Khie Khiong
Faculty of Medicine, Maranatha Christian University, Jl. Prof drg. Suria Sumantri No.65, Bandung 40164, Indonesia
Articles
15
Documents
Red Fruit as Antioxidant for Treatment of Malaria Berghei in Balb/C Strain Mice

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 60 No. 12 December 2010
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Morbidity and mortality of malaria in Indonesia are still high due to anti-malaria drug resistance and free  radicals. Proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-a play important role in the pathogenesis of malaria while ICAM-1 plays a key role in cerebral malaria, one of malaria’s complications. Various studies have been done to search alternative treatments for the disease. One of them is red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.) which contains high level of antioxidants. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of buah merah as antioxidant by decreasing the degree of parasitemia, TNF-a and ICAM-1 serum levels in Plasmodium berghei-inoculated mice. This was an experimental study, with complete randomized design. Thirty male Balb/C mice were divided into six groups: negative control group, red fruit control group,  Plasmodium control group, buah merah 0.1 mL, 0.2 mL and 0.4 mL group. TNF-a and ICAM-1 serum levels were measured using ELISA method and all data were analyzed by One Way ANOVA and Post Hoc  Tukey-HSD. The result showed, the degree of parasitemia reduced significantly in buah merah treated mice (0.2 mL) compared to Plasmodium control (p=0.000) whereas TNF-a and ICAM-1level were significantly different between red fruit 0.2 ml and Plasmodium control group (p=0.02 and 0.001 respectively). As a conclusion, buah merah could decrease the level of parasitemia, as well as TNF-a and ICAM-1 serum levels in Plasmodium berghei-inoculated mice.Keywords: red fruit, Pandanus conoideus Lam., TNF-a, Parasitemia, ICAM-1, Plasmodium berghei

Inflammation, Immunity, and Cancer: The Role of Transcription Factors NF-kB and STAT3

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 60 No. 8 August 2010
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

A link between inflammation and cancer has long been suspected. Recent studies have identified the role of transcription factors nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in inflammation-induced tumor. In this review, we focus on the role of NF-kB and STAT3 in regulating functions of cancer cells and surrounding nontumorigenic cells to create a tumor microenvironment that enhance tumor promotion and progression.Key word: inflammation, cancer, NF-kB, STAT3

The Role of of Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam) Oil towards Colitis Ulcerative Mice Model

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 62 No. 4 April 2012
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is chronic inflammation process in gut due to dysregulationof mucous immune systems. Oxidative stress caused by free radicals is believed to aggravate the degree of the disease. Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.) is indigenous plant from Papua that contains high level of antioxidants. The aim of this research were to examine the role of red fruit oil towards leukocytes proliferation and hystological feature of colon in colitis mice modelMethod: Colitis induced group were divides into 2 gropus; with and without red fruit oil treatment. Red fruit treated groups were given red fruit oil in various dosages of 0,1 ml; 0,2 ml and 0,4 ml respectively. At the end of experiment, all mice were sacrificed and the colons were removed and subjected to histopathological analysis by staining with HE. Lymphocytes were measured using MTT assay method.Result: From histopathological analysis results, 0,1 ml -red fruit oil treated group showed improving colon structure compared to untreated group. Red fruit oil of 0.1 ml and 0.4 ml groups showed increased of non-T leukocytes proliferation significantly compared to untreated group.Conclusion: Red Fruit extract can increase non-T leukocytes and T lymphocytes proliferationsignificantly. J Indon Med Assoc. 2012;62:142-8.Keywords: Red fruit extract, leukocytes and lymphocytes proliferation, Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)

The Role of Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam) Oil towards Colorectal Cancer Mice Model

Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association Vol. 62 No. 8 August 2012
Publisher : Journal of the Indonesian Medical Association

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Abstract

Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a long-term complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and has become the leading cause of death worlwide.  Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme that produced in IBD and CRC. Therefore, inhibition COX-2 has become a potential mechanism to prevent colorectal carcinogenesis. Red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.) is plant from Papua which contains large amount of antioxidant.Objectives: To examine the effect of red fruit towards clinical score and COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer mice model.Methods: Subjects were divided into four groups: the negative and red fruit control group which were not induced colorectal cancer, positive control and red fruit-treated groups which were induced. Clinical score was observed every two days. At the end of experiment, all mice were sacrificed and the colons were removed and subjected to RT-PCR analysis. COX-2 persentage were measured using RT-PCR method.Results: Clinical score and COX-2 expression of red fruit treated group was significantly decreased compared to the positive control group. There is no significant difference were observed between the negative control group, red fruit control group, and red fruit treatment group. Conclusion: Red fruit oil improves clinical score and decreases COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer mice model.Keywords: IBD, colorectal cancer, COX-2, red fruit

Sulforaphane Prevents Colitis-associated Cancer by Inducing Phase II Enzymes Activity of Liver Detoxification

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 11, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a kind of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) characterized by chronic inflammation that causes ulceration of the colonic mucosa and extends proximally from the rectum into the colon. In patients with prolonged and extensive colitis involving the entire organ, the risk for colorectal cancer is increasing. Consumption of cruciferous vegetables reduces the risk of cancer such as colorectal cancer by reducing early stage of inflammation due to its phytonutrien compounds. Sulforaphane is an organosulfur compound classified as an isothiocyanate that can prevent UC and colorectal cancer. Sulforaphane induces phase II enzyme and inhibit enzymes involved in carcinogenesis. Sulforaphane may also offer special protection to those with colon cancer susceptible genes.

Free Radicals Scavenger Potency of Betel Leaves (Piper betel L.) Extract and Various Fractions

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 10, No 1 (2010)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

The imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in the biology system can cause various diseases. Betel leaves (Piper betel L.), parts of a medicinal plant, are popularly used as a herbal remedy for diseases, but the scientific basis especially of their antioxidant properties remains unknown. To evaluate free radicals scavenger activity of ethanol extract and various fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water fraction), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroperoxide (H2O2) scavenging activity were determined. To determine the DPPH and H2O2 scavenging activity, betel leaves extract and fractions were prepared in 10 concentrations. The result of this research showed that betel leaves extract and fractions had higher H2O2 scavenger and lower DPPH scavenger activities than gallic acid. The highest DPPH scavenging activity with Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) was found in gallic acid 0.732 μg/mL, ethyl acetate fraction 3.156 μg/mL, and ethanol extract 5.489 μg/mL. The highest H2O2 scavenging activity with IC50 was found in butanol fraction 0.223 μg/mL, gallic acid 0.597 μg/mL, and ethyl acetate fraction 0.783 μg/mL. In conclusion, betel leaves extract and fractions were potential free radicals scavenger; they could be potential candidates to inhibit oxidative stress. Gallic acid and ethyl acetate fraction were the highest free radicals scavenger both in DPPH and H2O2 free radical scavenging activity.Keywords: free radical, betel leaves, DPPH, H2O2, antioxidant

Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway as the Therapeutic Potential of Red Fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.) in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 9, No 1 (2009)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates the inflammatory response, immune system, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The link between NF-κB and inflammation has been shown in some studies of various human diseases and animal models. The activation pathway of NF-кB has been identified; therefore, inhibition of NF-кB is considered to be an effective therapeutic alternative in inflammatory diseases and cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by chronic inflammation, which is also a high predisposition to colorectal cancer. The activation of NF-κB within the colonic epithelial cells promotes inflammation in UC by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 and TNF-α. NF-κB also directly activates pro-survival pathway, which causes neo-plastic transformation, increases the expression of COX-2 induced by IL-1 and TNF-α, andpromotes carcinogenesis. Currently, red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam.) has been considered to be an alternative therapy of IBD, and it is proposed that red fruit could reduce the inflammation by inhibiting the activity of NF-κB. Previous studies have proven that red fruit has the capacity to increase the proliferation of immune cells. Increased lymphocyte proliferation might induce the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and IL-22, which subsequently inhibit the activation of NF-κB, COX-2, and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Model Tikus Omenn Syndrome

Jurnal Kedokteran Maranatha Vol 7, No 2 (2008)
Publisher : Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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Abstract

In 1965, Gilbert Omenn described a rare, inherited disorder which produced paradoxical combination of immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation. The term Omenn Syndrome was coined originating from this report. More than 40 years ago since it first described, the pathogenesis of OS has remained mysterious and these could be due to unavailable animal model for OS yet. This paper evaluates and discusses 2 murine models of OS that have been found and developed recently by 2 research groups from Japan and Italia. These two murine models bearing mutation in the V(D)J recombination analogous to those causing human OS. These two mouse models have been recapitulate the disease and provide insight into the pathogenesis of OS and also it relation with immunodeficiency combined with autoimmunity and atopy in OS and other related diseases.

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Ethanolic Leaves Extract and Its Different Solvent Fractions of Piper betle L. In Vitro

Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention Vol 2, No 1 (2011)
Publisher : Indonesian Research Gateway

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Abstract

Various diseases including cancer and cardiovascular diseasesare induced by free radicals via lipid peroxidation, protein peroxidation, DNA damage, and cellular degeneration in thecells.Piper betle L.,commonly called betel,belongs to thePiperaceae family.It originated from South and South Eas tAsia,and has been used as a traditional medicine by people theredue to its medicinal properties.In the present study, free radicalscavenging activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Piper betle L.together with its different solvent fractions(hexane,ethylacetate,butanol,and water)were evaluated by DPPH freeradical scavenging assay.The ethanolic extract and the ethylacetate fraction had shown very significant DPPH (1,1)diphenyl)2)picryl)hydrazyl) radical scavenging activitycompared to the other fractions.In DPPH free radical scavengingassay,the IC50 value of the ethanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction were found to be 17.431g/mL and 11.53 1g/mL, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity was assumed due to the total phenolic content.The total phenoliccontent was found to be highest in the ethanol extract(277.68µgEGCG/mg)and the ethyl acetate fraction(559.38µgEGCG/mg).The results concluded that the ethanolic leaves extract of Piper  betle L. and its ethyl acetate fraction have a consider ably freeradical scavenging activity.

The Effect of Ethanol Extract from Mangosteen Pericarps towards Parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-Inoculated Mice

Journal of Medicine and Health Vol 1, No 4 (2016)
Publisher : Maranatha Christian University

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Abstract

Mangosteen pericarps contains fenolic antioxidant, such as xanthone that acts as free radical scavenging substances and preventing heme polymerization. In this research we evaluated the effect of ethanolic extract of mangosteen pericarps on the parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-inoculated mice and compared its antimalarial activity with artemisinin monotherapy in reducing the parasitemia in Plasmodium berghei-inoculated mice. Deutschland Denken Yoken (DDY)  mice were randomly divided into 5 groups and inoculated by Plasmodium berghei and given 0.1 mL aquadest (KN), 0.1 mg of artemisinin (KP), 2.5 mg (E1), 0.5 mg (E2) and 0,1 mg (E3) of ethanolic extract from mangosteen pericarps in 0.1 mL aquadest in 3 days. The parasitemia was observed on one day before the treatment, namely on the first day and on the day after the last treatment. We found a highly significant decrease highly significant decrease of the parasitemia in each treatment group compared to the Negative Control group (p < 0.01), and the decrease of parasitemia level in E1 group is similar to the artemisinin monotherapy group (p < 0.05).  Keywords: ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarps, artemisinin, Plasmodium berghei, malaria