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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Elderly Kurniawan, Indra
Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 60 No. 12 December 2010
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Diabetes melitus is a common disease in older people, with almost 50% of Type 2 diabetic patients being over 65 years of age. Diabetes in elderly is metabolically distinct from diabetes in other patient populations, and the approach to therapy needs to be different in this age group. In 2008, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European  Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) developed updated treatment recommendations for type 2 diabetes. The consensus algorithm provides insight and guidance for physicians in the management of Type 2 diabetes in choosing the most appropriate interventions for diabetic patients. Besides, the geriatric syndromes must be considered in the management of older diabetic patients.  Diabetes is also associated with morbidity from macrovascular and microvascular complications. Several evidences suggest that optimal glycemic control and risk factor modification can reduce the risk of diabetes complications in elderly patients.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, elderly, management
FAKTOR - FAKTOR PENGHAMBAT PENGATURAN PEDAGANG KAKI LIMA BERDASARKAN PERATURAN DAERAH NOMOR 3 TAHUN 2008 (STUDI KASUS di TAMAN POCI dan JALAN PANCASILA) Kurniawan, Indra; Taufiq, Ahmad; Martini, Rina
Journal of Politic and Government Studies VOLUME 2, NOMOR 4,TAHUN 2013
Publisher : Journal of Politic and Government Studies

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Abstract

The development of an increasingly complex society trigger problems such as employment issues are minimal and inadequate as the population is increasing , consequently people competing for work with any media for survival , as an example of the phenomenon of the above problems is the existence of street vendors ( Street Vendor ) that mushroomed in big cities is the goal of the people to look for work . Therefore , the City of Tegal make local regulation No. 3 of 2008, which contains the settings hawkers in Tegal .The purpose of this study is to investigate the implementation of Regulation 3 of 2008 on regulation of street vendors in the city of Tegal . To explain the implementation of local regulations No. 3 of 2008 used a descriptive - qualitative method . The data was collected using interview techniques , observation and literature review .
REAKSI MULTISTEP KONDENSASI ALDOL DALAM SINTESIS TURUNAN BENZILIDIN KETON DARI p¬ NITROBENZALDEHID DAN SIKLOHEKSANON UGM, Pudjono; Mutiara, Erlita Verdia; Kurniawan, Indra
STIFAR - Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Vol 5, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : STIFAR - Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi

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Abstract

Benzylidene ketone is a compound in which within the structure there is a benzyl group which is bound to a, 3 unsaturated with ketone. Benzylidene ketone can be synthesized through aldol condensational reaction, using both acid and base catalysts. Condensational reaction of p-nitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexanone is a multistep condensation so that the formation of the various products was difficult to be avoided. The reaction was done by reacting p-nitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexanone using hydrochloride acid as a catalyst, being stirred for two hours. The elucidation structure of the compound use spectroscopy UV, IR and GC-MS. The results of research indicate the existence of a multistep condensation between p­nitrobenzaldehyde and cyclohexanon. The compound formed was the dark yellow powder that had no smell. The melting point of the product (199- 204oC) was different from those of p­nitrobenzaldehyde (102-104°C) as the compared material. Spectra UV and JR indicate the differences from the p-nitrobenzaldehyde. The results of the GC-MS interpretation provides information that the compound produced was possibly2-cyclohexylidene-6-(4´ - nitrobenzylidene) cyclohexanone with the molecular formula of C19H21N03 and the compound 2-(4´ -nitrobenzylidene) cyclohexanone with the molecular formula of C13H12NO3 and yield of 12.53% and 16.42% respectively.   Key word : aldol multistep condensation reaction, p-nitrobenzaldehyde, cyclohexanone, 2­cyclohexylidene-6-(4´-nitrobenzylidene) cyclohexanone, 2-(4´-nitrobenzylidene) cyclohexanone
Iron deficiency anemia in the elderly Kurniawan, Indra
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 20, No 1 (2011): February
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

The numbers of older people in the world have been growing rapidly. Anemia is the most common hematologic problem encountered in older adults. However, anemia should not be accepted as an inevitable consequence of aging. Anemia in the elderly signifies an underlying disease. Iron Defi ciency Anemia (IDA) is being one of the most common causes of anemia in older people. IDA in the elderly is often associated with such non specific symptoms. The diagnosis of IDA is typically based on laboratory results. Hence, the utilization of the various laboratory tests plays an important role for the diagnosis of IDA. The presence of IDA in the elderly is usually related with gastrointestinal disorders. Thus,  gastrointestinal evaluation should be contemplated in all patients with IDA unless there is a history of clinically important non gastrointestinal blood loss. Older people with IDA should have iron supplementation both to correct anemia and to replenish body iron stores. However, the underlying cause should always be treated to prevent further iron loss. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:71-7)Keywords: anemia, elderly, gastrointestinal, iron deficiency
The role of probiotics to improve gut health in the elderly Kurniawan, Indra; Simadibrata, Marcellus
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 20, No 3 (2011): August
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Recent studies have reported that there is a group of microbiota, which have been shown to bring beneficial effects on human’s health. They are called probiotics. Probiotics have been defined as live, non pathogenic microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefi t on the host. The administration of probiotics can change the composition of the gut microbiota. Several probiotics preparations seem to have a role in the prevention of certain diseases as well as treatment of various conditions. Probiotics have been shown to be helpful in relieving constipation, promoting recovery from diarrhea, reducing the risks of colorectal cancer, normalizing nutritional status, and improving the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and lactose intolerance. However, the benefits associated with probiotics are strain specific. Therefore, the use of probiotics to confer health benefits should indicate the dosage regimens of each probiotics strain, based on adequate clinical trials. Although probiotics are generally regarded as safe, careful monitoring should be performed on the use of probiotics in the elderly patients. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:226-31)Keywords: elderly, health, probiotics
Pengaruh teat dipping menggunakan dekok daun kersen (Muntingia calabura L.) terhadap tingkat kejadian mastitis Kurniawan, Indra; Sarwiyono, S.; Surjowardojo, Puguh
Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan Vol 23, No 3 (2013)
Publisher : Fakultas Peternakan Universitas Brawijaya

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: The study was carried out in Sidomulyo Village, Jabung, Malang Regen-cy from April 6th to May 6th, 2013. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influ-ence of Kersen leaf (Muntingia calabura L) extract to reduce mastitis incidents. The materials used in this study were 15 Friesian Holstein crossbreed lactating dairy cows, chemical antiseptic, and Kersen leaf extract. The study used experiment Randomized Block Design with 3 treatments and 5 replications. The result shows that Kersen leaf extract was significantly (p>0.05) able to reduce mastitis incidents particularly 20% of Kersen leaf extract composition. The study suggests that Kersen leaf extract can be used as an effective substance in dipping solution for dairy cows Mastitis control program.Keywords: Kersen leaf extract, mastitis, teat dipping, dairy cows
Potential interaction between proton pump inhibitor and clopidogrel Kurniawan, Indra; Simadibrata, Marcellus
Medical Journal of Indonesia Vol 22, No 1 (2013): February
Publisher : Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia

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Abstract

Clopidogrel is an anti-platelet agent commonly used in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease. Although formerly considered safe, several studies reported that the use of clopidogrel may cause a significant increase in the rate of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. This adverse effect could be minimized by coadministration of proton pump inhibitor (PPI). However, since PPI and clopidogrel share the same metabolic pathway, it has been hypothesized that the administration of PPI following clopidogrel therapy may cause a reduction in its anti-platelet effect, thereby increasing the risk of CV events. Recent studies found no significant inhibition in the activation of clopidogrel by CYP2C19 with administration of PPI in vitro. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, as well as clinical studies, reported conflicting results regarding the potential interaction between PPI and clopidogrel. Until now, the available study investigated the PPI-clopidogrel interaction are primarily observational. The COGENT study is the only prospective, placebo-controlled trial examined the PPI-clopidogrel interaction. This study revealed no significant increase in CV events in patients receiving PPI following clopidogrel therapy, compared to the control group. Though remains controversial, current expert consensus recommended the administration of PPI in patients receiving clopidogrel, particularly in high-risk patients. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:57-62)Keywords: Cardiovascular, clopidogrel, gastrointestinal, proton pump inhibitor
PROSES BERPIKIR KREATIF SISWA CLIMBER DALAM PEMECAHAN MASALAH MATEMATIKA PADA MATERI PELUANG Kurniawan, Indra; Kusmayadi, Tri Atmojo; Sujadi, Imam
Jurnal Pembelajaran Matematika Vol 3, No 6 (2015): Pembelajaran Matematika
Publisher : Jurnal Pembelajaran Matematika

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Abstract

Abstract: This study aimed to describe the process of creative thinking of students in XI grade IPA-2 SMA Negeri 1 Polanharjo that have AQ climber characteristic in the mathematics problem solving in quiet materials based on Wallas steps, they are: preparation, incubation, illumination and verification.  The approach t used in this study is qualitative approach. The collecting data in this study used task based on interview method. The process of creative thinking of the climber student in the mathematics problem solving in probability materials, are: (1) in the preparation step, students were enthusiastically when they were given problem solving task. The students explain the case that they knowed and asked in complete and correct with some way, that were: (a) writing the steps and changing into examples, (b) just writing the steps, (c) just changing the case that known in examples; (2) in the incubation step, when the students are understanding probability of event, they: (a)are practising that probability, (b) focus to understand on the problem, (c) less focus to understand on the problem. Then students get an idea by making a complete diagram then multiply the possibilities of occuring on the first and second taking; (3) in the illumination step, student counts probability values are based on complete diagram to sum possibillity of the relevant probability. Students get the new way, that: (a) are the uncomplete diagram and probability formulas, (b) the uncomplete diagram, (c) probability formulas. Students explain the origin of the new way found. Students finish the problem with the new way; (4) in the verification step, students retest all the cases having done befound and corrected the obtained probability values using the old and new way, both of them get the same and correct result.Keywords: creative thinking, problem solving, and climber.
PENINGKATAN SIFAT MEKANIK SERAT KITOSAN MELALUI PROSES PLASTISISASI DENGAN GLISEROL SETELAH PROSES DEHIDRASI DENGAN METANOL Winiati, Wiwin; Wahyudi, Tatang; Kurniawan, Indra; Yulina, Rizka
Arena Tekstil Vol 27, No 2 (2012)
Publisher : Arena Tekstil

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Abstract

Serat kitosan mempunyai sifat getas, kekuatan yang rendah terutama dalam keadaan basah dan elongasisaat putus yang rendah disebabkan kristalin yang tinggi. Untuk dapat digunakan sebagai benang operasimonofilamen, diperlukan serat kitosan dengan diameter yang relatif kecil tetapi mempunyai kekuatan tarik yangtinggi disertai fleksibilitas dan elongasi yang baik sehingga mudah dibuat simpul. Proses dehidrasi dengan metanoltelah berhasil meningkatkan kekuatan dan menurunkan diameter tetapi elongasi menurun. Penelitian ini ditujukanuntuk meningkatkan sifat mekanik terutama elongasi serat kitosan dengan cara melakukan proses plastisisasidengan gliserol setelah proses dehidrasi dengan metanol . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada serat kitosanyang dibuat dari larutan kitosan dengan viskositas 5.684 mPa.s dengan alat wet-spinning menggunakan spinneretdengan diameter 1500 μm, proses dehidrasi dengan metanol dilanjutkan dengan proses plastisisasi dengan gliserolmemberikan penurunan diameter 7 %, peningkatan densitas 46%, peningkatan kekuatan tarik 90%, danpeningkatan elongasi 167 %. Dengan proses plastisisasi serat kitosan menjadi lebih hidrofil, densitas dan %kristalinitas naik sehingga serat lebih padat merata dan memberikan peningkatan elongasi yang signifikan.
Peningkatan Keterampilan Menulis Puisi dengan Metode Jigsaw Melalui Media Gambar Pada Siswa Kelas VII SMP Ulul Albab Purworejo Tahun Pelajaran 2014/2015 Kurniawan, Indra
SURYA BAHTERA Vol 4, No 35 (2016): Jurnal Surya Bahtera
Publisher : Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia

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Abstract

ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan: (1) proses pembelajaran menulis puisi dengan metode jigsaw melalui media gambar pada siswa kelas VII SMP IT Ulul Albab Purworejo, (2) peningkatan keterampilan menulis puisi dengan metode jigsaw melalui media gambar pada siswa kelas VII SMP IT Ulul Albab Purworejo. Proses pembelajaran keterampilan menulis puisi dengan metode jigsaw melalui media gambar pada siswa kelas VII SMP IT Ulul Albab Purworejo meliputi tahapan perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan, dan refleksi yang dilakukan pada setiap siklusnya. Pada tahap prasiklus, proses pembelajaran dilakukan dengan media gambar saja. Pada tahap siklus I dan II, proses pembelajaran menggunakan metode jigsaw melalui media gambar dengan membagi siswa menjadi tujuh kelompok, peneliti menjelaskan materi pembelajaran lalu dikembalikan ke siswa untuk dipelajari lagi secara berkelompok, membagikan gambar kepada siswa per kelompok, dan menugaskan siswa untuk menulis puisi sesuai gambar yang telah dibagikan. Peningkatan keterampilan menulis puisi dengan metode jigsaw melalui media gambar pada siswa kelas VII SMP IT Ulul Albab Purworejo mengalami peningkatan dari setiap siklusnya. Pada tahap prasiklus, nilai rata-rata siswa 62,02. Pada tahap siklus I nilai rata-rata siswa meningkat menjadi 68,95. Pada tahap siklus II, nilai rata-rata siswa meningkat lagi menjadi 72,50. Berdasarkan uraian di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran keterampilan menulis puisi dengan metode jigsaw melalui media gambar pada siswa kelas VII SMP IT Ulul Albab Purworejo meningkat. ? Kata Kunci: keterampilan menulis puisi, metode jigsaw, media gambar