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IMPROVEMENT OF SEED PRODUCTION AND QUALITY GROUPER BY HYBRIDIZATION PROGRAM Ismi, Suko; Asih, Yasmina Nirmala; Kusumawati, Daniar
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 5, No 2 (2013): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitkt.v5i2.7562

Abstract

Several types of grouper hybrid seeds can now be massively produced in a hatchery. Hybrid seeds can increase diversification of aquaculture species and potential to increase fish production.  Therefore, an  improvement in hybrid seed production both in high quantity and quality is very important. This research was conducted to produce massively cantik grouper hybrid seeds i.e.,a crossbreed between female tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and male marbled grouper (Epinephelus microdon). This research examined the cantik grouper seed production compared with the production of tiger grouper and marbled grouper fingerlings. The research results showed that cantik hybrid grouper seeds production had higher survival rate (24.59%) than tiger grouper (17.44%) and marbled grouper (4.63%). The total length of the seed at the age of 45 days for cantik grouper  was 3.59 ± 0.21 cm, tiger 3.24 ± 0.55 cm, and batik 2.61 ± 0.42 cm, respectively. Seed abnormality for cantik grouper was 4.13%, tiger grouper 30.21%, and marled tiger 0.57%, respectively. Based on genetic variation analyses, the cantik grouper had a closer genetic relationship with the marbled grouper compared with the tiger grouper. Keywords: Marbled grouper, hybridization program, seeds production, quality
GROWTH AND BLOOD PROFILE OF CORAL TROUT GROUPER Plectropomus leopardus SEEDS IN DIFFERENT SALINITIES Setiawati, Ketut Maha; Mahardika, Ketut; Alit, A. A. Ketut; Kusumawati, Daniar; Mastuti, Indah
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 9, No 2 (2017): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitkt.v9i2.19290

Abstract

The information about the optimum and tolerable salinity to support in the success of coral trout grouper?s seed culture is still limited until now. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of different salinity on growth, survival, feed conversion (FCR) and the profile of blood (hematocrit and hemoglobin) of coral trout grouper seed. The seed with total length 6.0 ± 0.5 cm and body weight 3.2±0.3 g were used as tested animals. Five different salinity treatments, namely: 10±1 ppt (A), 16±1 ppt (B), 22±1 ppt (C), 28±1 ppt (D), and the sea water (34 ppt) as a control (E) were undertaken in this study, with three replications for each treatment. Salinity values were reach by adding freshwater into the tested seawater. Water changing system in this study was performed in recirculation process, with 25% of water replacement every 7 days. The result of this study showed that the survival rate values were 100% for all treatments, indicating that coral trout grouper seed can be cultured in the range of salinity between 10 to 34 ppt.  The highest total length and body weight were recorded from treatment C (22 ppt), as well as noted to gain the lowest FCR. Correspondingly, the seed in treatment C also founded to have in the greatest amount of hematocrit and hemoglobin. Optimum salinity for rearing of coral trout grouper seeds  with  total length 6 cm was 22 ppt.  Keywords: salinity, growth, survival rate, feed conversion, blood profile
IMPROVEMENT OF SEED PRODUCTION AND QUALITY GROUPER BY HYBRIDIZATION PROGRAM Ismi, Suko; Asih, Yasmina Nirmala; Kusumawati, Daniar
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 5, No 2 (2013): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB)

Abstract

Several types of grouper hybrid seeds can now be massively produced in a hatchery. Hybrid seeds can increase diversification of aquaculture species and potential to increase fish production.  Therefore, an  improvement in hybrid seed production both in high quantity and quality is very important. This research was conducted to produce massively cantik grouper hybrid seeds i.e.,a crossbreed between female tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and male marbled grouper (Epinephelus microdon). This research examined the cantik grouper seed production compared with the production of tiger grouper and marbled grouper fingerlings. The research results showed that cantik hybrid grouper seeds production had higher survival rate (24.59%) than tiger grouper (17.44%) and marbled grouper (4.63%). The total length of the seed at the age of 45 days for cantik grouper  was 3.59 ± 0.21 cm, tiger 3.24 ± 0.55 cm, and batik 2.61 ± 0.42 cm, respectively. Seed abnormality for cantik grouper was 4.13%, tiger grouper 30.21%, and marled tiger 0.57%, respectively. Based on genetic variation analyses, the cantik grouper had a closer genetic relationship with the marbled grouper compared with the tiger grouper. Keywords: Marbled grouper, hybridization program, seeds production, quality
PERTUMBUHAN IKAN BANDENG (Chanos chanos) ANTARA BENIH HSRT DAN GENERASI KEDUA (G-2) TERSELEKSI [Growth Performance of Milkfish, (Chanos chanos) Between Small Scale Hatcheries and of Selected Second- Generation (G-2) Sources] Kusumawati, Daniar; Jamaris, Zafran; Aslianti, Titiek
BERITA BIOLOGI Vol 17, No 1 (2018)
Publisher : Research Center for Biology-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (4230.251 KB) | DOI: 10.14203/beritabiologi.v17i1.2937

Abstract

Currently, there is a national concern regarding to the decrease of milkfish production from ponds in North Java due to a low quality of milkfish seed produced by small scale hatcheries in Bali, which is the main producer of milkfish seed. The quality of seed is strongly related to the quality of eggs (fertility), while quality of eggs produced depends on the management of brood stocks carried out by the hatcheries. Growth rate and growth hormone profiles are some of the biological aspects that could be used as a basis/benchmark to evaluate quality level of milkfish seed reared in ponds. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate growth rate and growth hormone profile performance between selected G-2 seed and small scale hatcheries seed as control population the growth rate. Research on grow-out of milkfish seed was conducted at the IMRAD ponds facility in Pejarakan, using milkfish seed produced by small scale hatcheries as well as selected second-generation (G-2) seed, each with the density of 5000 seed/pond (1 pond=0.5 ha). The seeds were fed with dry pellet and reared for 5 – 6 months. The results showed that the seed produced with standard operational procedure (SOP) by small scale hatcheries were having longer (F hit. = 13.68 > F tabel 1%) and heavier body washt (F hit. = 18.98 > F tabel 1%) better than selected G-2 seed and small scale hatcheries seed without SOP with high growth hormone concentration (F hit. = 4.95 > F tabel 5%).
THE EFFECTS OF FASTING DURATION AND DIFFERENT DENSITIES OF GROUPER SEED TRANSPORTED IN CLOSED SYSTEM Ismi, Suko; Kusumawati, Daniar; Asih, Yasmina Nirmala
Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis Vol 8, No 2 (2016): Elektronik Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis
Publisher : IPB University

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (71.575 KB) | DOI: 10.29244/jitkt.v8i2.15829

Abstract

Indonesia is an archipelagic country with many locations suit for aquaculture. Grouper hatcheries are still concentrated in a few locations. Therefore, appropriate technology to transport live grouper seed is needed to ensure the survival and health of the seed. This study aimed to determine the duration of fasting before transportation and the optimum density of grouper seed during transportation. Transportation was conducted in closed system, transported using a car, for 24 hours. Grouper seed used for the experiment was cantik hybrid grouper, a cross-breed between female tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) and male marbled grouper (Epinephelus microdon) with an average of size 7.0±0.32 cm. There were 2 experiments in this study. Experiment 1 was different durations of fasting before transprotation: A. 12 hours, B. 24 hours, C. 36 hours and D. 48 hours with the density of 150 seeds/boxes. The result of the first experiment was used to determine the experimental design of experiment 2, which consisted of 4 different densities per boxes: A. 125 seeds, B. 150 seeds, C. 175 seeds and D. 200 seeds. Both of the experiments were conducted in triplicates. The seeds were packed in plastic bags with a thickness 0.08 mm, length 120 cm x width 53 cm, filled with 10 liters of sea water. The results showed that the duration of fasting from 36 to 48 hours had the highest survival rate. Polinomial relation y = -0.0439x2 + 3.7696x + 17.075 with the value of R² = 0.966 illustrated that the optimum duration of fasting was 44 hours. There was a significant difference in densities of seeds during transportation (P<0.05), where the higher density lead to the lower survival rate. The density of 125 seeds/boxes resulted in the highest survival rate, 99.0 ± 1.0%.
LAJU PENGOSONGAN LAMBUNG PADA LARVA DAN BENIH IKAN KLON ( Amphiprion ocellaris ) Setiawati, Ketut Maha; Imanto, Philip Teguh; Kusumawati, Daniar
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 7, No 1 (2012): (April 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (108.435 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.7.1.2012.33-39

Abstract

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk pengosongan lambung baik pada larva maupun benih ikan klon sebagai dasar manajemen pemberian pakan pada larva maupun benih ikan klon. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada larva umur 10 hari dengan panjang total 7,07±0,50 mm, dan benih umur 2 bulan dengan panjang total berkisar antara 2,64±0,23 cm. Masing-masing hewan uji tidak diberi pakan dari pukul 15.00 WITA (puasa selama 18 jam), kemudian keesokan harinya pukul 09.00 hewan uji diberi pakan buatan sampai kenyang untuk benih, sedangkan untuk larva diberi pakan Artemia selama 1 jam, setelah itu, air pada bak larva dialirkan agar pakan yang tersisa terbuang. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan setiap 1 jam pada larva sedangkan untuk benih dilakukan setiap 2 jam sekali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada jam ke-4 isi lambung pada larva umur 10 hari sudah mulai kosong, sedangkan pada benih ikan klon isi lambung akan kosong setelah 11 jam 37 menit sejak pemberian pakan terakhir.
PERAN GEN AIM1 DAN INTENSITAS CAHAYA TERHADAP KARAKTER POLA PIGMEN IKAN BADUT HITAM (Amphiprion percula) Kusumawati, Daniar; Permana, S.; Setiawati, Ketut Maha; Haryanti, Haryanti
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 7, No 2 (2012): (Agustus 2012)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (203.693 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.7.2.2012.205-219

Abstract

Pola pigmen merupakan faktor utama yang menentukan tingginya kualitas ikan hias. Pada benih-benih F1 populasi budidaya ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula) diketahui mengalami degeneratif pola pigmen yang menyimpang dibandingkan dengan populasi di alam. Pola pigmen merupakan salah satu karakter fenotip yang diturunkan di mana ekspresinya bergantung pada interaksi genetik dengan faktor eksternal yaitu lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji peran gen yaitu Aim1 yang mengontrol sintesis melanin dan kondisi lingkungan dalam menginduksi pola pigmen hitam ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula). Analisis gen Aim1 dilakukan dengan menggunakan program speedy PCR dilanjutkan dengan SSCP (single strand confirmation polymorphism) untuk mengidentifikasi variasi genetik dari gen Aim1. Analisis SDS Page dilakukan untuk mengetahui peranan lingkungan terhadap profil protein yang disintesis. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa primer Aim1 memiliki sisi pengenalan pada whole genom ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula) pada target sequence 45 bp. Berdasarkan analisis SSCP profil fragmentasi amplicon primer Aim1 pada masing-masing tingkatan pada populasi budidaya homolog dengan populasi alam, sehingga gen Aim1 bukan merupakan gen yang mengontrol fenomena degeneratif pola pigmen ikan badut hitam (Amphiprion percula). Peran lingkungan yaitu cahaya memberikan pengaruh positif dalam menginduksi pola pigmen melalui stimulus pada sistem neuron dan migrasi melanophore.
LAJU PENGOSONGAN ISI PERUT PADA IKAN KERAPU CANSIR (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x Epinephelus corallicola) SEBAGAI INFORMASI AWAL DALAM PENENTUAN MANAJEMEN PEMBERIAN PAKAN Kusumawati, Daniar; Ismi, Suko
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 9, No 3 (2014): (Desember 2014)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (110.844 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.9.3.2014.399-406

Abstract

Informasi mengenai laju pengosongan isi perut suatu jenis ikan sangat diperlukan untuk meningkatkan keefektifan dan keefisienan pemanfaatan pakan. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan uji untuk mengetahui lama pengosongan isi perut benih kerapu cansir yaitu hibrida dari kerapu macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) x kerapu pasir (Epinephelus corallicola) terhadap jenis pakan pelet. Benih kerapu cansir sejumlah 50 ekor dengan kisaran panjang 8,00 ± 0,76 cm terlebih dahulu dipuasakan selama 48 jam dan kemudian ikan diberi makan secara adlibitum. Ikan selanjutnya dibedah sejumlah lima ekor pada jam ke-0, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 30, 35, dan 42. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan diketahui bahwa lama pengosongan isi perut berdasarkan persentase derajat kepenuhan isi perut per satuan waktu (ISC) pada ikan kerapu cansir ukuran 8,00 ± 0,76 cm terhadap jenis pakan pelet mencapai 28 jam dengan total laju kecepatan pengosongan lambung rata-rata terhadap penurunan persentase pakan sebesar 2,9%/jam. Berdasarkan lama pengosongan isi perutnya, ikan kerapu cansir cukup diberikan pakan pelet dengan frekuensi satu kali per hari.
PROFIL PERTUMBUHAN, ENZIMATIS, DAN NUTRISI IKAN BANDENG (Chanos chanos) GENERASI KEDUA (G-2) TERSELEKSI DENGAN MENERAPKAN STANDAR OPERASIONAL PROSEDUR (SOP) PEMELIHARAAN LARVA Kusumawati, Daniar; Jamaris, Zafran; Aslianti, Titiek
Media Akuakultur Vol 12, No 2 (2017): (Desember, 2017)
Publisher : Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perikanan, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan da

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (226.463 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/ma.12.2.2017.55-66

Abstract

Isu nasional menurunnya produksi budidaya ikan bandeng di tambak pantai utara Pulau Jawa didugasebagai akibat rendahnya kualitas benih produk Hatchery Skala Rumah Tangga (HSRT) di Bali, yang secara kontinu merupakan sumber utama pasok benih. Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi kualitas benih, antara lain kualitas telur dan induk, serta manajemen pemeliharaan induk dan larva. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi performa pertumbuhan,aktivitas enzim pencernaan dan nutrisi benih ikan bandeng dari HSRT dan generasi kedua (G2) terseleksi yang dipelihara berdasarkan standar operasional prosedur. Penelitian dilakukan di tambak Pejarakan, dengan hewan uji benih produk HSRT dan benih generasi ke-2 (G-2) terseleksi dengan panjang total rata-rata 11,79 ± 1,64 mm, masing-masing dengan padat tebar 5.000 ekor/petak dengan luasan 0,5 Ha/petak, diberi pakan jenis pelet kering berkadar protein 25 % dan dipelihara selama 6 bulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan performa benih ikan bandeng dipengaruhi oleh sumber induk dan manajemen pemeliharaan saat larva. Pertumbuhan benih ikan bandeng asal HSRT dengan SOP pemeliharaan larva menunjukkan peningkatan laju pertumbuhan panjang dan bobot sebesar 10,11% dan 47,18% lebih tinggi dibandingkan benih G2-terseleksi, dan 13,82% dan 50,55% lebih tinggi dibandingkan benih HSRT tanpa SOP. Aktivitas enzimatis pada benih HSRT dengan SOP lebih efisien dibandingkan benih G2-terseleksi. Aktivitas enzimatis pada benih HSRT tanpa SOP adalah yang paling rendah dimana hal ini terlihat dari laju pertumbuhannya yang juga paling rendah. Benih HSRT yang dipelihara dengan SOP mampu menekan rasio konversi pakan sebesar 28,29% lebih rendah dibandingkan benih G2-terseleksi, dan 22,64% dibandingkan benih HSRT yang dipelihara tanpa SOP. Currently, there is a national concern regarding the decreasing of milkfish production from ponds in North Java allegedly due to a low quality of milkfish seed produced by small-scale hatcheries in Bali, which is the main producer of milkfish seed. Some factors can influence seed quality, such as quality of egg and broodstock also rearing management of broodstock and larvae. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate morphological aspect (growth rate) and biological aspect (digestive enzymes activities) of seed from backyard hatchery and selected G2 milkfish. Research on grow-out of milkfish seed was conducted at the IMRAD ponds facility in Pejarakan, using milkfish seed produced by small-scale hatcheries as well as selected second-generation (G-2) seed, each with the density of 5,000 seed/pond (1 pond=0.5 ha). The seeds were fed with dry pellet and reared for 6 months.The result showed performance of seed in terms of morphological and biological influenced by broodstock itself and larvae rearing management.The growth of seed of HSRT origin with larvae rearing SOP had increased the length of and weight growth rates of 10.11% and 47.18%, respectively compared to seed G2 selected and 13.82% and 50.55% from seed HSRT without SOP. Enzymatic activity in HSRT seed with SOP was more efficient than that of selected G2 seed. Enzymatic activity in HSRT seed without SOP was the lowest in which correlated to the lowest growth. Seed from HSRT origin with SOP had better feed conversion ratio which was 28.29% lower than that of selected G2 seed and 22.64% lower than that of HSRT seed without SOP.
PERKEMBANGAN EMBRIO DAN LARVA IKAN LETTER SIX, Paracanthurus hepatus Kusumawati, Daniar; Setiawati, Ketut Maha; Priono, Bambang
Jurnal Riset Akuakultur Vol 10, No 2 (2015): (Juni 2015)
Publisher : Pusat Riset Perikanan, Badan Riset dan Sumber Daya Manusia Kelautan dan Perikanan

Show Abstract | Download Original | Original Source | Check in Google Scholar | Full PDF (1560.161 KB) | DOI: 10.15578/jra.10.2.2015.177-185

Abstract

Dalam upaya memperkaya populasi ikan letter six (Paracanthurus hepatus) di alam yang telah mendekati kepunahan akibat adanya illegal fishing maka dilakukan usaha perbenihan. Kegiatan perbenihan ikan letter six memerlukan informasi awal tentang perkembangan telur dan pemeliharaan larva yang nantinya akan digunakan sebagai acuan dasar dalam menentukan pengembangan teknik pemeliharaan larva ikan letter six yang tepat. Koleksi induk ikan letter six hasil tangkapan di alam dari perairan Maluku dan Papua. Induk letter six dipelihara dalam tangki policarbonat bulat berkapasitas dua ton dengan sistem air mengalir. Selama pemeliharaan, induk letter six mampu memijah secara alami. Durasi perkembangan embrio hingga menetas memerlukan waktu 22 jam 24 menit pada suhu normal air laut 29°C. Penyerapan kuning telur optimum terjadi pada hari kedua dan maksimum terserap habis pada hari ketiga, sedangkan butir minyak terserap habis tepat pada hari ketiga. Korelasi pertumbuhan panjang dan tinggi larva mengikuti hubungan alometrik negatif di mana konstanta pertumbuhan b = 0,6629 (b &lt; 1). Berdasarkan perkembangan larva, umur D-2 (terbentuk bintik mata) mulai diberikan pakan alami berupa plankton dan pada D-3 (bukaan mulut) mulai diberikan zooplankton yaitu rotifer. Dengan metode pemeliharaan ini, larva ikan letter six mati pada D-25 sehingga perlu adanya perbaikan metode pemeliharaan melalui pendekatan lingkungan maupun pakan.