Lilik Kustiyah
Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia, Institut Pertanian Bogor

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Journal : Jurnal Agritech

Uji Organoleptik Formulasi Biskuit Fungsional Berbasis Tepung Ikan Gabus (Ophiocephalus striatus)

Agritech Vol 34, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This study was aimed to investigate functional biscuit formulation based on snakehead fish flour. Research design used was complete randomized design. First step of the study was to characterize and develop snakehead fish flour, the second step was to determine functional biscuit formulation with four treatments: 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% fish flour (FF) of total weight of biscuit dough.  Characterization of snakehead fish flour showed that nutrient content in 100 g was water 13.61%, ash 5.96%, protein 76.9%, fat 0.55%, carbohydrate 3.53%, Zn 3.09 mg and Fe 4.43 mg, in accordance to fish flour quality SNI 01-2715-1996/Rev.92. Snakehead fish flour also contained albumin 24.25%. Organoleptic study in the form of hedonic test to 30 semi trained panelist showed that the highest acceptance percentage on color and odor was in 15% FF which were 96.67% and 63.33%, respectively. Highest texture acceptance was in 15% FF which was 73.33% and highest flavour acceptance was in 10% FF which was 58.33%. The acceptability of respondent showed that snakehead fish flour treatment had a significant effect (p<0.05) on biscuit texture but it had no a significant effect (p>0.05) on biscuit odor, flavour, color and overall. Based on subjects acceptance, biscuit formula with 15% snakehead fish flour substitution was selected.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari formulasi biskuit fungsional berbasis tepung ikan gabus. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah RAL (Rancangan Acak Lengkap). Tahap pertama penelitian melakukan karakterisasi dan pembuatan tepung ikan gabus, sedangkan tahap kedua penelitian menentukan formulasi biskuit fungsional dengan empat taraf perlakuan, yaitu 0%, 10%, 15%, dan 20% tepung ikan (TI) terhadap total berat adonan biskuit. Hasil karakterisasi tepung ikan gabus menunjukkan kandungan gizi dalam 100 g bahan adalah air 13,61%, abu 5,96%, protein 76,9%, lemak 0,55%, karbohidrat 3,53%, Zn 3,09 mg dan Fe 4,43 mg, sesuai dengan mutu tepung ikan SNI 01-27151996/Rev.92. Tepung ikan gabus juga mengandung albumin sebesar 24,25%. Hasil uji organoleptik biskuit berupa uji hedonik oleh 30 orang panelis semi terlatih menunjukkan bahwa persentase penerimaan panelis terhadap warna dan aroma tertinggi pada 20% TI dengan penerimaan masing-masing sebesar 96,67% dan 63,33%. Tekstur tertinggi pada 15% TI sebesar 73,33% dan rasa tertinggi pada 10% TI sebesar 58,33%. Penerimaan panelis menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan tepung ikan gabus berpengaruh nyata (p<0,05) terhadap tekstur biskuit, namun tidak berpengaruh nyata (p>0,05) terhadap aroma, rasa, warna dan keseluruhan biskuit. Berdasarkan pertimbangan penerimaan panelis maka terpilih formula biskuit dengan substitusi 15% tepung ikan gabus.

Bioavailabilitas Fortifikan, Daya Cerna Protein, serta Kontribusi Gizi Biskuit yang Ditambah Tepung Ikan Gabus (Ophiocephalus striatus) dan Difortifikasi Seng dan Besi

Agritech Vol 34, No 4 (2014)
Publisher : Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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Abstract

This research aimed to evaluate the bioavailability of fortificant, protein digestibility, and nutrition contribution of biscuits supplemented with snakehead fish flour and fortified with Zn and Fe. Randomized complete design was used in this research which consisted of two steps, namely: 1) Zn and Fe microencapsulation, 2) formulation of biscuit supplemented with fish flour 15% which fortified with Zn and Fe. Level of Zn and Fe per servingsize were to meet 25%, 50% and 100% of RDA. Based on ANOVA showed that there were no significantly difference on bioavailability of Zn and Fe on various fortification level (p>0.05). Biscuits fortified with Zn and Fe to meet 50% RDA per serving size had the highest bioavailability of 76.32% and 41.80%, respectively. This biscuits was chosen for further analysis namely physical and chemical characteristics and protein digestibility. Result of analysis showed that the chosen biscuits more crunchy than those the commercial biscuits. Each a hundred grams of biscuits contained moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate, energy, Fe and Zn of about 2.73 g, 2.80 g, 13.34 g, 24.53 g, 57.32 g , 503 kcal, 11.7 % and 8.83%, respectively and had protein digestibility of 78.45%. This biscuits was in range of quality standards for biscuits SNI 01-2973-1992. The contribution of the chosen biscuits on RDA of energy, protein, Fe and Zn were 19,48%; 20,51%; 74,44%; 54.44%, respectively.ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari bioavailabilitas fortifikan, daya cerna protein, dan kontribusi gizi biskuit ikan gabus yang ditambahkan tepung ikan gabus dan difortifikasi dengan Zn dan Fe. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah RAL. Penelitian terdiri atas dua tahap, yaitu pertama adalah melakukan mikroenkapsulasi mineral Zn dan Fe, kedua formulasi biskuit berbasis 15% tepung ikan gabus yang difortifikasi dengan mineral Zn dan Fe dengan taraf fortifikasi, yaitu sebesar 25%, 50%, dan 100% AKG per serving size. Terhadap biskuit yang dihasilkan dilakukan analisis bioavailabilitas Zn dan Fe. Hasil sidik ragam menunjukkan bahwa bioavailabilitas Zn dan Fe tidak berbeda nyata pada berbagai taraf fortifikasi (p>0.05). Biskuit hasil fortifikasi Zn dan Fe sebesar 50% AKG memiliki bioavailabilitas tertinggi, yaitu masing-masing 76,32% dan 41,80%. Formula biskuit ini dipilih untuk dianalisis lebih lanjut, yang meliputi analisis sifat fisik, kimia, dan daya cerna protein. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa biskuit terpilih tersebut lebih renyah daripada biskuit komersial. Dalam 100 g biskuit tersebut terkandung air, abu, protein, lemak, dan karbohidrat berturut-turut sebesar 2,73 g; 2,08 g; 13,34 g; 24,53 g; 57,32 g; serta energi sebesar 503 kkal. Kadar Fe dan Zn biskuit terpilih tersebut adalah 11,7 mg dan 8,83 mg/100 g; dengan daya cerna protein sebesar 78,45%. Biskuit berbasis tepung ikan gabus 15% yang difortifikasi Zn dan Fe sebesar 50% AKG memenuhi standar kualitas biskuit SNI 01-2973-1992. Kontribusi biskuit terpilih terhadap AKG energi, protein, Fe dan Zn berturut-turut adalah 19,48%; 20,51%; 74,44%; 54.44%.