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The Correlation Between Adiponectin and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-a) in Indonesia Obese non Diabetic Males

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 61 No. 1 January 2011
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Adiponectin is an adipocytokine, abundant in the peripheral circulation, which has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Plasma concentration of adiponectin is decreased in obesity and negatively correlates with body mass index (BMI) and with insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to know adiponectin profile and its association with TNF-a in Indonesian obese non diabetic males. This is a cross sectional study with 137 Indonesian obese non diabetic males volunteers (age between 30-60 years, waist circumference >90 cm and fasting blood glucose <126 mg/dL) which was done in Jakarta, Indonesia. There is a significant negative correlation between adiponectin and TNF (r=-0.232; p=0.006) and nonsignificant negative correlations between adiponectin and fasting plasma glucose, adiponectin and HOMAIR, and adiponectin and waist circumference. This study confirm that central obesity will reduce adiponectin concentration so that increase insulin resistance and inflammation risk in Indonesian obese non diabetic men.Key words: Obesity, Adiponectin, TNF-a, Insulin Resistance, Inflammation

Levels of Adiponectin and Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Receptor 2 (sNFαR2) in Obese Males with or without Fatty Liver

The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1, April 2011
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Abstract

Background: Increased lipolysis in obese patients will cause elevated free-fatty acid level leading to insulin resistance. There are varied inflammatory cytokines (sTNFαR2) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (adiponectin) in obese patients, with and without fatty liver (FL). The aim of this study was to determine sTNFαR2 and adiponectin levels in obese patients with and without fatty liver. Method: This study was an observational study with cross-sectional approach, which was conducted between September 2008 and August 2009. The patients were 94 obese male with waist circumference ≥ 90 cm based on criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Fatty liver was detected by ultrasonography; while adiponectin and sTNFαR2 levels in blood were analyzed by using ELISA Method and blood examination at the clinical laboratory. Results: Levels of adiponectin and sTNFαR2 were different between obese patients with and without FL. The adiponectin level was 3.10 ± 1.14 in patients with FL and was 3.52 ± 1.07 in patients without FL; while the sTNFαR2 were 23.92 ± 6.00 (FL) and 20.61 ± 5.29 (without FL). In patients with low adiponectin level (< 3.33 µ g/L) and high sTNFαR2 level (> 21.78 pg/dL), there was relatively higher occurrence of fatty liver compared to the other patients. Conclusion: Obese patients with fatty liver have higher sTNFαR2 level than patients without fatty liver. Moreover, obese patients with fatty liver have lower adiponectin level compared to patients without fatty liver. Patients with low adiponectin level and high sTNFαR2 level have higher incidence of fatty liver than subjects with high adiponectin level and low sTNFαR2 level. Keywords: adiponectin, soluble tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2 (sTNFαR2), obese, fatty liver

Levels of Adiponectin and Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Receptor 2 (sNFαR2) in Obese Males with or without Fatty Liver

The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1, April 2011
Publisher : The Indonesian Journal of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Digestive Endoscopy

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Abstract

Background: Increased lipolysis in obese patients will cause elevated free-fatty acid level leading to insulin resistance. There are varied inflammatory cytokines (sTNFαR2) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (adiponectin) in obese patients, with and without fatty liver (FL). The aim of this study was to determine sTNFαR2 and adiponectin levels in obese patients with and without fatty liver. Method: This study was an observational study with cross-sectional approach, which was conducted between September 2008 and August 2009. The patients were 94 obese male with waist circumference ≥ 90 cm based on criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Fatty liver was detected by ultrasonography; while adiponectin and sTNFαR2 levels in blood were analyzed by using ELISA Method and blood examination at the clinical laboratory. Results: Levels of adiponectin and sTNFαR2 were different between obese patients with and without FL. The adiponectin level was 3.10 ± 1.14 in patients with FL and was 3.52 ± 1.07 in patients without FL; while the sTNFαR2 were 23.92 ± 6.00 (FL) and 20.61 ± 5.29 (without FL). In patients with low adiponectin level (< 3.33 µ g/L) and high sTNFαR2 level (> 21.78 pg/dL), there was relatively higher occurrence of fatty liver compared to the other patients. Conclusion: Obese patients with fatty liver have higher sTNFαR2 level than patients without fatty liver. Moreover, obese patients with fatty liver have lower adiponectin level compared to patients without fatty liver. Patients with low adiponectin level and high sTNFαR2 level have higher incidence of fatty liver than subjects with high adiponectin level and low sTNFαR2 level. Keywords: adiponectin, soluble tumor necrosis factor α receptor 2 (sTNFαR2), obese, fatty liver

Association Between Plasma Beta-endorphin and WOMAC Score in Female Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 4, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: β-endorphin plays a role in the descending pain control in the central nervous system. Central sensitization may be involved in the generating and maintenance of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. However, the correlation between β-endorphin and pain severity in OA has shown conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma β-endorphin and the severity of the disease. METHODS: This study was an observational cross-sectional study carried out on 60 female subjects with knee OA who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Plasma β-endorphin was measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Osteoarthritis knees were classified by the Kellegren-Lawrence (KL) grading (1-4) criteria. The Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) scoring method was used to assess self-reported physical function, pain and stiffness. RESULTS: The mean of the participants' ages was 58 years old, ranging from 42 to 83 years. Overall, more than 70% of the participants were overweight with a mean of body mass index (BMI) of 27.59. More than 54% of the participants were diagnosed of having KL grading 3 or 4. Plasma β-endorphin was correlated inversely with the WOMAC subscale of stiffness (r=-0.286, p=0.0311), but no correlation was noted with the WOMAC subscale of pain and physical activity. There was no significant difference of the mean of plasma β-endorphin among the KL gradings. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma β-endorphin is associated with better WOMAC total score and stiffness subscale, but not associated with KL grading of OA. KEYWORDS: knee osteoarthritis, female, β-endorphin, WOMAC, Kellgren-Lawrence

Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 1, No 2 (2009)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM) patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG), low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL)/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM.METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk.RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001) increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004), odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI : 1.501-10.658) and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI : 1.501-10.658) in uncontrolled T2DM.CONCLUSION: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM.KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH): Study of biochemical markers Free Fatty Acid (FFA), Total Antioxidant Status (TAOS), Adiponectin, Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-beta1), in occurence of NASH

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 1, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in USA and Makassar are 22% and 23.7%. The prevalence of Non Alcoholic Steatosis Hepatosis (NASH) in MetS has not been reported. Study in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is 25–90 % in obesity patients. In NASH, there is accumulation of lipid in hepatocyte (raised free fatty acid level), raised stress oxidative (decreased total antioxidant status), raised of inflammation process (decreased adiponectin) and hepatic fibrotic process (raised TGF β1). The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation of free fatty acid, total antioxidant status, adiponectin and TGF-β1 with the occurrence of NASH.METHODS: This was a case control study in man aged ≥30 years old. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined by IDF categories. NASH was defined as fatty liver plus raised type IV collagen level ≥140 ng/ml and Alanine Transferase (ALT) level 1.5x upper normal limit.RESULT: The samples consisted of 8 MetS subjects, 11 MetS subjects with fatty liver and 2 MetS subjects with suspect NASH. Low level of adiponectin and high level free fatty acid led to progression from Fatty Liver (FL) to NASH. Level of total antioxidant and Level of TGF-β1 were relatively steady in NASH.CONCLUSION: The level of Free Fatty acid in subjects with MetS-FL was higher than in subjects with MetS, but was lower than in subjects with MetS-NASH. No difference in total antioxidants status level was observed among all groups. Level of adiponectin decreased in subjects with MetS-FL and MetS-NASH compared with subjects with MetS only. The level of TGF-β1 increased in subjects with MetS-FL more than in subjects with MetS only, and was steady low in subjects with MetS-NASH.KEYWORDS: metabolic syndrome, NASH, free fatty acid, total antioxidant status, adiponectin, transforming growth factor β1

Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21), Free Fatty Acid (FFA), High Sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hsCRP) and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) Among Indonesian Obese Non-Diabetic Males

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 1, No 3 (2009)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is known as an important endocrine and paracrine regulator of metabolic homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that FGF21 attenuates lipolysis in human adipocytes, which is suggested as a FGF21's mechanism as anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hyperglycemia and anti-obesity. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between FGF21, FFA, hsCRP and HOMA-IR among Indonesian obese non diabetic males.METHOD: The study was observational with cross sectional design. The analysis was done in 137 subjects aged 30-60 years with non diabetic abdominal obesity. We measured the biochemical markers FGF21, FFA, hsCRP, fasting insulin and fasting glucose. We also measured weight, height, waist circumrefence (WC), creatinine, serum glutamin oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Correlation between markers was measured using Pearson and Spearman's analysis.  RESULT: There were significant positive correlations between FGF21-HOMA-IR (r=0.314, p=0.000); FGF21-WC (r=0.173, p=0.043); FFA=hsCRP (r=0.270, p=0.001); and WC-HOMA-IR (r=0.279, p=0.001). There was significant negative correlation between FGF21-FFA (r=-0.038, p=0.657) and FGF21-hsCRP (r=-0.061, p=0.482). CONCLUSION: In this study we found that although there was no significant correlation, FGF21 might act as an anti-lipolytic and anti-inflammation agent among Indonesian obese non-diabetic males. Our findings agree with results of previous studies that the positive correlation between FGF21-WC and FGF21-HOMA-IR moght occur as a compensatory mechanism or resistance to FGF21 in obesity.KEYWORDS: Obesity, FGF21, FFA, hsCRP, HOMA-IR

Visfatin and Adiponectin Have an Opposite Correlation with Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome in Non-Diabetic Obese Indonesian Men

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 1, No 3 (2009)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Along with the increase in obesity is a parallel increase in the prevalence of metabolic complications of obesity, often referred to as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The role of adipose tissue in MetS has continued to evolve with the description of numerous secretory peptides from adipocytes named adipocytokines or adipokines. Recent studies have found visfatin as the regulation of inflammatory and immunomodulating prosesses, meanwhile adiponectin was known to have a potent anti-inflammatory properties. Here we try to assess the correlation between those two adipokines to MetS, via an inflammatory pathway.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 128 non diabetic obese male subject (waist circumferences ≥90 cm). Visfatin and adiponectin were assessed by ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows v.16.00 with signifcantly p<0.05. The correlations among biomarkers were assessed using Spearman's Rho test.RESULTS: This study showed a significant positive correlation between levels of visfatin and inflammatory markers TNF-α (r=0.22, p<0.005), and hsCRP (r=0.12, p=0.19), significant negative correlation between levels of adiponectin and TNF-α (r=-0.22-8, p<0.005-1), adiponectin and hsCRP (r=-0.14, p=0.11) and visfatin (r=-0.029, p<0.01). Plasma visfatin levels were increased along with the number MetS components, white plasma adiponectin showed inversely relation.CONCLUSION: Our present study has shown that visfatin has a proinflammatory properties and adiponectin has an anti-inflammatory properties, and how they have an opposite effects on MetS. Visfatin was found to have a positive correlaton while adiponectin was found to have a negative correlation with the number of MetS components.KEYWORDS: Obesity, Inflammation, Metabolic Syndrome, Adipocytokines, Visfatin, Adiponectin, TNF-α, hsCRP

Role of 8-isoprostane, Matrix Gla Protein (MGP) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) in Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney Disease

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 5, No 2 (2013)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vascular calcification may be an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The pathobiology of vascular calcification in CKD is complex and involves some factors including inflammation, oxidative stress and balancing of calcification regulators. The aim of the study was to investigate the interaction between 8-isoprostane with calcification regulators such as matrix gla protein (MGP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 with vascular calciication in CKD.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 63 subjects undergoing haemodialysis maintenance for more than 3 months. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was measured using a lateral abdominal X-ray for calcification in abdominal aorta, which is related to severity of calcific deposits at lumbar vertebral segment (L)1-L4. Serum levels of 8-isoprostane, MGP and BMP-2 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.RESULTS: Results showed that 8-isoprostane levels were correlated with BMP-2 (r=0.266, p=0.018) and MGP levels (r=0.410, p≤0.001). MGP/BMP-2 levels ratio was correlated with AAC score (r=0.279, p=0.013). Subjects were then stratified into 3 groups based on AAC score: 0, 1-6 and ≥7. The highest mean of MGP levels was in AAC score 1-6 group, and the highest mean of 8-isoprostane levels was in AAC score ≥7. In the group of AAC score 0, 8-isoprostane levels were correlated with MGP levels (r=0.499, p=0.001) and MGP/BMP-2 levels ratio (r=0.291, p=0.034). In AAC score 1-6 group, 8-isoprostane levels were correlated with BMP-2 (r=0.661, p=0.005) and MGP levels (r=0.569, p=0.017). In AAC score ≥7 group, MGP levels were positively correlated with AAC score (r=0.608, p=0.041). With multivariate logistic regression analyses, we identified that increased MGP/BMP-2 levels ratio (OR=12.436; 95% CI=1.595-96.971) was an independent predictor in aortic calcification event.CONCLUSION: We concluded that regulators of calcification including calcification inhibitor and promoter related to oxidative stress, were associated with vascular calcification in CKD. MGP levels were increased in the early of calcification and MGP/BMP-2 levels ratio was a strong predictor for vascular calcification in CKD.KEYWORDS: vascular calcification, CKD, oxidative stress, 8-isoprostane, MGP, BMP-2

Osteoprotegerin Serum Level is Associated with Severity of Coronary Artery Calcification in Non Diabetic Centrally Obese Men

The Indonesian Biomedical Journal Vol 4, No 1 (2012)
Publisher : The Prodia Education and Research Institute (PERI)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is produced by a variety of tissues including those of the cardiovascular system. Recent clinical studies have suggested a significant correlation between elevated OPG serum level and cardiovascular mortality. Since coronary artery calcification (CAC) is positively associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, we carried out a study to investigate whether OPG serum level is associated with the severity of CAC in non diabetic centrally obese men.METHODS: A cross sectional study was done on seventy non diabetic centrally obese men. CAC score was determined by using dual source computed tomography (DSCT). OPG serum level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS for windows ver 16. ANOVA was performed to analyze mean, maximum, minimum value, and standard deviation. Spearman correlation test was performed to determine the correlation between OPG serum level and CAC score. Significance value was defined as alpha level=0.05 based on two-tailed tests.RESULTS: OPG serum level was significantly correlated with CAC score. The severity of CAC increased with the increase of OPG level. Age was significantly correlated with OPG serum level and CAC score.CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that serum OPG level was associated with the severity of CAC, which highlights that OPG could be involved in the progression of CAC in non diabetic obese men.KEYWORDS: obesity, vascular calcification, osteoprotegerin, coronary artery calcification