation reduces formation of torpedo structure. The highest torpedo structure after gamma irradiation was obtained from Burangrang (25.4-26.3/eksplan). Accession B 3592 had the ability to form torpedo structure highest among all treatments EMS used. Callus immersion in a solution of 0.5% EMS for 1, 2, and 3 hoursdecreased callus regeneration to formed torpedo structure in allÂ genotypes. EMS treatment causes greater cell damage than the gamma-ray, indicated by the percentage of the torpedo structure formation after EMS treatment (0-15/eksplan) which was smaller than the gammaray irradiation (10.3-26.3/explant). Key words : Glycine max, irradiation gamma rays, Ethyl Methan Sulfonate, somatic embryogenesis
Kultur jaringan tanaman merupakan teknik menumbuhkan organjaringan ataupun sel tanaman pada media kultur dalam kondisiaseptik. Keberhasilan pembentukan tunas dalam kultur jaringanbergantung pada berbagai faktor, antara lain media tumbuh, jenisdan kondisi fisiologis eksplan, serta zat pengatur tumbuh yangdigunakan. Proliferasi tunas pada tanaman berkayu biasanya sangatlambat, sedangkan aplikasi zat pengatur tumbuh sitokinin darigolongan benzil adenin dan kinetin belum dapat memacupembentukan tunas secara optimal. Penemuan senyawa baruthidiazuron pada tahun 1976 dapat mengatasi proliferasi tunas padaberbagai tanaman, khususnya tanaman berkayu. Thidiazuronmerupakan senyawa kimia yang mempunyai aktivitas hampir samadengan sitokinin, yaitu dapat meningkatkan proliferasi tunas danpembentukan embrio somatik. Thidiazuron mempunyai aktivitastinggi pada konsentrasi rendah, yaitu sekitar 0,1-0,5 mg/l.Pemanfaatan thidiazuron dalam penelitian kultur jaringan terusmeningkat yang dapat dilihat dari jumlah publikasi yangditerbitkan. Data ISI Web Science menunjukkan bahwa pada tahun1992 terdapat 45 hasil penelitian tentang thidiazuron, tahun 2005sebanyak 80 publikasi, dan tahun 2009 meningkat menjadi 100publikasi.
The Role of Growth Regulator in Tissue Culture PlantPropagation. Endang G. Lestari. In plant tissue culture,growth regulator has significant roles such as to control rootand shoot development in the plant formation and callusinduction. Cytokinin and auxin are two prominent growthregulator. Cytokinin consists of BA (benzil adenin), kinetin(furfuril amino purin), 2-Ip (dimethyl allyl amino purin), andzeatin. While auksin covers IAA (indone acetic acid), NAA(napthalene acetic acid), IBA (indole butiric acid) 2.4-D (2.4-dicholophenoxy acetic acid), dicamba (3,6 dicloro-O-anisicacid), and picloram (4-amino 3,5,6-tricloropicolinic acid).The emphasis of plant growth purposes decide the use ofgrowth regulator. Cytokinin is applied mainly for the purposeof shoot, while auxin is mainly used for the purpose of rootand callus. The application of growth regulator application isvaried, depending on the genotype and physiologicalcondition of the plant. The existence of a certain growthregulating substances can enhance growth regulator activityof other substances. The type and concentration of theappropriate growth regulators for each plant is not the samebecause it depends on the genotype and physiologicalcondition of plant tissue. However so often both arefrequently required depend on the ratio/ratio of auxincytokines or vice versa. The existence of a certain growthregulating substances can enhance growth regulator activityof other substances. The type and concentration of theappropriate growth regulators for each plant is not the samebecause it depends on the genotype and physiologicalcondition of plant tissue. For the propagation, multiple andadventive shoots along with embriosomatic formation couldbe applied. The seedling is obtained from one somatic cell.Here, strong auxin, such as dicamba and picloram 2.4-D, isutilized for callus production. For this reason, seedling perunit could be produced more than that of organogenesis.
ABSTRACTSouth Sulawesi is known as one of national rice production centers. However, average productivity of rice varieties planted in that area (4.43 ton ha-1) is lower than those of rice productivity in Java (5.25 ton ha-1). The aims of this research were to evaluate agronomic characters and adaptation of 7 dihaploid mutant advanced lines of new plant type (DH-NPT) of rice at several locations in South Sulawesi. The research was conducted in 2012 at Maros, Gowa, Barru, and Pangkep. The experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design with 3 replications nested in locations. Treatment consisted of 7 DH-NPT of rice, i.e., BIO-MF115, BIO-MF116, BIO-MF125, BIO-MF130, BIO-MF133, BIO-MF151, BIO-MF153, and control varieties i.e., Fatmawati, Ciherang, and Inpari13. The results indicated that in general the lines had medium height (102.77-110.23 cm), moderate productive tiller (9-16 tiller per hill), moderate days to flower (50%), i.e., 73-76 days after sowing (DAS), earlier days to harvest (103-110 DAS), moderate panicle length (28.35-29.31 cm), large number of grain per panicle (> 250 grains) with moderate panicle fertility (63-70%), moderate 1,000 grain weight, i.e., 26.51-27.75 g, and high yield (7.51-8.09 ton ha-1). Four lines, i.e., BIO-MF116, BIO-MF130, BIO-MF151, and BIO-MF153 were stable and had wide adaptability. Other lines, i.e., BIO-MF125 and BIO-MF133 were sensitive to environmental changes, therefore they were classified as specifically adapted to favorable environment; while BIO-MF115 was not sensitive to environmental changes, and therefore it was adapted to non-favorable environment.Keywords: adaptation, agronomic characters, rice mutant
To increase domestic and international demand of Kencur (Kaempferia galanga L.) makes this plant potentially develop.Is traditionally used to keep the body warm, as analgetic and expectorant. In the attemp of providing adequately and qualitatively uniformed supply, in vitro experiment has been conducted at BB-Biogen (Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetik Resources Research and Development).The selected rhizomes was used as explant. The experiment was orthogonally arranged consisting of MS vitamin and B5, and BA ( 0, 3 and 5 mg/1) and thidiazuron 0,1 mg/1. This experiment comprised three activities, they were shoot initiation, shoot multiplication and acclimatization. The result showed that MS + BA 3 mg/1 + thidiazuron 0,2 mg/1 could induce shoot formation. From the applied media, it was shown that the addition of MS vitamin at the MS basic media and BA 3 and 5 mg/1 added with thidiazuron could result the most optimum shoot, leaves and roots and was not significantly different from the addition of B5 vitamin at basic media of MS + BA 3 and 5 mg/1, 6.9 shoot was averagely produced in this media. The shoot could generate such an adequate number of root that it could be directly acclimatized. The acclimatized plantlet in the green house uses the mixture of soil and manure with the ratio of 1:1 can optimally grow.
In vitro culture can be applied for producing new genotype which is tolerant to biotic and abiotic or to incerase secondary metabolic content. To obtain the optimum result of variety improvement, regeneration system should firstly be found out.It is sufficiently difficult to regenerate pulai pandak (Rauwolfia serpentina L.). Hence, with this system, the improvement of R. serpentina with secondary metabolic content higher than the other. The mother stok of R. serpentina used in this experiment, belongs to the collection of BB-Biogen. Calli were produced from leaves and internodes which is cultured at medium MS contain 2.4-D (0, 1, 3,5, 7 mg/1) combined with caseine hydrolysate 3 mg/1. Regeneration medium was MS contain BA (0,5, 1 mg/1) combined with zeatin (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/1) and root formation used was three kinds of auxin (IBA, IAA and NAA). The result showed that inter nodels was better that leaves to callus induction. In this experiment, MS + 2,4-D 1 mg/1 + CH 3 mg/1 was the best medium to induct calli,while medium MS + BA 1 mg/1 + Zeatin 0,5 mg/1 + maltosa 3% to regenerate and MS + IBA lmg/1 for root induction.
Water is the main parameter to determine whether the yield potential of a plant is obtained or not. Water deficit on the tissue causes the disruption of all chemical process in the plant metabolism resulted in the plant growth impediment.In order to acquire the drought tolerance variety, various efforts have been conducted. Among others, in addition to the selection and characterization of the available germ plasma along with its cross-breeding, the development of the drought tolerance plant is conducted through somaclonal varitype induction. In the cultivation of the drought tolerance plant, beside physiological mechanism and biochemistry related to the plant tolerant to drought, the procedure of the selective and optimal selection should be managed.Hence,the mastery of the optimum selection techniques, in a relatively short time, the new drought tolerance lines could be obtained.
The drought stress tolerant and high yielding rice is needed in upland rice system. The changing global climate makes dry season longer, resulting in the reduction of rice production. There should be an effort to introduce new variety of high-yielding and drought tolerant rice.? In this attempt, research was conducted to improve the genetic of Indica rice, particularly Gajahmungkur, Towuti and IR 64 varieties in order to find the somaclones with the characteristics above. As an approach, gamma-ray mutative induction was applied to be followed by selection in PEG. The regenerated shoot from the irradiated callus was then selected and acclimatisized in the greenhouse to obtain eighty three somaclones from the three varieties. PEG (molecular weight 6000) was applied to obtain the drought-tolerant somaclone. PEG was a selective agent used by which populations could be selected in a short time. Treatment with? 20% PEG (equals to osmotic potential 1.2 Mpa) on the rice produced 16 somaclones from Gajahmungkur, 12 from Towuti and 18 from IR 64 putatively drought tolerant. ? Key words : Oryza sativa, drought tolerance, PEG