Suryati Kumorowulan
Balai Litbang GAKI Magelang

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PENGARUH PEMBERIAN POVIDONE IODINE DAN IODIUM TINCTURE SECARA TOPICAL TERHADAP FUNGSI KELENJAR TIROID

Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan Vol 30, No 1 (2007)
Publisher : Jurnal Penelitian Gizi dan Makanan

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ABSTRACT Background: Iodine Deficiency Disorder (IDD) is one of the main nutritional problems in Indonesia. The classic manifestation of IDD is goiter endemic and cretinism.  Efforts have been conducted to eliminate IDD such as oral iodine supplementation and salt iodization.  An alternative method that had been tried was through topical medication using iodine containing solution such as iodine tincture or povidone iodine.  Both solutions were relatively cheap and almost available in every drug shop.  This study was to explore the medicine to eliminate IDD which is rubbing self treatment and the danger of excessive iodine uptake is minimized. Objectives: The study was to investigate the effect of povidone iodine and iodine tincture by topical usage to the thyroid gland function. Methods: The study design was quasi experiment trial with pre- post design.  Location of study was Srumbung and Dukun Subdistricts of Magelang District, Central Java.  The subject was women of child bearing age (15–45 years) with visible goiter and normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level or hypothyroid. The subject were divided into two groups, each group consisted of 30 women of child bearing age. Group I was rubbed with povidone iodine on the neck   every two days for 2 months and, group II was rubbed with iodine tincture with the same scheme as the first group. The level of TSH, free thyroxine (free T4) and urinary iodine excretion (UIE) were compared before and after intervention. Results: TSH level on povidone group (Group I) decrease from 3,6 μU/L (before) to 2,17 μU/L (after intervention).  On tincture group also decrease from 2,7 μU/L to 1,42 μU/L. The median of free T4 on povidone group increase from 0,86 ng/dl  (before) to 1,03 µg/dl (after intervention), whereas on tincture group the median of free T4 also increase with small value. The median of UIE on povidone group decrease from 383 μg/L (before) to 130 μg/L (after intervention), whereas on tincture group increase from 235 μg/L to 311 μg/L. The size of neck circle on povidone group showed that no significant difference between before and after intervention, whereas the tincture group had significant difference.  Conclusions: The topical usage on thyroid gland of topical povidone iodine and iodine tincture improved TSH and free T4 levels. The treatment with iodine tincture decreased the size of goiter. [Penel Gizi Makan 2007, 30(1): 25-30]   Keywords:  povidone iodine, iodine tincture, TSH, free T4, UIE.

HUBUNGAN KONSUMSI ENERGI, PROTEIN DENGAN AKTIVITAS KERJA PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR HIPERTIROID

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 1, No 4 Jun (2011)
Publisher : Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia

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Based on the results of urine iodine in the evaluation survey in 1998 and in 2003 had appeared hyperthyroidism cases this shows that some residents already on the status of iodine which can cause the symptoms of health problems in particular can cause a sense of fatigue as a result of increased energy demand will impact on the daily work activities, thus the quality of work activity to be low. These result aims to relationship of energy and protein consumption with work activity in women of childbearing age with hyperthyroidism. Design cross sectional study of two sample types of quantitative research. Research location in Magelang District. Sample in women of childbearing age who were taken by systematic sampling. Total samples were 100 people consisting of 50 persons hyperthyroidism and 50 persons eutiroid. Rank spearman analysis results for the relationship of energy consumption with work activities rho values obtained for 0,122. There is no significant difJeremce between energi consumption with work activity in women of childbearing age with hyperthyroidism. Rank Spearman analysis results for the relationship of protein consumtion with work activities rho values obtained for 0,165. There is no significant difJerence between protein consumption with work activity in women of childbearing age with hyperthyroidism. These results indicate a very weak relationship between protein consumption with work activities. There is a positive relationship between energy consumption with work activities, whicli mean that the higher the energy consumption the higher work activities. There is also a positive relationship between protein consumtion with work activities.Key words : energy, protein, work activities, hyperthyroidism

KRETIN ENDEMIK DAN KRETIN SPORADIK (HIPOTIROID KONGENITAL)

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 1, No 3 Des (2010)
Publisher : Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia

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Cretinism is a abnormality or disorder caused by disfunction ofthyroid glands which produced the thyroid hormone. There are two kinds of cretinism, endemic cretinism and sporadic cretinism. Endemic cretinism is caused by deficiency al iodine and sporadic cretinism also known as congenital hypothyroid is caused by abnormality of thyroid glands. Manyfactors play role in this abnormality.Keywords : endemic cretinism, sporadie cretinism, congenital hyphothyroid

HUBUNGAN ANTARA STATUS TSH IBU HAMIL DENGAN RIWAYAT KEHAMILAN DAN KELAHIRAN DI DAERAH ENDEMIK GAKI

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 1, No 3 Des (2010)
Publisher : Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia

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Background: Excess of iodine during pregnancy can give a special problem. Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy can cause first-trimester spontaneous abortions, high rates ofstill births and neonatal deaths, two- to threefold increases in the frequency of low birth weight infants, preterm delivery, fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism, and intrauterine growth retardation. Odjective: These studies examine the relationship between TSH levels in pregnant women with a history of pregnancy and birth mothers in1DD endemic areas. Method: This study is a non-intervention with cross sectional comparative design. ln previous research carried out screening for pregnant women who live in areas of endemic iodine deficiency disorder. From the results of screening found 67 pregnant women, where 32 pregnant women have a lower TSH «0.3 ulll/ml) and 35 pregnant women had normal TSH levels (0.3-3.6111U/ml). After giving birth mothers checked TSH level again and recorded the history o[his birth. Result: ln this study there was no difference for complaints during pregnancy that leads to the signs ofhyperthvroidism between group of pregnant women with low TSH and group of pregnant women with normal TSH. There was no significant difference between postpartum maternal TSH and TSH babies group ofpregnant women with low TSH and group ofpregnant women with normal TSH. There was a significant differencefor TSH mother before and after deli velJl. Conclusions: Low serum TSH value has no effect on the clinical state ofpregnant women and infants born allegedly under the influence of the increase olhCG in the .first trimester of pregnancy, is not because of the circumstances leading to hyperthyroid mothers. But in this study hCG levels pregnant women are not were measured. Key words: low TSH, pregnant women, birth mothet.

KADAR ANTIBODI-TIROPEROKSIDASE DAN ANTIBODI-TIROGLOBULIN PADA WANITA USIA SUBUR DI DAERAH ENDEMlS GAKI

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 2, No 1 Jun (2010)
Publisher : Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia

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Background: Thyroid hormones play a critical role in human. Disorders of the thyroid gland result primary from autoimmune processes that either stimulate the over production of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroid) or causes glandular destruction and hormones deficiency (hypothyroid). Autoimmune Thyroid Disease (AITD) a common organ specific autoimmune disorder is seen mostly in women. AITD are complex disease that are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental trigger such dietary iodine. The development of antibodies to Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and Thyroglobulin (TG) is the main hall mark of AITD. Method: Thirty respondents from were analyzed. The blood were collected for TSH, FreeT4, Tyroglobulin Antibody and Tyroperoxidase Antibody analyzed and DNA isolation. Circulating TSH, FreeT4, autoantibodies to TPO and TG are measured by ELISA. Result: 50% respondent in normal thyroid hormones and 50% in hypothyroid and hyperthyroid status. TPO antibodies  and thyroglobulin antibodies found in all of respondent with thyroid disorder. Conclusion: Antibodies to TPO and TG is seen in respondent with thyroid disorder   Keywords: AITD, TSH, FreeT4, TPO antibodies, TG antibodies.

Nilai Diagnostik Indikator Fisik Dibandingkan Baku Emas untuk Menegakkan Diagnosis Terduga Kretin pada Batita

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 5, No 2 (2014)
Publisher : Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia

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ABSTRACT Iodine severe deficiency is a major cause of impairment due to iodine deficiency disorders. Cretinism is a consequence of iodine deficiency in the womb with clinical signs that stand out among others is mental retardation. In Indonesia, there were many cases of endemic goiter and cretinism. Diagnosis of cretinism can be established more accurately by laboratory tests, but it is expensive and less practical when conducted the field. Currently there are available tools for early detection for hypothiroid in neonates (NHI, Quebec) less expensive and easier to implement however it can not be used for older children. The instrument need to be developed for older children that was easy, deap and can provide a reliable diagnostic result. This diagnostic test research studied the diagnostic value of physical indicators for the diagnosis of suspected cretinism in infants and toddlers. The research was conducted in Magelang, Wonosobo, Wonogiri and Ponorogo Districts, for 10 months. Subject were infants and children under three years old. The information generated in the form of cretinism suspected early detection instrument (DDSK) for infant and toddler at the community level. The proportion of subjects with high TSH and low FT4 (hypothyroid) were 4.6% and 98.8%. The proportion of subjects experiencing developmental disorder were 36.4% (Denver test); impaired function of hearing were 2.7% and impaired motor function were 5.5%. The result of diagnosis using DDSK form, subjects detected cretinism suspected of 11.9%, and the diagnostic gold standard (the combined test results of Denver, Bayley, clinical examination and laboratory) of 11.3%. There is a significant relationship (p< 0.001) between the presence of positive test results with cretinism suspected; grades Se= 47.1%, Sp= 92.5%. Compare with gold standard, physical indicators of diagnostic test (DDSK) could diagnosed suspected cretinism among children under three years. Revising components and scoring in the indicators of cretinism suspected early detection instrument (DDSK) for infant and toddler were necessary. Keywords: diagnostic tests, physical indicators, gold standard, cretinism, IDD.   ABSTRAK Kekurangan asupan iodium yang berat merupakan penyebab utama terjadinya gangguan akibat kekurangan iodium. Kretin merupakan akibat lanjut dari kekurangan iodium sejak dalam kandungan, ditandai antara lain dengan retardasi mental. Di Indonesia banyak dijumpai daerah endemik gondok dan kasus kretin. Diagnosis kretin dapat ditegakkan lebih akurat dengan pemeriksaan laboratorium, namun biayanya mahal dan kurang praktis dikerjakan di lapangan. Saat ini telah tersedia alat deteksi dini hipotiroid untuk usia neonatus (NHI, Quebec) yang lebih murah dan mudah diterapkan tetapi belum tersedia untuk usia di atasnya. Perlu dikembangkan instrumen untuk usia tersebut yang mudah, murah dan memberikan hasil diagnostik yang bisa diandalkan. Penelitian dengan diagnostic test ini dilakukan untuk mempelajari nilai diagnostik indikator fisik untuk menegakkan diagnosis anak terduga kretin pada usia bayi dan batita. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kabupaten Magelang, Wonosobo, Wonogiri, dan Ponorogo, selama 10 bulan. Subyek penelitian adalah bayi dan anak batita. Informasi yang dihasilkan berupa instrumen deteksi dini suspek kretin (DDSK) usia batita di tingkat masyarakat. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan proporsi subyek dengan TSH tinggi sebesar 4.6% dan FT4 rendah (hipotiroid) sebesar 98.8%. Proporsi subyek dengan gangguan perkembangan sebesar 36.4% (test Denver); gangguan fungsi pendengaran 2.7% dan gangguan fungsi motorik sebesar 15.5%. Hasil diagnosis DDSK menunjukkan subyek terduga kretin sebesar 11.9%, sedangkan hasil diagnosis baku emas (gabungan hasil tes Denver, Bayley, pemeriksaan klinis dan laboratorium) sebesar 11.3%. Terdapat hubungan bermakna (p<0.001) antara hasil uji positif dengan terdapatnya anak terduga kretin dengan nilai Se=47.1% dan Sp=92.5%. Dibandingkan baku emas, uji diagnostik indikator fisik dapat menegakkan diagnosis terduga kretin pada anak usia bawah tiga tahun. Perlu dilakukan beberapa perbaikan pada komponen dan skrining instrumen DDSK. Kata kunci: uji diagnostik, indikator fisik, baku emas, kretin, GAKI.

Pengaruh Iodium terhadap Perubahan Fungsi Tiroid dan Status Iodium

Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Vol 5, No 1 (2013)
Publisher : Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia

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ABSTRACT Iodine is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. The source of iodine in the body comes from food, iodized salt and iodine capsules. Iodized salt and iodine capsules had been used by the government in Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) elimination program. However, iodine capsules prophylaxis program in the IDD endemic areas had caused symptoms of hyperthyroidism, subsequently the program was discontinued since 2009. The aim of this research to determine the effect of iodine supplementation on thyroid function and iodine status. This was quasi-experimental design, conducted in Pituruh Purworejo District. Sample of this study consisted of 85 women of childbearing age, divided into three intervention groups. Each group obtained iodized salt for one month, then continued with the provision of iodized salt and 200 mg iodine capsules in group I, iodized salt and 400 mg iodine capsules in group II, and iodized salt and shredded tuna fish 2 times a week in group III for 3 months. Thyroid status was measured by levels of TSH, FT4 analyzed with ELISA. Iodine status measured by UIE levels analyzed with spectrophotometer. Data was analyzed using General Linear Model Repeated Measure (GLM RM). After 3 months, in all three treatment groups the TSH changes were statistically significant. In FT4 hormone levels, after administration of the intervention occurred “Wolff-Chaikoff” mechanism. There were significant increase on Iodine status (UIE) (p< 0.05) in all three treatment groups. There is a change in iodine status and thyroid function after administration of three forms of iodine intervention. Keywords: iodine, TSH, FT4, UIE. ABSTRAK Iodium merupakan bahan dasar untuk membentuk hormon tiroid. Sumber iodium tubuh berasal dari makanan, garam beriodium, dan kapsul iodium. Garam beriodium dan kapsul iodium telah digunakan oleh pemerintah dalam penanggulangan Gangguan Akibat Kekurangan Iodium (GAKI). Namun peng-gunaan kapsul iodium secara tidak selektif telah menimbulkan gejala-gejala hipertiroid sehingga penggunaannya dihentikan sejak tahun 2009. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek pemberian iodium terhadap fungsi tiroid dan status iodium. Disain penelitian ini adalah quasi eksperimen dengan sampel wanita usia subur sebanyak 85 orang yang terbagi dalam tiga kelompok intervensi. Setiap kelompok dilakukan pemberian garam beriodium selama satu bulan dan dilanjutkan dengan pemberian garam beriodium dan kapsul iodium 200 mg pada kelompok I, pemberian garam beriodium dan kapsul iodium 400 mg pada kelompok II, pemberian garam beriodium dan abon ikan tuna 2 kali seminggu pada kelompok III selama 3 bulan. Subyek diukur kadar TSH dan FT4 dengan metode ELISA, serta diukur kadar iodium dalam urin (UIE) dengan metode Spektrofotometer. Analisa data menggunakan General Linear Model Repeated Measure. Setelah tiga bulan intervensi terjadi perubahan kadar TSH yang bermakna secara statistik pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan. Pada kadar hormon FT4 setelah pemberian intervensi terjadi mekanisme “Wolff-Chaikoff” dan pada kadar UIE terjadi peningkatan yang bermakna secara statistik (p<0,05) pada ketiga kelompok perlakuan. Terjadi perubahan fungsi tiroid dan status iodium setelah pemberian intervensi iodium. Kata kunci: TSH, FT4, UIE.

SWEET POTATO (IPMOEA BATATAS L.) LEAF: ITS EFFECT ON PROLACTIN AND PRODUCTION OF BREAST MILK IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

Belitung Nursing Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2017): March-April 2017
Publisher : Belitung Nursing Journal

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Background: Sweet potato leaf is assumed to be one of alternative herbs that can increase breast milk production. However, there was no studies found in the literature that examine the sweet potato leaves to increase the levels of prolactin and milk production.Objective: To examine the effect of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf on the levels of prolactin and milk production in postpartum mothers.Methods: This was a Quasy experimental study with pretest-posttest design with control group, conducted on November 2016 to December 2016 in the Health Center (Puskesmas) of Boyolali I. Thirty respondents were selected using consecutive sampling, which were divided to be 15 respodents in intervention group and 15 respondents in control group. Enzyme-linked immunosobent assay (ELISA) was used to measure prolactin levels, while breast milk production was measured based on the volume of breast milk and baby’s weight. Data were analzed using Independent t-test and paired t-test.Results: Finding showed that there was a significant difference in prolactin levels between the intervention (270.43) and control group (156.28) after intervention  with p-value 0.000, and a significant difference in breast milk production in terms of breast milk volume (intervention group 136.33; and control group 119) with p-value 0.028; and baby’s weight (intervention group 3030.3; and control group 2787.33) with p-value 0.000.Conclusion: There was  a significant effect of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf on the levels of prolactin and breast milk production. Thus, it could be suggested that sweet potato leaves should be considered to be one of alternative treatements for health care providers, especially for midwives to help breastfeeding mothers in increasing their breast milk production and prolactin levels. Further research is needed to examine all factors affecting breast milk production.

EFFECT OF SECANG WOOD (CEASALPINIA SAPPAN L.) EXTRACT ON MORPHOLOGY OF SPERMATOZOA, SPERM COUNT, AND REVERSIBLE PROCESS IN MALE RATS

Belitung Nursing Journal Vol 3, No 2 (2017): March-April 2017
Publisher : Belitung Nursing Journal

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Background: Limited choice of contraception for males is one of the reasons why their participation is low. Secang wood is considered as an alternative contraception that has an influence in the morphology and number of spermatozoa, and reversible in nature.Objective: To examine the effect of extracts of secang wood in the morphology of spermatozoa, sperm count and reversible process in male mice.Methods: This was a quasy experimental study with randomized post test only control group design. There were 32 male rats (Mus Muscullus L) recruited in this study. Four groups were involved, namely: 1) Ethanol group, 2) Chloroform fraction, 3) Water fraction, and 4) Control group. Each group consisted of 8 mice. There were two treatments in this study: 1) each group was given secang extract with dose 50 mg/25 gram of weight, 2) The observation period was 10 days after the treatment, and 4 mice in each group was dissected to see the morphology and sperm count, while the other 4 mice were allowed to live and maintained until 20 days to see reversible morphology and sperm count Results: The extract of sepang wood at a dose of 50mg/25gram weight could increase the abnormal sperm morphology, and lower sperm count. There was a significant difference between the treatment group and control group with p-value <0.05. The extract was also reversible on the morphology and sperm count.Conclusion: There was a significant effect of secang wood extract on sperm morphology, the number of spermatozoa, and reversible process. This study provides the insight of scientific information about the effect of the sepang extracts on the number and morphology of spermatozoa, and it could be used as a basis for further research in human in the development of natural contraceptive on a reversible man.

EFFECT OF CONSUMING TOMATO (LYCOPERSIUM COMMUNE) JUICE IN LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREGNANT MOTHERS WITH HYPERTENSION

Belitung Nursing Journal Vol 3, No 6 (2017): November-December 2017
Publisher : Belitung Nursing Journal

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Background: High blood pressure during pregnancy can pose significant problems such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, and premature birth. Thus, early prevention is needed. Consuming tomato (lycopersium commune) juice is considered effective to reduce blood pressure in pregnant women.Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of tomato juice on the decrease in blood pressure of pregnant women with hypertension in pregnancyMethods: This study was a quasy experiment with pretest-posttest control group. This research was conducted at the working area of the Community Health Center of Magelang in July 2016 - January 2017. The target population of this study was pregnant women in trimester I, II, and III with high blood pressure. There were 30 samples selected using consecutive sampling, with 15 assigned in the experiment and control group. Wilcoxon Test was performed for data analysis.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after given tomato juice with p = 0.001 (<0.05).Conclusion: Consuming tomato juice can be one of the efforts to reduce blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension.