There are two elements in every literary works, intrinsic and extrinsic. Structuralism used as the tool for analyzing Jarir’s work here is the intrinsic one. By using this approach, the ideal concept of leadership founded here are: responsibility, empathy, ability to rule with correct system, morality, ability to communicate with all elements, modest in anything related to physichal beatifulness, keeping well performance.From elements which form the intrinsic aspects, the structure of this Jarir’s madah poetry is really strong. There are three aspects that support the strength of intrinsic structure, they are unity as intern coherence, transformation as the new formula and self regulation. Beside theme, this poetry have plot, character and characterization, and setting. The relation between the process of plot and conflict is really close. Character develop together with conflict. There are some characters, one of them is kholifah that become the character and goal of this poetry. There are also the explanation about characteristic of character and condition of the people strike with poverty. This poetry use usual words but soft, this makes it easily to be understood. Since madah is for praise Kholifah to get our goal.
Ibn Arabi is the type of the mystical-muslim philosophy. He was known as the founder of an idea âwahdat al-wujudâ, and his theory explained that cosmos was created by God from its one-necleus. So, in spite of its external aspects different and has variations, its essence just one. It mind there is God attribut in cosmos, and God is the essence of its share. The common of mystical muslim coveted the âkasyfâ to understand Him, The Great Unity, God. In this case, Ibn Arabi connected it and love. Love, Ibn Arabi said, had to come into existence becaose of âjamalâ, the beaty which God-loved and âihsanâ, the beautiful attitude to reach love of God.
Substantially, âTasawufâ as the way towards God had been existing since the prophet age; but it was just at the end of the second Hijriyah this term that was known as zuhud became then popularly known as tasawuf. After Islam develops, marked by variety of traditions and sciences as the result of the contribution of various culture expressed through knowledge, tasawuf becomes clear in Islam. Some intellectuals donât see tasawuf as pure Islam, because some teachings related to certain rituals reflect some tradition and culture. Many intellectuals agreed to Nasrâs opinion, and there are many western intellectuals know tasawuf (Sufism) better than Islam. Now tasawuf has been considered by many people as a universal spiritual value and it is as eternal as Islam. Syawqi Doif, an Arabic intellectual who wrote a lot about the history of Arabic culture and literature, in his book entitled al-Tarikh al-Adab fi al-Ashr al-Abbasyi al-Tsani, especially about zuhud and tasawuf. This paper discussed about tasawuf followed by poems written by mutashawwifin discussing about sufiâs terms. Many sufis left behind them literary works which describe the way they believe. The writer quoted and discussed some poems based on his understanding.Keywords
Although the essence of human being has been questioned long times ago, there are many conceptual answers toward that question. Thus it is common if human beings, as social and individual creatures may try to question it to find new answers. The answer is mainly obtained by contemplating ones self based on the existing concept or reflecting ones self using an individual spiritual experience. The understanding to the essence of human beings described in this writing is based on the concept given by al-Syaikh al-Akbar ibn Arabi who is philosophical as well as sufistic. Who is a man? A man is "God" in its tajalli perfect form in the universe. Therefore, a man is not perfect when he cannot show Gods characteristics. Ibn Arabi says, "one of this characteristics is to become a responsible leader either for himself or others".Â Meskipun esensi manusia telah dipertanyakan sejak lama, ada banyak jawaban konseptual untuk pertanyaan itu. Jadi, adalah hal yang biasa jika manusia, karena makhluk sosial dan individu dapat mencoba menanyainya untuk menemukan jawaban baru. Jawabannya terutama diperoleh dengan merenungkan diri seseorang berdasarkan konsep yang ada atau mencerminkan diri seseorang dengan menggunakan pengalaman spiritual individu. Pemahaman terhadap esensi manusia yang digambarkan dalam tulisan ini didasarkan pada konsep yang diberikan oleh al-Syaikh al-Akbar ibn Arabi yang filosofis sekaligus sufistik. Siapa pria Seorang pria adalah "Tuhan" dalam bentuk tajalli yang sempurna di alam semesta. Karena itu, seorang pria tidak sempurna saat dia tidak bisa menunjukkan sifat Tuhan. Ibn Arabi mengatakan, "salah satu karakteristik ini adalah menjadi pemimpin yang bertanggung jawab baik untuk dirinya sendiri maupun orang lain".
Religions always have two values, which are very distinctive, i.e. the goodness and the badness. Al Quran describes these two qualities with various uslub related to Arabic culture: al hasanat and al sayyi’at. The goodness and the badness are always “in a war” until the end of the world. As religions, both Islam and Zoroaster rely on the faith toward God to edify their followers for performing the goodness and leaving the badness. This paper reviews to some extent–some commonalities between the moral teachings of Islam and those of Zoroaster (excluding few shared concepts of theology and creation process of the first living man). Moslems are required to apply the concept of amar ma’ruf nahi munkar, while Zoroastrians are called to implement the four principles of moral attitude: putting the weapon down, ending any quarrel, exploring the independence, and performing good attitude.
Since long ago, Javanese ethnics were strongly related to mysticism. The people believed in the unseen which is out of humanâs sense. That belief grew so fast. Hence, animism and dynamism become the first belief of Javanese at that time. When Islam first entered in the Javanese land in 14th century, the locals had believed in some sects, those are Hindu, Brahma, and Buddha. Those brought Islam into Java Island had so many works to do. It is not easy since the locals are quite fanatic with their mysticism. Islam, in progress, got positive response from the Javanese people proven by the number of Moslem at that time. Nevertheless, their ancestorsâ ritual tradition still remained in the life of those Moslem. This is what makes Javanese Islam becomes the attracting topic for the cultural researchers. This article discusses all about Islam specifically in its spread history in Javanese Island starting from daâwah process to Islamic lesson which is related to Javanese philosophy. It also discusses about how the Islam conveyors tolerated with so many mystic beliefs and slowly changed those from the people.Â Sejak zaman dahulu, mistik dan suku Jawa sangat terkait erat. Penduduk sangat mempercayai hal gaib yang di luar nalar manusia. Kepercayaan tersebut sangat berkembang pesat. Karenanya, animisme dan dinamisme menjadi keyakinan asli penduduk suku Jawa pada masa itu. Saat Islam masuk ke tanah Jawa di abad 14, penduduk setempat telah meyakini beberapa sekte lain, yakni Hindu, Brahma, dan Budha. Tentu banyak sekali hal yang harus dilakukan bagi pembawa Islam ke tanah Jawa. Tak mudah karena penduduk masa itu sangat fanatik dengan keyakinan mistik mereka. Dalam perkembangannya, Islam mendapat respon positif dari penduduk Jawa terbukti dari banyaknya jumlah Muslim masa itu. Namun, masih banyak sekali muslim yang masih berpegang teguh pada tradisi ritual nenek moyang mereka. Hal ini menjadikan Islam Jawa menjadi pembahasan menarik bagi para peneliti budaya. Artikel ini membahas serba-serbi Islam dan penyebarannya di tanah Jawa. Mulai dari proses dakwah hingga ajaran Islam yang dikaitkan dengan falsafah Jawa. Bagaimana para penyebar Islam harus bertoleransi dengan berbagai ajaran mistis dan mengubah sedikit demi sedikit kepercayaan penduduknya.
This writing presents a discussion on one of cultural heritage in Indonesia which is in the form of magical ceremony having religious nuance. Several aspects of this ceremony, for instance, Animism and Hinduism values are clearly observable, especially in several form and physical orders; on most aspects, however, the aforementioned values trail are obscure as old traditions. Even though the values are considered as old heritage, by polishing and adapting certain creation, the more perceptible value and belief in this ceremony is Islam transcendentalist and humanist. Ider bumi and slametan are the two of cultural heritage having Islamic nuance, while kebo-keboan is an embodiment of Hinduism cultural heritage. In Alasmalang, kebo-keboan ceremony has religious orientation praying to the God for acquiring good harvest, blessed business and achieving wishes. Regarding ider bumi ceremony, which is practiced in most of Using society, is conducted by going around the village while reading kalimah toyyibah and resounding adzan in every side of village. This ceremonyâs purpose is to protect the village from any kind of annoyance from human being and devil. Furthermore, socially, kebo-keboan and ider bumi function as harmony keeper among the villagers, nature and with everything in the environment.Â Tulisan ini membahas salah satu kekayaan budaya bangsa yang menjelma dalam upacara magic bernuansa keagamaan. Pada beberapa sisi masih tampak kental sebagai warisan budaya lama, baik animisme maupun hinduisme, terutama dalam bentuk dan tatanan fisik, tetapi di sebagian besar yang lain sudah tinggal jejak yang samar sebagai warisan lama. Meskipun sebagai warisan leluhur, dengan polesan dan kreasi tertentu, yang tampak sekarang justru nilai dan tradisi Islam yang transendentalis dan humanis. Warisan budaya yang bercita rasa islami itu seperti ider bumi dan slametan, sementara yang masih bernuansa hinduisme adalah kebo-keboan. Kebo-keboan di Alasmalang mempunyai orientasi relijius berupa permohonan kepada Gusti Allah Yang Maha Kuasa agar tanaman, usaha dan tujuan yang hendak diraih mendapat perkenan dan berhasil sesuai harapan. Sementara ider bumi, yang dipraktikkan di sebagian besar masyarakat Using, keliling kampung dengan membaca kalimah thoyyibah dan mengumandangkan adzan di setiap sudut desa adalah bertujuan untuk melindungi desanya dari segala macam gangguan, dari makhluk kasar maupun halus. Di samping kedua tujuan itu, kebo-keboan dan ider bumi ini juga memiliki fungsi sosial, yaitu menjaga kerukunan sosial atau keharmonisan hubungan dengan sesama, alam semesta, dan dengan segala yang ada di lingkungan hidup manusia
Islamic theology, as one cluster of Islamic knowledge is a product of thought in certain cultural social environment. Therefore, everything related to it is no longer appropriate today. The knowledge gives so it can solve life's problems that start to threaten human existence, practice, good deeds, a substantive meaning to the religious doctrine and social harmony. The knowledge such as Islamic knowledge, philosophy, and theology must have been oriented to humanity problems. They are already completed with natural phenomena, social and cultures which have been always develop. We hope that Islamic studies won't miss actuality which has been released from humanity dimensions.
Desa mawa cara negara mawa tata, a Javanese wisdom which means that each place in this country has its own different manner and rules as the essence of its peopleâs cultures and traditions. This paper aims to describe one of Indonesian cultural richness which is transformed in the religious ritual named Seblang in a small village called Olehsari, in Banyuwangi, East Java. This ritual has a religious orientation as an aspiration to the Almighty in order to gain success in agriculture, occupation, and other objectives in the lives of the people of Olehsari. Likewise, Kenduri is also meant as a supplication to the Almighty in order to obtain blessings for the livings and forgiveness for the deceased. In Olehsari, people call this kind of ritual as Ngirim Duwa, or literally translated as âsending the prayersâ. Furthermore, Seblang and Kenduri have certain social purposes to achieve a serene and harmonious living atmosphere for the people.Â Desa mawa cara negara mawa tata, sebuah kebijaksanaan Jawa yang berarti bahwa setiap tempat di negara ini memiliki cara dan aturan tersendiri sebagai esensi budaya dan tradisi masyarakatnya. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan salah satu kekayaan budaya Indonesia yang ditransformasikan dalam ritual keagamaan bernama Seblang di sebuah desa kecil bernama Olehsari, di Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur. Ritual ini memiliki orientasi religius sebagai aspirasi bagi Yang Maha Kuasa untuk meraih kesuksesan di bidang pertanian, pekerjaan, dan tujuan lainnya dalam kehidupan masyarakat Assari. Selain itu, Kenduri juga dimaksudkan sebagai permohonan kepada Yang Maha Kuasa untuk mendapatkan berkah bagi penghidupan dan pengampunan bagi almarhum. Di Olehsari, orang menyebut ritual seperti Ngirim Duwa, atau secara harfiah diterjemahkan sebagai mengirim sholat. Lebih jauh lagi, Seblang dan Kenduri memiliki tujuan sosial tertentu untuk mencapai suasana hidup yang tenang dan harmonis bagi masyarakat.
In the midst of dominant patriarchal culture ini Saudi Arabia, BanÄt al-RiyÄá¸ novel by Rajaâ âAbd AllÄh al-á¹¢Äniâ is present as an effort to liberate women from the dominant patriarchal confines. As woman author, Rajaâ âAbd AllÄh al-á¹¢Äniâ made criticism and resistance in her work as an effort to liberate women. Through women as writer approach, this paper aims to reveal efforts to fight for womenâs rights and liberation from the dominance of tyrannical hegemonic masculinity in the Saudi Arabian setting. The results of the analysis show that female leaders emerged in the movement of awareness when their rights were taken. They made efforts to free themselves by suing the confines of tradition and patriarchal religious construction. Liberating women from the oppressive male domination by the leaders is the attempt to free women, both in the domestic and public shpheres. Novel BanÄt al-RiyÄá¸ is an authorâs strategy in its efforts to fight for the rights of Saudi Arabian women and to free them from patriarchal confines.