Eko Kusratmoko
Department of Geography, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia

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SPATIAL PATTERN OF HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE UNIT (HRU) EFFECT ON FLOW DISCHARGE OF CI RASEA WATERSHED USING LANDSAT TM IN 1997 TO 2009

International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences (IJReSES) Vol 13, No 1 (2016)
Publisher : National Institute of Aeronautics and Space of Indonesia (LAPAN)

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Abstract

Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) is a unit formed of hydrological analysis based on geology and soil type, slope, and land cover. This paper discussed the spatial pattern of Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) in 1997-2009 and its impact on flow Ci Rasea watershed temporally. In this study, SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model, based on land cover changed, was used to get HRU and flow in spatially and temporally. This method used Landsat TM 1997, 2003 and 2009 data for land cover and daily rainfall 1997-2009 for flow modeling. The results showed the spatial pattern of HRU in temporally was affected by landcover based on the changing of HRU. The majority of HRU spatial pattern at Ci Rasea watershed were clustered. During 1997-2009, accumulated surface runoff and the changing of flow discharge were affected by changes of HRU spatial pattern. The biggest accumulated surface runoff in Ci Rasea watershed influenced by HRU of agricultural cropland in area of clay soil type with slope slightly obliquely. While the smallest accumulated surface runoff in Ci Rasea watershed influenced by HRU of paddy field in the area of sandy loam soil type with a gentle slope. The changes of HRU agriculture cropland become HRU mixed cropland in area clay soil type with slope at a slight angle and HRU agriculture cropland become HRU paddy field in area, sandy loam soil type with a gentle slope could be decreasing the accumulation of surface runoff in Ci Rasea watershed.

Coastal Physical Vulnerability of Surabaya and Its Surrounding Area to Sea Level Rise

Makara Journal of Technology Vol 16, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Directorate of Research and Community Services, Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were  used coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA) approach according to the study area.  The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS). Result of this study shows that the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency) that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabaya and Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area, relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency. 

THE EFFECT OF HYDROLOGIC RESPONSE UNIT ON CI RASEA WATERSHED STREAMFLOW BASED ON LANDSAT TM

International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences (IJReSES) Vol 12, No 2 (2015)
Publisher : National Institute of Aeronautics and Space of Indonesia (LAPAN)

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Abstract

. This paper discusses spatial pattern of Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU), which is a unit formed of hydrological analysis, including geology and soil type, elevation and slope, and also land cover in 2009. This paper also discusses the impact of HRU on streamflow of Ci Rasea watershed, West Java. Ci Rasea watershed is located at the upstream part of Ci Tarum watersheds in West Java Province, Indonesia. This research used SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model to obtain spatial HRU and river flow. The method used Landsat TM data for land cover and daily rainfall for river flow modeling. The results have shown spatial pattern of HRU which was affected by land cover, soil type and slope. In 2009, accumulated surface runoff and streamflow changes were spatially affected by HRU changes. The large amount accumulation of river flow discharge happened in HRU with landcover paddy field, silty clay soil, and flat slope. While the low discharge of river flow happened in HRU with plantation, clay soil, and slightly steep slopes as HRU dominant. It was found that accumulation of surface runoff in Ci Rasea watershed can be reduced by changing the land cover type in some areas with clay and slightly steep slope to become plantation area and the areas with sandy loam soil and flat slope can be used for paddy fields. Beside affected by HRU, the river flow discharge was also affected by the distance of sub watershed to the outlet. By using NS model and statistical t-student for calibration and validation, it was obtained that the accuracy of river flow models with HRU was 70%. It meant that the model could better simulate water flows of the Ci Rasea watershed.

Model Spasial Perubahan Penggunaan Lahan dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Kebijakan Swasembada Padi

Majalah Geografi Indonesia Vol 32, No 1 (2018): Maret 2018
Publisher : Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

Perubahan tutupan dan penggunaan lahan di Kecamatan Kalitidu, Kabupaten Bojonegoro cukup signifikan khususnya untuk penggunaan lahan sawah. Suatu wilayah dikatakan berswasembada padi jika produksi berasnya lebih besar dibandingkan dengan angka konsumsi berasnya. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan pemodelan spasial menggunakan metode jaringan saraf Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) dan Markov Chain (MC) yang terdapat dalam metode Land Change Modeler (LCM) pada perangkat lunak Idrisi. Pada pemodelan spasial tersebut digunakan variabel jalan sebagai faktor pendukung perubahan penggunaan lahan di tahun 2025. Hasil yang diperoleh dari pemodelan spasial tersebut yaitu besaran luasan sawah pada tahun 2025 dengan angka 4644.99 hektar dengan nilai akurasi 56.51%. Kemudian nilai tersebut dikalikan dengan angka produktifitas padi tahun 2015 dan angka konversi gabah kering giling (GKG) menghasilkan nilai produksi beras di tahun 2025 sebesar 95705.37 ton. Angka konsumsi beras tahun 2025 sebesar 4648.402 ton didapatkan dengan mengkalikan jumlah penduduk di tahun 2025 yang memiliki angka 52515 jiwa dengan angka rata-rata konsumsi per kapita per tahun yang berada di angka 88.52 kg. Dengan demikian Kecamatan Kalitidu di tahun 2025 mampu berswasembada padi.Changes in land cover and land use in Kalitidu District, Bojonegoro Regency are significant, especially for paddy land use. A region is said to be self-sufficient in rice if its rice production is greater than its rice consumption rate. In this research, spatial modeling using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and markov chain method is applied in Land Change Modeler (LCM) method in Idrisi software. In spatial modeling used road variables as a driving factor the change of land use in 2025. The results obtained from spatial modeling is the size of paddy field area in 2025 with the number 4644.99 hectares with an accuracy of 56.51%. Then the value is multiplied by the rate of rice productivity in 2015 and the conversion rate of dry milled grain (GKG) produces rice production value in 2025 of 95705.37 tons. The consumption rate of rice in 2025 amounted to 4648,402 tons was obtained by multiplying the number of population in the year 2025 which has the number 52515 people with the average rate per capita consumption per year which is at 88.52 kg. Thus Kalitidu District in 2025 is capable of self-sufficient rice.    

Risiko Kerugian Akibat Longsor di Desa Cibanteng, Kecamatan Sukaresmi, Kabupaten Cianjur, Jawa Barat

Majalah Geografi Indonesia Vol 29, No 2 (2015): September 2015
Publisher : Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Provinsi Jawa Barat merupakan provinsi yang memiliki riwayat kejadian longsor tertinggi di Indonesia. Salah satu wilayah di Provinsi Jawa Barat yang sering terjadi longsor adalah Desa Cibanteng, Kecamatan Sukaresmi, Kabupaten Cianjur. Pada dua tahun terakhir telah terjadi dua kali pergerakan tanah di daerah yang berbeda di Desa Cibanteng. Penelitian ini bertujuan memprediksi besar risiko kerugian bencana longsor pada masa akan datang sehingga bantuan saat terjadi longsor dapat dioptimalkan. Untuk memprediksi besar risiko kerugian digunakan variabel bahaya, kerentanan dan kapasitas kebencanaan longsor. Masing-masing variabel memiliki beberapa indikator tertentu yakni penggunaan tanah, lereng, dan kepadatan penduduk. Penghitungan risiko kerugian dilakukan menggunakan metode overlay masing-masing variabel. Hasil penelitian adalah berupa prediksi risiko kerugian sebesar Rp. 10,1 milyar. Besar risiko kerugian tersebut didapat dari nilai bangunan, jaringan jalan, jaringan listrik dan produktivitas pertanian. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa wilayah risiko bencana longsor mendominasi dibagian selatan Desa Cibanteng. ABSTRACT West Java Province is a province have a high landslide history in Indonesia. One of the area in West Java Province which often occuring a landslide is Cibanteng Village, Sukaresmi District, Cianjur Regency. In the last two years has been soil movement twice in different areas in the village Cibanteng. This study aims to predict big losses from landslides in future so that assistance can be optimized during a landslide. To predict the risk of loss used hazards variable, vulnerabilities and capacities of landslide disasters. Each variables have some specific indicators namely landuse, slope, and population density. The calculation of losses risk using overlay method in each variable. The results are prediction of losses risk of Rp. 10.1 billion. Great of losses risk can be assessed from value of building , road networks, electricity networks and agricultural productivity. This study shows that risk of landslides dominated in southern of Cibanteng Village.

Karakteristik Permukiman pada Wilayah Rawan Tanah Longsor di Desa Cibanteng, Cianjur, Jawa Barat

Majalah Geografi Indonesia Vol 28, No 2 (2014): September 2014
Publisher : Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada

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Abstract

ABSTRAK Tanah longsor sering terjadi di Desa Cibanteng yang dapat memperhatikan bukan hanya desa tetapi manusianya. Sebagai desa yang rawan longsor, Desa Cibanteng dicirikan oleh wilayah padat penduduk yang tersebar pada lereng-lereng yang berpotensi mengalami longsor. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik ruang wilayah yang memiliki tingkat kerawanan tinggi, sedang, dan rendah sehingga dapat diketahui sebaran permukiman yang berada di masing-masing tingkat kerawanan. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui observasi lapangan, wawancara, dan pengumpulan data dari beberapa instansi. Data yang terkumpul diolah menggunakan Ms. Excel dan ArcGIS 10.1 dengan metode pengharkatan, pembobotan, dan overlay untuk menghasilkan peta wilayah rawan tanah longsor. Parameter yang digunakan antara lain lereng, penggunaan lahan, dan riwayat longsor, serta peta karakteristik permukiman. Hasil yang diperoleh yaitu masih adanya permukiman yang dapat membahayakan keselamatan hidup penduduk di Desa Cibanteng, khususnya pada wilayah rawan longsor tingkat tinggi, dengan karakteristik berupa kerapatan rumah tinggi, serta jumlah rumah non panggung dan berdinding tembok yang relatif besar. Kondisi yang demikian menunjukkan mitigasi tingkat 1 dan 2, yang berarti bahwa daerah tersebut prioritas utama dalam proses mitigasi sebagai upaya pengurangan risiko bencana. Daerah yang termasuk dalam kategori tersebut adalah Kampung Gulingmunding dan Kampung Sukamulya. ABSTRACT Landslides often occur in the village Cibanteng which to be attention not only the village but humans. As  the village has prone of the landslide, Cibanteng village was characterized by densely populated areas spread on slopes that have potential to come through landslides. The aim of this study determine characteristics of region has impact in high, medium, and low so that it can be seen distribution of settlements in each level of vulnerability. This research method is field observations, interviews, and collect data from several agencies. Data has collected then processing use Ms. Excel and ArcGIS 10.1 with scoring, weighting, and overlay to produce a map of landslide vulnerability. Parameters used include slope, land use, history of landslides, and characteristic settlements map. The results are the settlements could endanger safety of life in Cibanteng village, especially in area has high vulnerability with the characteristics of high density populated, and the amount of non-stage houses and a relatively large wall. This conditions indicate mitigation levels 1 and 2, which means the area is a priority in process of mitigation as disaster risk reduction. Areas  which include that are Gulingmunding and Kampung Kampung Sukamulya. 

PEMODELAN TRANSPORT SEDIMEN DI PERAIRAN PESISIR SEMENANJUNG MURIA, JEPARA

Jurnal Pengembangan Energi Nuklir Vol 12, No 1 (2010): Juni 2010
Publisher : Pusat Kajian Sistem Energi Nuklir, Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional

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Abstract

ABSTRAKPEMODELAN TRANSPORT SEDIMEN DI PERAIRAN PESISIR SEMENANJUNG MURIA, JEPARA. Penelitian pergerakan transport sedimen di perairan Semenanjung Muria telah dilakukan. Dalam studi ini digunakan model matematika yang terdiri dari model hidrodinamika dan model transport sedimen. Input data yang digunakan dalam model adalah pasang surut, angin muson, dan debit sungai. Hasil simulasi pemodelan transport sedimen menunjukkan bahwa penyebab utama dari variasi pola distribusi sedimen tersuspensi di perairan Semenanjung Muria adalah pasang surut dan variasi musim.Kata kunci: pemodelan, transpot sedimen, hidrodinamika ABSTRACTMODELLING OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT MURIA PENINSULA COASTAL, JEPARA. Modelling of transport sediment modelling at Muria Peninsula have been done. In this study we had been used mathematical model that consist of hydrodynamics and sediment transport . Data input for modelling has been used tidal, moonson wind, and river debit. Simulation result of sedimen transport modelling showed that tides pattern and seasonal variations are the main causes of variations in the suspended sediment distribution in Muria Peninsula.Keywords: modelling, sediment transport, hydrodynamics

PERMODELAN PERSEBARAN KONSENTRASI NITRAT DALAM AIR SUNGAI DENGAN SOIL AND WATER ASSESSMENT TOOL

MAJALAH ILMIAH GLOBE Vol 16, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Badan Informasi Geospasial

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Abstract

ABSTRAKPendekatan modeling merupakan metode yang banyak digunakan untuk manajemen daerah aliran sungai (DAS) dengan lebih baik karena dimungkinkan untuk dilakukan forecasting terhadap dampak-dampak yang mungkin akan terjadi sehubungan dengan aktivitas manusia di DAS tersebut. Model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) secara ekstensif telah umum digunakan untuk mempelajari debit sungai, hasil sedimen, dan muatan nutrien. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada Kali Gede, Ci Putat, Kali Caringin, dan Kali Angsana yang tersebar di Kecamatan Bojongsari dan Sawangan, Depok. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui bagaimana hasil simulasi model SWAT terhadap persebaran konsentrasi nitrat dalam air sungai sehubungan dengan penggunaan lahan dan membuat simulasi persebaran konsentrasi nitrat dengan skenario wilayah permukiman mengalami perluasan sebesar 1,2% per tahun. Validasi hasil simulasi model menggunakan data konsentrasi nitrat hasil pengukuran langsung yang dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2013. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa model SWAT dapat menghasilkan simulasi yang baik pada wilayah dengan topografi dan jenis tanah yang homogen, serta jenis penggunaan lahan yang berbeda. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan nilai Normalized Objective Function (NOF) untuk Kali Gede adalah 0,21, Ci Putat 0,11, Kali Caringin 0,09, dan Kali Angsana 0,05. Sementara NOF yang dapat diterima adalah dari 0-1, dimana nilai 0 adalah nilai yang paling sempurna. Selain itu, meluasnya wilayah permukiman akan meningkatkan konsentrasi nitrat dalam air sungai di Kecamatan Bojongsari dan Sawangan.Kata Kunci: model, SWAT, DAS, konsentrasi nitrat, penggunaan lahanABSTRACTModelling approaches is widely used to get best watershed management because it’s possibility to forecast the impact of human activities on watershed. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model has been used extensively to study run off, sediment yield, and nutrient load. This research was take place at Kali Gede, Ci Putat, Kali Caringin, and Kali Angsana located in Bojongsari and Sawangan Sub-district, Depok City. The purposes of this research were to know accuracy of SWAT modeling making simulation nitrate concentration in river related with homegeneous slope and soil, and heterogeneous landuse and to forecast tthe impact of the residential area expansion to the nitrate consentration. Model simulation is validated using observe nitrate concentration data which was taken from river in April 2013. The conclusion of this research are SWAT model can be used to make acurate simulation of nitrate concentration whichare shown by Normalized Objective Function (NOF) values which 0.21 at Kali Gede, 0.11 at Ci Putat, 0.09 at Kali Caringin, and 0.05 at Kali Angsana. NOF value indicated how accurate models simulation which is allowed from 0-1 and 0 indicated perfect simulation. The expansion of residential area in Bojongsari and Sawangan Sub-district will cause nitrate concentration in these rivers increase.Keywords: model, SWAT, watershed, nitrate concentration, landuse